Wind EnergyWind Power Turning for Maximum Power S This project is funded by NSF-1004083
How Wind Turbines Work?S The blades on a wind turbine are similar to the propeller blades on an airplane. The rotor blades generate lift from the passing wind, causing them to rotate the hub of the turbine.S The rotating action of the hub then turns a generator, which creates electricity.S A gearbox is generally necessary to optimize the power output from the machine. That power is then either fed into the electric grid or stored in batteries for use on-site. This project is funded by NSF-1004083
Importance of Wind SpeedS While wind speed is important, so is the size of the rotor.S Simply by making the turbine blades twice as long and beefing up the generator, you increase the power producing capability of the turbine by a factor of four. This project is funded by NSF-1004083
Parts of a Wind TurbineS Blades act as a barrier to the bind. When the wind forces the blade to move, some of the wind energy is transferred to the rotorS Shaft: When the rotor spins, the shaft also spins, and the transfer of the mechanical energy into the rotational energyS Generator uses the difference in electrical charge to produce a change in voltage. The voltage drives the electrical current through the power lines for distribution. This project is funded by NSF-1004083
Multiple TurbinesS Multiple turbines can be installed in a wind farm or wind park.S The advantages of wind farms include reduced site development costs, centralized access, and easy connections to transmission lines. This project is funded by NSF-1004083
Wind = PowerS The potential power available in the atmosphere is much greater than the current world consumption. The potential of wind power on land and near shore is about 72 terawatt, which is equivalent to 54,000 million tons of oil equivalent per year. This is five times the total world energy consumption.S This only takes into account locations with mean annual wind speeds of 6.9 meters or more per second at 80 meters. It assumes that 1.5 MW turbines per square km is located on approximately 13% of the total global land area (this area would also have other uses such as farming). This project is funded by NSF-1004083
6Wind Energy Research The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California, has a robust and growing program in wind power to help address the challenges in developing clean and renewable energy. Currently, a staff of nearly 20 scientists and engineers, drawn from programs in atmospheric science, engineering, and computation, are directly involved in wind power. The Laboratory includes a 7000-acre rural facility in the Altamont foothills that is being used for meteorological data acquisition and wind resource characterization. Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, is developing an archive of wind resource data that will provide information for wind energy research, planning, operations, and site assessment. Researchers are also examining the issues involved in importing large quantities of wind energy to the southeastern United States to satisfy possible renewable portfolio standards, and are investigating innovative control strategies for damping oscillatory modes. Argonne National Laboratory in Argonne, Illinois, is developing improved methodologies for wind power forecasting and is working to increase the deployment of advanced wind forecasting techniques that will optimize overall grid reliability and systems operations. Work is also underway to assess and mitigate environmental impacts of wind power plants, and to enhance the reliability, performance, and efficiency of wind turbine drivetrains through advanced lubrication technologies. The Idaho National Laboratory in Idaho Falls, Idaho, has more than 1 years of experience 0 in wind-radar interaction research and development. Research staff work with wind developers and radar site managers to mitigate wind-radar system interactions that may ultimately affect the development of wind plants. Wind-radar interaction research efforts include conducting site-specific assessments to develop guidelines; improving radar software; improving hardware; developing filtering algorithms, gap filling, and fused radar systems; improving small plane detection; providing better modeling techniques; and developing computer This project is funded by modeling systems to predict performance before construction. NSF-1004083 Through the Center for Advanced Energy Studies, researchers test
generation facilities, the Berkeley Lab analysis did not detect any ground, the latest versions of these maps can be enhanced with evidence of widespread property value impacts from existing wind overlays that describe important features such as power lines, energy facilities in the Unit ed States. park boundaries, and roads. These resource maps help developers and policy makers determine which areas are best suited for wind Researchers at DOE’s Argonne National Laboratory are working energy development. The Wind Program has upgraded theseUS Annual Average Wind Speed to develop a geographic information system screening tool to maps to indicate the wind resource at 80 to 1 meters above 00 identify lands at high risk of visual impacts from wind energy the ground to provide information for developers using larger development. This information system will help developers and turbines on taller towers. Using highly accurate Global Positioning land managers choose project sites less likely to face community System mapping tools, data from satellites, weather balloons, and opposition related to aesthetic issues. The researchers will also meteorological towers, and much-improved numerical computer develop visual impact mitigation measures for a potential wind site models, the Wind Program is working with U.S. companies to based on the site’s topography, vegetation, and other site-specific produce higher resolution maps of resources at higher heights environmental conditions. above ground for the United States and other countries. Improved Resource Assessment horizontal resolution of these maps (1kilometer or better) allows The Wind Program has been producing high-resolution wind for more accurate siting of wind turbines, and has led to the resource maps for decades. Based on advanced meteorological recognition of higher wind speed areas where no such winds models, and validated with real data at 50 meters above the were thought to exist. NREL worked with AWS Truepower for more than a decade t o update U.S. wind resources maps. The new maps include wind data at 80 m. This project is funded by WIND P WE T D Y O R O A NSF-1004083
DOE Wind Programs toDevelop & Test Wind TurbinesS Wind turbine rotor, consisting of the blade and hub drives the rest of the turbine.S The rotor captures the wind energy, and the airfoil shape, mechanical properties, and weight of the blades determine the loads transmitted to the other components in the turbineS Next generation rotors will require the most efficient, lightweight, robust designs. The designs will reduce the weight of the blade while increasing its strength and flexibility 45-meter wind turbine blade demonstrates the size of the blades installed on the multimegawatt turbines commonly installed in wind plants today. This project is funded by NSF-1004083
Wind Power Turning for Maximum PowerS You will design a wind turbine by deciding which of the following blade options might produce maximum power. S Pitch angle: adjust the locking rings to set the pitch S Blade type: select from BP-28, BP-44, or BP-63 S Number of blades: select 2 to 6 This project is funded by NSF-1004083
Basic Wind Power Aerodynamics S Pitch impact S Example air foil applications This project is funded by NSF-1004083
Works CitedS http://www.nrel.gov/wind/publications.htmlS Horizon Fuel Cell Technologies This project is funded by NSF-1004083
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