Prevalence of Invasive Plants in the Community
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Prevalence of Invasive Plants in the Community

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Presented by Sharon Jean-Philippe, Ph.D., assistant professor of urban forestry at the University of Tennessee Department of Forestry, Wildlife and Fisheries at the 2014 Tennessee STEM Leadership ...

Presented by Sharon Jean-Philippe, Ph.D., assistant professor of urban forestry at the University of Tennessee Department of Forestry, Wildlife and Fisheries at the 2014 Tennessee STEM Leadership Academy in Nashville, TN, June 23-26, 2014.

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Prevalence of Invasive Plants in the Community Prevalence of Invasive Plants in the Community Presentation Transcript

  • Prevalence of invasive plant species in urban areas Sharon Jean-Philippe, Ph.D. Assistant Professor of Urban Forestry University of Tennessee Department of Forestry, Wildlife and Fisheries TENNESSEE STEM LEADERSHIPACADEMY
  • Polleverywhere.com Text to this # 1-747-444-3548
  • Urban Forestry Teaching Program • Five upper level undergraduate courses • FORS 335 Principles of Urban Forestry • FORS 345 Practical Arboriculture • FORS 430 Inventory and Asses of Urban Land • FORS 433 Urbanization and Urban Soils • FORS 435 Trees and Law • Two freshman orientation courses • FYS 129 Food Safety, Security/Hunger • UNHO 101 Fun in the Sun View slide
  • Urban Forestry Research Program • Urbanization Effects on the Urban Forest: Management, Legal Issues, Aesthetic Considerations, and Opportunities for Youth Engagement • Residual forest dynamics in urban areas (Reichert, Jean-Philippe, Thompson, Buckley, Wiseman, Albright, Schaeffer) • Urban Forest Management Plan • Street tree inventory (Turnbull , Thompson, Jean- Philippe) • Park inventory (Jennings, Jean-Philippe & Willcox) • Municipal Complex • Human Perceptions • Soil Characterization of Tick Habitats (Trout, Thompson, Jean-Philippe, Schaeffer) View slide
  • Urbanization  As population increases so does urban land “Urban Area” ≥ 1000 people per sq. mi (U.S. Census Bureau, 2010) 1850 < 20% of the U.S. population lived in cities 1920 ~50% of the U.S. population lived in cities 1989 ~ 74% of the U.S. (203 mill) lived in urban areas 2025> 80% will live in urban areas (Fox, 1987) 2011> 80% U.S. population is urban (Pickett et al., 2011) Movement of a population to a central location (Clark, 1998) worldmag.com
  • USDA: Urban and Community Forestry Program
  • USDA: Urban and Community Forestry Program
  • USDA: Urban and Community Forestry Program
  • USDA: Urban and Community Forestry Program
  • USDA: Urban and Community Forestry Program
  • USDA: Urban and Community Forestry Program
  • USDA: Urban and Community Forestry Program
  • USDA: Urban and Community Forestry Program
  • USDA: Urban and Community Forestry Program
  • USDA: Urban and Community Forestry Program
  • Economy (Miller, 1997) Social Structure (Sampson, 1998) Air & Water Quality (Miller, 1997) Wildlife Populations (McKinney, 2002) What does land change from rural to urban impact?
  • The soil environment (Craul,1999) The vegetation: the urban forest (Jim, 1998) Sciencedaily.com
  • Urban Soils • Graded and compacted soils (Craul, 1999) • Soil “patches” • Natural, disturbed, and covered (Kimble et al., 2003) • Impervious surfaces • Water availability (Lemaire and Rossignol, 1999) • Increased heavy metal concentrations (Li et al., 2014) • Altered C & N cycles (Scharenbroch et al, 2005) • OM removed (Craul, 1999) • Altered soil nutrients (Cekstere and Osvalde, 2013) silvis.fores.wisc; forestryimages.org
  • Urban Vegetation Adverse soil conditions • Tree diversity • Non-natives (Mckinney, 2006) • Monocultures (Sydnor et al., 2007) • Urban heat island (UHI) (Nowak and Greenfield, 2012) • Construction activities (Hauer et al., 1994) • Disease/Pest susceptibility Olmsteadparks.org; carpentercostin.net; theatlanticcities.com
  • What is an invasive species?
  • Invasive species: Definitions • Invasive species are living species (plants, animals, fungi, or microorganisms) that spread rapidly and cause harm to other species by preventing them from being able to obtain nutrition, reproduce, and/or perform natural functions at a normal rate. • Invasive – living species that disrupt & harm native species • Most invasive species come from another continent. • Invasive can go by many other names, including • Introduced species • Nonindigenous Species • Alien species • Exotic species • Weeds • Pests Answer: 95360
  • Invasive versus Introduced? • Often “invasive” and “introduced” are used interchangeably • While this is often true, it is not always true • Some introduced species can be very helpful or valuable • 98% of the US food supply comes from introduced plants and animals including… Wheat Rice Cattle Poultry • Introduced species are not always bad. Introduced species only become invasive when they displace native species. • Wheat rarely displaces a native population w/o humans
  • Invasive versus Introduced Of every 100 exotic species introduced to North America, only about 10 are able to survive without the planting or assistance of humans • E.g. rice does not spread from its field on its own • Of the 10 in 100 that can survive without humans, only about 1 of these will cause serious ecological problems • So odds are that only 1% of introduced species become invasive • However, this 1% causes more than its share of damage
  • How much estimated damage do invasive species cause in the US each year?
  • Invasive versus Introduced Of every 100 exotic species introduced to North America, only about 10 are able to survive without the planting or assistance of humans • E.g. rice does not spread from its field on its own • Of the 10 in 100 that can survive without humans, only about 1 of these will cause serious ecological problems • So odds are that only 1% of introduced species become invasive • However, this 1% causes more than its share of damage •US environmental damage from invasive species is estimated at $138 billion per year. Answer: 95372
  • Why are invasive able to compete? Characteristics of successful invaders  They grow rapidly and compete with other plants or animals  They produce large numbers of seeds/offspring at a young age  Their seeds/eggs can survive a long time before sprouting  They have few if any predators  They have multiple reproductive strategies  They have few, if any, specific needs  Their native region has a climate similar to the affected area of the US  They can travel long distances
  • What are the two primary ways in which humans enable the spread of invasive species?
  • Invasive Species: Habitat Succession and Disturbance • Humans aid the spread of invasive in many ways. Two key ways humans help invasive are… • Transportation • Habitat Disturbances • Transporting invasive allows them to gain access to ecosystems they were a never a part of. • Without transportation, invasive would never leave their native regions. • Besides transporting invasive species, humans can also aid them through habitat disturbance. • Habitat disturbances are when habitats experience a rapid event that changes the availability of resources such as light or nutrients. • Unlike succession which is the slow, sustainable change of habitats Answer: 95394
  • Tennessee's invasive plant species
  • Tennessee’s invasive plant species
  • 467 invasive plant species in Tennessee (EDDMapS. 2014. Early Detection & Distribution Mapping System. The University of Georgia - Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health. Tennessee’s invasive plant species Invasive plants by category • Aquatic - 17 species • Forbs/Herbs - 248 species • Grass or Grasslike - 75 species • Hardwood Trees - 35 species • Shrub or Subshrub - 59 species • Vines - 33 species
  • Which of the following is the most invasive plant specie in Tennessee?
  • Top ten widespread invasive plant species in Tennessee Japanese honeysuckle - 95/95 (100%) Japanese stiltgrass - 93/95 (98%) privet - 93/95 (98%) sericea lespedeza - 90/95 (95%) tree-of-heaven - 88/95 (93%) shrubby lespedeza - 88/95 (93%) bush honeysuckles (exotic) - 83/95 (87%) mimosa - 78/95 (82%) princesstree - 73/95 (77%) tall fescue - 71/95 (75%) Counties with the most invasive plant species Knox County - 379 species Davidson County - 334 species Montgomery County - 306 species Shelby County - 281 species Stewart County - 274 species Sevier County - 269 species Blount County - 259 species Rutherford County - 252 species Sumner County - 247 species Giles County - 228 species Counties with the least invasive plant species Pickett County - 28 species Chester County - 32 species Moore County - 35 species Crockett County - 36 species Weakley County - 47 species Henderson County - 50 species Dyer County - 51 species Gibson County - 55 species Hancock County - 55 species Benton County - 56 species
  • Japanese Honeysuckle Lonicera japonica Invasive Species Compete Well  A lack of natural predators in their new habitat  An ability to tolerate human disturbance  Rapid reproductive strategies  Rapid growth and development  Multiple feeding strategies  Few if any specific physical needs or requirements
  • Tree of heaven Ailanthus altissima
  • Mimosa Albizia julibrissin
  • Who Loses & Why Does it Matter? Spicebush - Lindera benzoin Benefits Wildlife A plant that is part of our cultural history Spicebush Swallowtail Larva
  • What is EDD Maps? Potential utilization of invasive species maps
  • Potential utilization of invasive species maps
  • Questions?