Prevalence of Invasive Plants in the Community

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Presented by Sharon Jean-Philippe, Ph.D., assistant professor of urban forestry at the University of Tennessee Department of Forestry, Wildlife and Fisheries at the 2014 Tennessee STEM Leadership Academy in Nashville, TN, June 23-26, 2014.

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Prevalence of Invasive Plants in the Community

  1. 1. Prevalence of invasive plant species in urban areas Sharon Jean-Philippe, Ph.D. Assistant Professor of Urban Forestry University of Tennessee Department of Forestry, Wildlife and Fisheries TENNESSEE STEM LEADERSHIPACADEMY
  2. 2. Polleverywhere.com Text to this # 1-747-444-3548
  3. 3. Urban Forestry Teaching Program • Five upper level undergraduate courses • FORS 335 Principles of Urban Forestry • FORS 345 Practical Arboriculture • FORS 430 Inventory and Asses of Urban Land • FORS 433 Urbanization and Urban Soils • FORS 435 Trees and Law • Two freshman orientation courses • FYS 129 Food Safety, Security/Hunger • UNHO 101 Fun in the Sun
  4. 4. Urban Forestry Research Program • Urbanization Effects on the Urban Forest: Management, Legal Issues, Aesthetic Considerations, and Opportunities for Youth Engagement • Residual forest dynamics in urban areas (Reichert, Jean-Philippe, Thompson, Buckley, Wiseman, Albright, Schaeffer) • Urban Forest Management Plan • Street tree inventory (Turnbull , Thompson, Jean- Philippe) • Park inventory (Jennings, Jean-Philippe & Willcox) • Municipal Complex • Human Perceptions • Soil Characterization of Tick Habitats (Trout, Thompson, Jean-Philippe, Schaeffer)
  5. 5. Urbanization  As population increases so does urban land “Urban Area” ≥ 1000 people per sq. mi (U.S. Census Bureau, 2010) 1850 < 20% of the U.S. population lived in cities 1920 ~50% of the U.S. population lived in cities 1989 ~ 74% of the U.S. (203 mill) lived in urban areas 2025> 80% will live in urban areas (Fox, 1987) 2011> 80% U.S. population is urban (Pickett et al., 2011) Movement of a population to a central location (Clark, 1998) worldmag.com
  6. 6. USDA: Urban and Community Forestry Program
  7. 7. USDA: Urban and Community Forestry Program
  8. 8. USDA: Urban and Community Forestry Program
  9. 9. USDA: Urban and Community Forestry Program
  10. 10. USDA: Urban and Community Forestry Program
  11. 11. USDA: Urban and Community Forestry Program
  12. 12. USDA: Urban and Community Forestry Program
  13. 13. USDA: Urban and Community Forestry Program
  14. 14. USDA: Urban and Community Forestry Program
  15. 15. USDA: Urban and Community Forestry Program
  16. 16. Economy (Miller, 1997) Social Structure (Sampson, 1998) Air & Water Quality (Miller, 1997) Wildlife Populations (McKinney, 2002) What does land change from rural to urban impact?
  17. 17. The soil environment (Craul,1999) The vegetation: the urban forest (Jim, 1998) Sciencedaily.com
  18. 18. Urban Soils • Graded and compacted soils (Craul, 1999) • Soil “patches” • Natural, disturbed, and covered (Kimble et al., 2003) • Impervious surfaces • Water availability (Lemaire and Rossignol, 1999) • Increased heavy metal concentrations (Li et al., 2014) • Altered C & N cycles (Scharenbroch et al, 2005) • OM removed (Craul, 1999) • Altered soil nutrients (Cekstere and Osvalde, 2013) silvis.fores.wisc; forestryimages.org
  19. 19. Urban Vegetation Adverse soil conditions • Tree diversity • Non-natives (Mckinney, 2006) • Monocultures (Sydnor et al., 2007) • Urban heat island (UHI) (Nowak and Greenfield, 2012) • Construction activities (Hauer et al., 1994) • Disease/Pest susceptibility Olmsteadparks.org; carpentercostin.net; theatlanticcities.com
  20. 20. What is an invasive species?
  21. 21. Invasive species: Definitions • Invasive species are living species (plants, animals, fungi, or microorganisms) that spread rapidly and cause harm to other species by preventing them from being able to obtain nutrition, reproduce, and/or perform natural functions at a normal rate. • Invasive – living species that disrupt & harm native species • Most invasive species come from another continent. • Invasive can go by many other names, including • Introduced species • Nonindigenous Species • Alien species • Exotic species • Weeds • Pests Answer: 95360
  22. 22. Invasive versus Introduced? • Often “invasive” and “introduced” are used interchangeably • While this is often true, it is not always true • Some introduced species can be very helpful or valuable • 98% of the US food supply comes from introduced plants and animals including… Wheat Rice Cattle Poultry • Introduced species are not always bad. Introduced species only become invasive when they displace native species. • Wheat rarely displaces a native population w/o humans
  23. 23. Invasive versus Introduced Of every 100 exotic species introduced to North America, only about 10 are able to survive without the planting or assistance of humans • E.g. rice does not spread from its field on its own • Of the 10 in 100 that can survive without humans, only about 1 of these will cause serious ecological problems • So odds are that only 1% of introduced species become invasive • However, this 1% causes more than its share of damage
  24. 24. How much estimated damage do invasive species cause in the US each year?
  25. 25. Invasive versus Introduced Of every 100 exotic species introduced to North America, only about 10 are able to survive without the planting or assistance of humans • E.g. rice does not spread from its field on its own • Of the 10 in 100 that can survive without humans, only about 1 of these will cause serious ecological problems • So odds are that only 1% of introduced species become invasive • However, this 1% causes more than its share of damage •US environmental damage from invasive species is estimated at $138 billion per year. Answer: 95372
  26. 26. Why are invasive able to compete? Characteristics of successful invaders  They grow rapidly and compete with other plants or animals  They produce large numbers of seeds/offspring at a young age  Their seeds/eggs can survive a long time before sprouting  They have few if any predators  They have multiple reproductive strategies  They have few, if any, specific needs  Their native region has a climate similar to the affected area of the US  They can travel long distances
  27. 27. What are the two primary ways in which humans enable the spread of invasive species?
  28. 28. Invasive Species: Habitat Succession and Disturbance • Humans aid the spread of invasive in many ways. Two key ways humans help invasive are… • Transportation • Habitat Disturbances • Transporting invasive allows them to gain access to ecosystems they were a never a part of. • Without transportation, invasive would never leave their native regions. • Besides transporting invasive species, humans can also aid them through habitat disturbance. • Habitat disturbances are when habitats experience a rapid event that changes the availability of resources such as light or nutrients. • Unlike succession which is the slow, sustainable change of habitats Answer: 95394
  29. 29. Tennessee's invasive plant species
  30. 30. Tennessee’s invasive plant species
  31. 31. 467 invasive plant species in Tennessee (EDDMapS. 2014. Early Detection & Distribution Mapping System. The University of Georgia - Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health. Tennessee’s invasive plant species Invasive plants by category • Aquatic - 17 species • Forbs/Herbs - 248 species • Grass or Grasslike - 75 species • Hardwood Trees - 35 species • Shrub or Subshrub - 59 species • Vines - 33 species
  32. 32. Which of the following is the most invasive plant specie in Tennessee?
  33. 33. Top ten widespread invasive plant species in Tennessee Japanese honeysuckle - 95/95 (100%) Japanese stiltgrass - 93/95 (98%) privet - 93/95 (98%) sericea lespedeza - 90/95 (95%) tree-of-heaven - 88/95 (93%) shrubby lespedeza - 88/95 (93%) bush honeysuckles (exotic) - 83/95 (87%) mimosa - 78/95 (82%) princesstree - 73/95 (77%) tall fescue - 71/95 (75%) Counties with the most invasive plant species Knox County - 379 species Davidson County - 334 species Montgomery County - 306 species Shelby County - 281 species Stewart County - 274 species Sevier County - 269 species Blount County - 259 species Rutherford County - 252 species Sumner County - 247 species Giles County - 228 species Counties with the least invasive plant species Pickett County - 28 species Chester County - 32 species Moore County - 35 species Crockett County - 36 species Weakley County - 47 species Henderson County - 50 species Dyer County - 51 species Gibson County - 55 species Hancock County - 55 species Benton County - 56 species
  34. 34. Japanese Honeysuckle Lonicera japonica Invasive Species Compete Well  A lack of natural predators in their new habitat  An ability to tolerate human disturbance  Rapid reproductive strategies  Rapid growth and development  Multiple feeding strategies  Few if any specific physical needs or requirements
  35. 35. Tree of heaven Ailanthus altissima
  36. 36. Mimosa Albizia julibrissin
  37. 37. Who Loses & Why Does it Matter? Spicebush - Lindera benzoin Benefits Wildlife A plant that is part of our cultural history Spicebush Swallowtail Larva
  38. 38. What is EDD Maps? Potential utilization of invasive species maps
  39. 39. Potential utilization of invasive species maps
  40. 40. Questions?

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