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Post traumatic
Post traumatic
Post traumatic
Post traumatic
Post traumatic
Post traumatic
Post traumatic
Post traumatic
Post traumatic
Post traumatic
Post traumatic
Post traumatic
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Post traumatic

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  • 1. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder
  • 2. Definition <ul><li>Posttraumatic stress disorder is a disturbing patter of behavior demonstrated by someone who has experienced </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural Disaster </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Combat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assault </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rape </li></ul></ul>
  • 3. Antecedents of PTSD <ul><li>Sexual Abuse </li></ul><ul><li>Assa ultive Violence </li></ul><ul><li>Accidents </li></ul><ul><li>Traumatic losses such as sudden death of spouse </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnosis of a life-threatening illness in self or loved ones </li></ul><ul><li>Acts of terrorism </li></ul><ul><li>Witnessing a violent act; natural disaster </li></ul>
  • 4. Symptoms <ul><li>Isolation secondary to self-perceived or actual feelings of rejection by peers </li></ul><ul><li>Unpredictable outburst of rage </li></ul><ul><li>Exaggerated startle response </li></ul><ul><li>Avoidance of feelings </li></ul><ul><li>Survival guilt </li></ul><ul><li>Sleep disturbance and nightmares </li></ul><ul><li>Intrusive thoughts of combat and lost buddies </li></ul><ul><li>Marital discord resulting in divorce </li></ul>
  • 5. <ul><li>The presence of alcohol abuse and depression </li></ul><ul><li>Recurren t and intrusive d i stressing recollection </li></ul><ul><li>Recurrent distressing dreams </li></ul><ul><li>Acting or feeling as if the event were recurring </li></ul><ul><li>Intense psychological distress to internal or external cues symbolizing an aspect of the event </li></ul><ul><li>Physiologic reactions on exposure to stimu li that resemble an aspect of the event </li></ul><ul><li>Avoidance of thoughts, feelings or conversations associated with the trauma </li></ul>
  • 6. <ul><li>Avoidance of activities, places or people associated with the trauma </li></ul><ul><li>Inability to recall an important aspect of the trauma </li></ul><ul><li>Feeling of detachment or estrangement from others </li></ul><ul><li>Restricted affect </li></ul><ul><li>Insomnia </li></ul><ul><li>Labile emotion </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased concentration </li></ul><ul><li>Hypervigilance </li></ul>
  • 7. DSM-IV-TR Criteria for PSTD <ul><li>Exposure to a traumatic event involving threat of death/ injury to self or others, or actual injury to self or others </li></ul><ul><li>Responses to horror, helplessness or fear (in children, might be seen as agitated or disorganized behavior) </li></ul><ul><li>Numbing response </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Restricted affect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sense of foreshortened future </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inability to recall aspects of the event </li></ul></ul>
  • 8. <ul><li>Re-experiencing or reliving traumatic event: ditressing thoughts, dreams, flashbacks, illusion, plus: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hallucinations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Avoidance of stimuli related to trauma: feelings, thoughts, people, conversations, places and activities; distress when exposed to reminders of the event, plus: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreased participation and interest in activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Estrangement and detachment from others </li></ul></ul>
  • 9. <ul><li>Increased arousal or anxiety: sleep disturbance, hypervigilance, startle response, irritability, restlessness, decreased concentration, plus: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outbursts of anger </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Impairment or distress in functioning- occupational, social or other important areas </li></ul><ul><li>Onset: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acute: within 6 months after the event </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delayed: 6 months or more after the event </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Duration: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acute: 1 to 3 months </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chronic: 3 months or more </li></ul></ul>
  • 10. Treatment for PTSD <ul><li>Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors </li></ul><ul><li>Tricyclic antidepresant </li></ul><ul><li>SSRI’s </li></ul><ul><li>Exposure Therapies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Systematic desensitization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prolonged exposure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implosive therapy </li></ul></ul>
  • 11. NURSING PRIORITIES <ul><li>1.Provide safety for client/others. 2.Assist client to enhance self-esteem and regain sense of control over feelings/actions. 3.Encourage development of assertive, not aggressive, behaviors. 4.Promote understanding that the outcome of the present situation can be significantly affected by own actions. 5.Assist client/family to learn healthy ways to deal with/realistically adapt to changes and events that have occurred </li></ul>
  • 12.  

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