Biofuel Cells and BioEnergy

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Presented by A P Borole, Ph.D., Oak Ridge National Laboratory, during the Science Saturdays series of lectures by ORNL on April 27, 2013.

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Biofuel Cells and BioEnergy

  1. 1. 1 Managed by UT-Battellefor the U.S. Department of EnergyO2H2OOrganicCarbon/ ReducedsubstrateCO2 + H2OBiocatalyticanodeCathodeBiofuel celle- e-H+H+H+H+CxHyOz  CO2 + H+ + e- H+ + e-  H2OEo = 1.1 VNutrientsCell mass O2H2OOrganicCarbon/ ReducedsubstrateCO2 + H2OBiocatalyticanodeCathodeBiofuel celle- e-H+H+H+H+CxHyOz  CO2 + H+ + e- H+ + e-  H2OEo = 1.1 VNutrientsCell massWasteEnergyBiofuel cells and BioEnergy Production
  2. 2. 2 Managed by UT-Battellefor the U.S. Department of EnergyWaste To EnergyA P Borole, Ph.D.Oak Ridge National LaboratoryBiofuelsBiofuel Cells and BioEnergyAcknowledgements:Jennifer Tyrell, Jeffersen County High SchoolJulia Abbott, Bo Cumberland, ORAU.
  3. 3. 3 Managed by UT-Battellefor the U.S. Department of EnergyWhy are we here today?• Make friendship with biology!• Learning Objectives– Learning about waste to energy conversion– Understand how living beings generate energy– Why is energy important?– How my body makes energy?– Can tiny microbes make energy for us?– Can waste be converted into energy?– Why does it matter and how can you help?
  4. 4. 4 Managed by UT-Battellefor the U.S. Department of EnergyDo you think ‘Biology’ is dry?BIOL OGY+How about adding some catalyst (water)to make it more fun?Can we make THIS happen?
  5. 5. 5 Managed by UT-Battellefor the U.S. Department of EnergyOutline1. Learn about ‘Bio-Electricity’Observe and explore models of bioelectricityproducing devices2. Learn about Bio-energy production processesin living organismsATPNanowires3. How can we impact this world by convertingwaste to energy.
  6. 6. 6 Managed by UT-Battellefor the U.S. Department of EnergySection IBio-Electricity
  7. 7. 7 Managed by UT-Battellefor the U.S. Department of EnergyFuel Cell• What is anode• What is cathode• Fuel cell catalysts– Platinum
  8. 8. 8 Managed by UT-Battellefor the U.S. Department of EnergyIntroducingmy friend…Electro-Dude:-)
  9. 9. 9 Managed by UT-Battellefor the U.S. Department of EnergyWelcome to Electro-Dude’s HomeCO2OxygenSugar(food)A microbial fuel cell (MFC)e-AnodeH+H+e-
  10. 10. 10 Managed by UT-Battellefor the U.S. Department of EnergyElectricity production by Electro-Dude
  11. 11. 11 Managed by UT-Battellefor the U.S. Department of EnergyMicrobial fuel cells• Anode– Organic carbon vs. H2 asenergy source.– Bacteria vs. Pt ascatalyst• Cathode– Same as PEM fuel cell– Can also use bacteria ascatalystO2H2OOrganicCarbon/ ReducedsubstrateCO2 + H2OBiocatalyticanodeCathodeBiofuel celle- e-H+H+H+H+CxHyOz  CO2 + H+ + e- H+ + e-  H2OEo = 1.1 VNutrientsCell mass O2H2OOrganicCarbon/ ReducedsubstrateCO2 + H2OBiocatalyticanodeCathodeBiofuel celle- e-H+H+H+H+CxHyOz  CO2 + H+ + e- H+ + e-  H2OEo = 1.1 VNutrientsCell mass
  12. 12. 12 Managed by UT-Battellefor the U.S. Department of EnergyType of MFCs• Sediment MFCs (low power)• Engineered MFCs (High power)Neither MFC can work for cars(Hands-on activity)
  13. 13. 13 Managed by UT-Battellefor the U.S. Department of EnergySediment MFCs• Uses sediment organiccarbon as energy source• Potential use as a bio-battery for under-waterenergy harvesting• Potential to last forever (almost!)• Let us test one!Lenny Tender, NRL
  14. 14. 14 Managed by UT-Battellefor the U.S. Department of EnergyEngineered MFCs• MFCs designed to delivermaximum power density– Optimized electrogenicmicrobes– Engineered electrodes– Controlled process conditions• For treatment of wastewaterfrom domestichouseholds, industry(biorefineries, foodindustry, etc)
  15. 15. 15 Managed by UT-Battellefor the U.S. Department of EnergyDisplay 2 – Dismantle and assemble.Carbon feltbioanode/Carbon100mm100mm25mm150mm25mm
  16. 16. 16 Managed by UT-Battellefor the U.S. Department of EnergySection IIScience of ‘Bio-Energy’ productionBiofuels
  17. 17. 17 Managed by UT-Battellefor the U.S. Department of EnergyWhat is energy?• Potential• Kinetic• Mechanical, Chemical, Electrical, Biological…• Energy Carriers (Direct and Indirect producers)– Chemistry• Fuels: gasoline, diesel, hydrogen• Batteries– Physics• Electrons (e.g., in a Cu wire, semiconductors)• Photons (sunlight)• Energized particles (Radiation)– Biology• ATP (Primary energy molecule)• Macromolecules: glucose, food…DirectIndirect
  18. 18. 18 Managed by UT-Battellefor the U.S. Department of EnergyJourney through living systemsUnderstanding various types of BioEnergyMFC anodeYellowstone ParkEnergyProductionElectronTransfer
  19. 19. 19 Managed by UT-Battellefor the U.S. Department of EnergyHuman Energy (Biological energy)• How does our body generate energy?– ‘Burning’ of carbs…• What is ATP?Food (C6H12O6, glucose) + O2  CO2 + H2O + ATP (Adenosine TriPhosphate)Video: 4:25 to 8:25 min (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i8c5JcnFaJ0)
  20. 20. 20 Managed by UT-Battellefor the U.S. Department of EnergyATP-based ‘pump’• Proton gradient• Electron gradient• (vides from 25 sec to 2:15 sec):http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kN5MtqAB_Yc• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PjdPTY1wHdQ (Video from 0 to 1:20 min)
  21. 21. 21 Managed by UT-Battellefor the U.S. Department of EnergyChemistry of energy production• Two half reactions– Oxidation (glucoseconversion to CO2)– Reduction (oxygenconversion to water)Sugar(food)H+e-O=O H=O=HRedoxgradientEnergy(ATP orElectricityEtc.)
  22. 22. 22 Managed by UT-Battellefor the U.S. Department of EnergyBioEnergy and Human HealthFood OxygenEnergy
  23. 23. 23 Managed by UT-Battellefor the U.S. Department of EnergyMicrobes with different ‘Energy’ characterAerobes (using oxygen)Anaerobes (Electro-Dude - microbes using otheroxidizer molecules)
  24. 24. 24 Managed by UT-Battellefor the U.S. Department of EnergyRedox scale}d = - 320 mV NAD+ / NADHc = -200 mV, FMN / FMNH2b = +120 mV, Cytochrome box / Cyt breda = +220 mV, Cytochrome cox / Cyt credabcdOxygenNitrateMn+2Fe+2SO4-2CO2High energy level(Aerobes)Low energy levelAnaerobesEnergy produced  redox gradient
  25. 25. 25 Managed by UT-Battellefor the U.S. Department of EnergyScience of electron transfer by Electro-Dude• Scientific name:‘Electrogen’electrodeBiologicalNanowiresPotential applications: Interfacing biology and electronicsNanocapacitors, nanotransducers, nanoconductors…Bio-nano-electronics
  26. 26. 26 Managed by UT-Battellefor the U.S. Department of EnergySection IIIEstimating energy production fromwaste and its impact
  27. 27. 27 Managed by UT-Battellefor the U.S. Department of EnergyWaste• Food waste (restaurants, home)• Plants and natural carbon cycle• Human population: 7 billion, will reach 9 billionby 2035.• Two billion people go hungry every day• Need to develop creative ways to generateenergy (waste to energy) using natural processes
  28. 28. 28 Managed by UT-Battellefor the U.S. Department of EnergyWastewater treatment• Goal: Remove organic matter
  29. 29. 29 Managed by UT-Battellefor the U.S. Department of EnergyImpact of ‘waste to energy’• Example calculation ofhow much electricity canbe generated fromKnoxville municipalwastewater treatmentplant• Treatment of 44 MGDwastewater• Capacity for 120 MGD44 x 106 gallons/day x 3.785 Liters/day= 166 x 106 Liters/day x 0.2 g(organic matter)/Liter= 33 x 106 g/day / 30 g/mole (organic matter)[Organic matter  CH2O = 12+2+16 = 30 g/mole]When organic matter is converted to electrons inMFC anode, it produces 4 electrons /mole as follows:CH2O + H2O  CO2 + 4 H+ + 4e-= 1.11 x 106 moles/dayx 4 moles of electrons/mole organic matter= 4.44 x 106 moles e-/dayx 1 day/24 hours x 1 h/3600 s= 51 moles e-/s
  30. 30. 30 Managed by UT-Battellefor the U.S. Department of EnergyHow much energy can be made usingwastewater?• Energy can be measured in megawatt hours/day.• Wastewater is measured in milliongallons/day.• How can we convert facts we know in MGD tofind out how much energy can be produced inMWh/day?
  31. 31. 31 Managed by UT-Battellefor the U.S. Department of EnergyDimensional Analysis• It is easy to convert units using dimensional analysis.• Example: How many seconds are in a day?• Start with a known value and your desired end value units.• Fill in the chart with “equalities” that cause your units tocancel. A unit on the bottom can cancel out the same unit ontop.• Multiply numbers on top and bottom to get your end value inthe correct units.60 min 60 sec 24hr1 hr 1 min 1 day86400 sec1 day=End valueStarting “known”value
  32. 32. 32 Managed by UT-Battellefor the U.S. Department of EnergyElectron flow is measured as current in amperes (A)1 A = 1 Coulombs/s1 mole e- = 96485 Coulombs (Faraday constant)Therefore, 51 moles e-/s= 51 x 96485 Coulombs/s= 4.9 x 106 Coulombs/s = 4.9 x 106 A or 4.9 MegaAAn MFC produces about 0.2 volts (V)Therefore, the MFC using wastewater would produce4.9 x 106 A x 0.2 V= 1 x 106 Watts (W) = 1 MegaW or 1 MWTo convert to MWh/day,1 MW x 24 h/day= 24 MWh/day1 home uses 31 kWh/day,Thus, 24 MWh/day will serve 775 homes.Conversion factor calculationmoles e-/s to MWh/day.
  33. 33. 33 Managed by UT-Battellefor the U.S. Department of EnergyExercise• Calculating electricity production from– The state of TN (replace all WWTPs with MFC)– All of US• Impact on US energy production• See instruction sheet…
  34. 34. 34 Managed by UT-Battellefor the U.S. Department of EnergyPurpose: You will use dimensional analysis to determine the amount of energyin MWh/day (Megawatt hours/day) produced by a particular amount ofwaste water in MGD (million gallons per day).• Instructions• Start with a known value and your desired end value units.• Fill in the chart with “equalities” from the list to the right that cause your units to cancel. A unit on thebottom can cancel out the same unit on top.• Continue to cancel units using equalities until you are only left with your desired end value units on thetop and bottom.• Multiply numbers across the top and bottom to get your end value in the correct units.Equalities1 day = 24 hours 0.2g organic matter = 1 L3.785L = 1 gal 1 mole organic matter =30g organic matter1 hour = 3600 sec 4 moles e- = 1 moleorganic matterBeginningvalueEnd Valuegal = moles e-day sec___________moles e-x Fill in conversion to do= ___________MWhsec math on slide 28 day
  35. 35. 35 Managed by UT-Battellefor the U.S. Department of EnergyGreenhouse gases and global warming• Relationship of MFC technology to globalwarming• 1 MW  250 tons of carbon dioxide• Exercise for home:– Prove the above correspondence using completedexercise
  36. 36. 36 Managed by UT-Battellefor the U.S. Department of EnergyWhat can you do?• Contribute through educating yourself andothers• Participate in science research• Contribute through scientific discovery
  37. 37. 37 Managed by UT-Battellefor the U.S. Department of Energy
  38. 38. 38 Managed by UT-Battellefor the U.S. Department of Energy
  39. 39. 39 Managed by UT-Battellefor the U.S. Department of Energy

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