Why STEM and Why Now?


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Presented by Kenneth Wesson at the 2014 Tennessee STEM Leadership Academy, Nashville, TN, June 23-26, 2014.

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Why STEM and Why Now?

  1. 1. Kenneth Wesson Educational Consultant: Neuroscience San Jose, CA kenawesson@aol.com Why STEM and Why Now? It Supports Brain-considerate Learning
  2. 2. The brain is without doubt our most fascinating organ. Parents, educators, and society as a whole have a tremendous power to shape the wrinkly universe inside each child's head, and, with it, the kind of person he or she will turn out to be. We owe it to our children to help them grow the best brains possible. -- What is Going in There? Lise Eliot
  3. 3. • What are the preferred strategies by which the brain learns and how do they align with the NGSS, CCSS and STEM? (p-s, making connections, and interdisciplinarity)? • How do the goals of the NGSS, CCSS and STEM merge into an operational classroom model for learning)? • The “shift” → new ways of teaching, planning, thinking, etc. • Quick writes, table-talks, and interactive learning Brain-STEM
  4. 4. Education: Designed around “Brain-considerate Learning” Memorization Facts Procedures
  5. 5. Moving From Teaching Students to Be… •Knowledgeable (facts) to •Cultivating knowledge-ability (learning how to learn/un-learn/re-learn, how to process and use the available information resources – information critical thinking), •Cultivating a wide range of problem-solving abilities •Teaching students to memorize vs. teaching students to think.
  6. 6. Teaching continues to be the most cognitively exhausting profession, because what teachers must know and do today. The list of prerequisite knowledge continues to swell every year.
  7. 7. From the College of Education, We Became Familiar with… Learning theorists: Piaget: Stages of development Bruner: Discovery learning Von Glasersfeld: Construc- tivism Bloom: Taxonomy of L’ Vygotsky: Zones of proximal development Fleming: Learning styles Lave & Wenger: Communities of practice Ausubel: Meaningful learning Dewey: Experiential learning Freire: Critical pedagogy Kolb: Experiential learning Gardner: Multiple Intelligences Levine: Schools attuned Holt: Un-schooling Goleman: Emotional intelligence Skinner: Behaviorism Montessori: Montessori education Hargreaves: Interpersonal relations Pask: Conservation theory Pavlov: Classical conditioning Thorndike: Memory theory
  8. 8. Teachers Memorized 40+ Different Types of Memory and Memory systems •associative memory •auditory memory •autobiographical memory •conceptual memory •conditional memory •declarative memory •echoic memory •emotional memory •episodic memory •explicit memory •flashbulb memories •iconic memory •implicit memory •informational memory (which isn’t a survival mechanism • long-term memory • motor memory • permanent memory • primary memory • procedural memory • reflective memory • secondary memory • semantic memory • sensory memory • short-term memory • source memory • state-dependent memory • working memory
  9. 9. What Teachers Are Required to Know Today - 3 Hueristics Dialectics Mnemonics Didactics Problem solving Cognitive structures Metacognition Epistemic cognition Thinking Skills Study Skills Learning to Learn Depths of Knowledge Student Learning Objectives Learning paradigms Intentional Talk Accountable Talk Strategic Reasoning Artificial Intelligence Logic Induction Deduction IQ Inquiry learning Multi-sensory learning Active Learning Hands-on learning Standards-based learning Brain-considerate learning
  10. 10. What Teachers Are Required to Know Today - 4 Adaptive learning Discovery learning Adaptive learning Outcomes-based learning Transfer learning Brain-based learning Blended learning Mobile learning Distance learning Virtual learning Passion-based learning Mastery learning Macro-contexts for learning Situated learning Cooperative learning Collaborative learning Associative learning Project-based learning Competency-based learning Optimal learning Lecture-based learning
  11. 11. What Teachers Are Required to Know Today - 5 Hemisphericity Periodicity Autoplasticity Procedural Knowledge Noetics Time-on-task Socratics Inquiry Learning Mind-mapping Semantic-mapping Brain-storming Schema theory Differentiated instruction Data-driven decision-making Structures of Intelligence Instrumental Enrichment The Innovative sciences Teaching across the Curriculum Interdisciplinary teaching Executive function skills Authentic Assessment Alternative Assessment Performance Assessment Portfolio Assessment
  12. 12. What Teachers Are Required to Know Today - 6 Interpersonal relations Educational objectives Multiple intelligences Conversation theory Direct instruction Scaffolding Critical Thinking Lateral Thinking Remedial Thinking Flexibility in Thinking Behavior modification Situated learning Learning communities Educational objectives Learning communities Procedural knowledge Learning styles Instructivism Behavior modification Process vs. Content Process vs. Product Whole class vs. Facilitator Platooning Transitional Pre-K
  13. 13. sH.O.T.S. B.Y.O.D. M.O.O.C.s 1-to-1 Classrooms Flipped Classrooms Digital literacy e-Books Coding Interactive Whiteboards Smart Boards Computer-Assisted L’ng Gamification On-line Educational Resources (OERs) Cognitive Overload! Common Core State Standards for Reading/Language Arts Common Core State Standards for Mathematics English Language Development Standards The Next Generation Science Standards National Core Arts Standards 21st Century Skills College and Career Readiness STEM or S.T2 .R.E.A.M. (addressing content for the 1st time ) What Teachers Are Required to Know Today - 7
  14. 14. God put me on earth to accomplish certain things. But right now I’m so far behind, I’ll never Die!
  15. 15. What Mathematics Teachers Had To Do for High School Students In The Past 1. Prepare the college-bound for calculus. 2. Prepare the non-college-bound for employment. 3. Identify which students were which.
  16. 16. What Mathematics Teachers Are Expected To Do for HS Students Today 1. Prepare them all for calculus. 2. Prepare them all for employment. 3. Prepare them all for a life dominated by computer technology. 4.Prepare them all to pass state-mandated competency tests. 5.Prepare them all to meet the CCSS ELA standards, the CCSS Math standards, and the NGSS standards
  17. 17. It is your job to prepare our students for new occupations in the 21st Century that 1. have yet to be created 2. for a future that we have neither encountered nor envisioned in detail 3. demanding the mastery of skills that we cannot even imagine.
  18. 18. Why STEM? College and Careers in 2014
  19. 19. Male Female US Population 1950
  20. 20. Male Female US Population 2012
  21. 21. 2030 Highly skilled Well-educated Creative/innovative “Portable skills” Unskilled Uncreative Unemployed Distribution of Skilled/Creative vs. Unskilled Workers 60% of the new jobs of the 21st century will require knowledge and skills possessed by only 20% of the current U.S. workforce.
  22. 22. STEM The most recent 10-year employment projections by the U.S. Labor Department show that of the 20 fastest growing occupations projected for 2014, of them require significant mathematics or science preparation to successfully compete for the job. 23 In 2012, nearly 70% of American HS graduates failed to meet college-readiness benchmarks in science. 15
  23. 23. College Freshman are Well or Very Well Prepared ‐ High School Teachers ‐ ‐ College Instructors – Freshmen Needing Remediation Two-year colleges – Four-year colleges/univ. – College Retention Rates in 2012: From 1st to 2nd year of higher education Two-year colleges – Four-year colleges/univ. – 89% 26% 51.7% 19.9% 55.5% 65.2% Today’s College Students…
  24. 24. Average Graduation Rates: 1983-2012 Two year‐ colleges in 3 years – Four year‐ colleges in 5 years – 29.1% 36.6%
  25. 25. Your Major Matters Bachelor’s Degrees Granted in the U.S. 1. Business 2. General Studies 3. Social Science and History 4. Psychology 5. Health Professions 6. Education 7. Visual and Performing Arts 8. Engineering and Technology 9. Communications and Journalism 10. Computer and Information Science Source: National Center for Education Statistics
  26. 26. Bachelor’s Degrees Granted in Competing Nations 1. Business (1) 2. General Studies (10) 3. Social Science and History (6) 4. Psychology (9) 5. Health Professions (4) 6. Education (5) 7. Visual and Performing Arts (8) 8. Engineering and Technology (2) 9. Communications and Journalism (7) 10. Computer and Information Science (3) Bachelor’s–Competing Nations Source: National Center for Education Statistics Your Majors Matter
  27. 27. 13 Million Americans are unemployed. However, 3.8 million jobs in the U.S. remain unfilled.
  28. 28. STEM Approximately what % of all US-granted doctoral degrees in engineering, mathematics, computer science, and physics (STEM) were awarded to foreign students in 2008? A. 20% B. 50% C. 75% D. 90% Tapping America’s Potential, www.tap2015.org 29
  29. 29. STEM In 2002 there were 4M 9th graders in the US. In 2011, what percentage of this group graduated from a (2/4 yr.) college with degrees in a STEM field? A. 5.5% B. 10.5% C. 19.5% D. 25.5% National Center for Education Statistics; Digest of Education Statistics
  30. 30. 10 Highest-Paying Degrees (Aug 2011) The 10 college degrees that lead to the highest salaries. 1. Petroleum engineering Median starting salary: $97,900 Mid-career average: $155,000 2. Chemical engineering Median starting salary: $64,5000 Mid-career average: $109,000 3. Electrical engineering Median starting salary: $61,300 Mid-career average: $103,000 4. Materials science and engineering Median starting salary: $60,400 Mid-career average: $103,000 5. Aerospace engineering Median starting salary: $60,700 Mid-career average: $102,000 6. Computer engineering Median starting salary: $61,800 Mid-career average: $101,000 7. Physics Median starting salary: $49,800 Mid-career average: $101,000 8. Applied mathematics Median starting salary: $52,600 Mid-career average: $98,600 9. Computer science Median starting salary: $56,600 Mid-career average: $97,900 10. Nuclear engineering Median starting salary:$65,100 Mid-career average: $97,800
  31. 31. The NSF reported the following statistics that reflect the 2006 U.S. science and engineering workforce: 55% white men 18 % white women 12% Asian men 5% Asian women 3% Hispanic men 2% Black men 1% Hispanic women 1% Black women 2% Other men 1% Other women Source: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics. 2011. Women, Minorities, and Persons with Disabilities in Science and Engineering: 2011. Special Report NSF 11-309. Arlington, VA. Demographics in 2014
  32. 32. Apollo 1 was the first manned (Grissom, Chaffee, White) mission of the U.S. Apollo manned lunar landing program.