Oak Ridge Institute for
Science and Education

Delivering Agile
Mission Solutions for
DOE to Strengthen and
Secure America...
Oak Ridge Institute
for Science and Education
Delivering Agile Mission Solutions for DOE
to Strengthen and Secure America
...
The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) is a U.S. Department of
Energy (DOE) asset. ORISE is committed t...
Oak Ridge Institute
for Science and Education
Delivering Agile Mission Solutions for DOE
to Strengthen and Secure America
...
Select Acronyms

AAAS	
ANSI	
ARRA	
CBD	
CDC	
CER	
CHRS	
COMPETES	

American Association for the Advancement of Science	
Am...
Table of Contents

Foreword .................................................................................................
Foreword

Experience has shown that our nation’s prosperity is best realized when we effectively
capitalize on opportuniti...
Looking to the future, ORISE is already
supporting a new DOE strategic plan, key
priorities from Energy Secretary Ernest
M...
Introduction

One moment in time, one event, one discovery can change the course of history and
affect the pace, progress,...
As ORAU and DOE developed more cohesive programs to bring academic researchers
and laboratory scientists together for mutu...
The Expansion of ORISE
With the Cold War over and national priorities shifting, DOE began expanding ORISE to
support a wid...
•	 High-quality technical training and certification for more than 40,000 DOE, contractor
and grantee employees
•	 Deconta...
ORISE capabilities align with DOE missions
and support critical national priorities
Key domestic and international events
...
ORISE
Capabilities
Key DOE
Missions
•	Transforming the nation’s
energy system and leading in
clean energy technologies
•	F...
Timeline of ORISE Impacts
and Influencing Factors
The Early 1990s

In the early nineties, the Soviet Union had collapsed, the first Gulf War was beginning, and the
Cold War...
THE

2
00
0-

1992-1994

3
01
-2
10
20

3200
20062009

The events along this timeline
demonstrate how DOE responded
to and...
Beryllium Program began
Photo Credit: Y-12

	 1992 - ORISE Beryllium Program

began with 7,429 current Y-12
workers survey...
1992

Four new fellowship programs supported
education, environmental and health initiatives
Aligned with national educati...
1992

New program designed to identify workers
with beryllium disease due to occupational exposure
ORISE scientists began ...
Postdoctoral fellowships promoted influx
of new ideas and skills into national labs

	 1993 - More than 120 ORISE-managed
...
Research Spotlight
Brothers in student lab co-op
now in important ORNL jobs

	 1993 - DOE embarked on a 30-year, $100

Joh...
Just-in-time
training helped
DOE respond
to worker
health/
environmental
needs

	 1993 - Experts with the ORISE

program f...
1993

New ORISE training courses helped DOE
address worker health and environmental-related needs
Responsive to Energy Sec...
1993

New postdoctoral program offered research
opportunities for recent graduates in science and engineering
The new Dist...
Photo Credit: Y-12

	 1994 - ORISE helped launch

the DOE-sponsored NAACP
Scholarship Program, placing 40
participants in ...
Rare, new recoil mass spectrometer
brought online for nuclear
physics research
	 1994 - ORISE’s Center for

	 1994 - Staff...
Research Spotlight
Russian teachers studied at
ORISE in DOE cultural exchange

ORISE examined Y-12 workers
for mercury exp...
1994

Model developed to protect healthy
organs during tumor treatments
ORISE scientists initiated precedentsetting work i...
The Mid 1990s

Midway through this decade, the U.S. government was dealing with the outcomes of an early
90s recession, wh...
THE

	 1995 - DOE’s first comprehensive strategic plan,
“Fueling a Competitive Economy,” identified five core
mission area...
Leukemia linked to radiation
exposure in ORISE mortality study
	 1995 - ORISE study revealed
a significant relationship
be...
1995

ORISE supported GLOBE science education
partnership for environmental awareness
The Global Learning and Observations...
1995

Leukemia linked to radiation exposure in ORISE mortality study
of Savannah River workers
ORISE’s Center for Epidemio...
1996 - ORISE’s Federal Academic
and Research Reviews Program
coordinated the review of federal
research proposals in suppo...
140

Number of previously unreported
radiation accidents in Russia
between 1950 and 1993 that were
added to the REAC/TS da...
ORISE report found male
workers at Fernald had increased
lung cancer death rates
	 1996 - The ORISE Center for Epidemiolog...
1996

REAC/TS added previously unavailable information on
Russian radiation accidents to its registry
Knowledge of the rad...
30,000
Number of past participants
involved in a 10-year study
of effectiveness of DOE
fellowships and research
participat...
Research Spotlight
DOE fellow received R&D 100
recognition for bioremediation
technology research

Photo Credit: UT

Susan...
REAC/TS and DOE
supported safe launch of
NASA’s Cassini probe
	 1997 - DOE and the Energy
Quality Council recognized
ORISE...
1997

PeerNet saved time, money for peer
review of DOE research proposals
ORISE staff manage the reviews that
determine wh...
The Late 1990s

By the last few years of the twentieth century, the economy was beginning to stabilize, and
America was en...
THE

20
00
-2
00
2

005
2003-2

LATE
1990s

Beryllium screening program
expanded to include former
Rocky Flats workers

2
...
1998 - ORISE served as the final checkpoint
to verify that contaminated items and
buildings had been cleaned up at the DOE...
1998

ORISE served as final decontamination checkpoint
for cleanup at DOE’s East Tennessee Technology Park
ORISE began its...
Research Spotlight
ORISE researcher solved
neutron scattering challenge
with instrument innovation

“The years I’ve spent ...
Researchers discovered
five new isotopes using
recoil mass spectrometer

10,300

Number of active and former
beryllium wor...
Nationwide beryllium screening effort launched by ORISE

1999
As a strategically important material
used in the nuclear in...
1999 - As part of the expanded, nationwide Beryllium
Screening Program, ORISE set up screening clinics in
major U.S. citie...
1999

ORISE supported DOE in
metals recycling initiative
The recycling of radioactive scrap
metals had stirred a national ...
3,400

Number of tons of decontaminated
scrap metal independently verified
by ORISE

	 1999 - As part of the reindustriali...
1999

REAC/TS personnel evaluated workers’
injuries following Y-12 chemical explosion
In December 1999, workers at the
Y-1...
The Early 2000s

In the earliest years of a new century, the U.S. was still focused on enduring issues in environmental
pr...
THE

ORAU awarded five-year
contract from DOE to manage
ORISE

	 2000 - DOE signed a competitively awarded,
five-year cont...
740

	 2000 - Beryllium screening program
expanded to include DOE workers from
Pantex Plant, Kansas City Plant, Iowa Army
...
ORISE supported DOE readiness
for 2002 Winter Olympics

	 2001 - Spencer
Abraham appointed
Secretary of Energy.

2001
	 20...
40 million

Number of pounds of decontaminated
material verified safe for recycle/reuse
Photo Credit: Lynn Freeny

	 2001 ...
2001

REAC/TS deployed after Sept. 11 attacks to support DOE
terrorism response efforts
Sept. 11, 2001, changed the world ...
3,000

Number of participants ORISE
supported in science education
programs and research
experiences in FY2001

	 2001 - B...
ORISE tripled beryllium screenings in four years

2001
In just four years, the ORISE Center for Epidemiologic Research had...
130,451

Number of records on
DOE workers in new
beryllium registry

	 2002 - In a special address to the nation,
Presiden...
New ORISE
Beryllium Testing
Laboratory
constructed
	 2002 - DOE, EPA and the state of
Tennessee announced an agreement
to ...
2002

Equipping those on the domestic front lines
for future terrorist attacks
ORISE partnered with DOE and DOJ
on a coope...
2002 - ORISE provided smallpox
preparedness training to 100 DOE
occupational health directors and field
emergency managers...
2002 - NOAA tasked ORISE
experts and its Atmospheric
Turbulence and Diffusion
Division (ATDD) with building
and deploying ...
The Mid 2000s

By the mid-2000s, the nation remained intensely focused on the war on terrorism as the U.S.
began the war i...
THE

20
06
-2
00
9

3
-201
2010

MID
2000s

	 2003 - The international
journal Toxicology published
an ORISE paper on the
...
21,000

Number of workers tested since 1992
for beryllium-related health problems

	 2003 - DOE and NIH announced
the succ...
2003

Research program established in record time to
build workforce for national security
Within one year after the estab...
2003 - REAC/TS’ supply of Prussian blue and
DTPA was expanded as the drugs moved from
investigational to new drug status. ...
Research Spotlight
Homeland security scholar
helped ORNL refine sensors
for dirty bomb detection
	 2003 - The ORISE Center...
ORISE: Delivering Agile Mission Solutions for DOE to Strengthen and Secure America
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An Impact Report covering the activities of the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education from 1992 to 2013.

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ORISE: Delivering Agile Mission Solutions for DOE to Strengthen and Secure America

  1. 1. Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education Delivering Agile Mission Solutions for DOE to Strengthen and Secure America Managed by ORAU for the U.S. Department of Energy
  2. 2. Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education Delivering Agile Mission Solutions for DOE to Strengthen and Secure America An Impact Report, 1992-2013
  3. 3. The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) asset. ORISE is committed to strengthening the U.S. scientific research and education enterprise to enhance global competitiveness, building public trust and confidence in the management of worker and public health and environmental cleanup initiatives, and enhancing our nation’s preparedness to respond to emergencies related to terrorist incidents, natural disasters, and other health and security threats. ORISE is managed for DOE by ORAU. ORAU provides innovative scientific and technical solutions to advance national priorities in science, health, education and national security. Through specialized teams of experts, unique laboratory capabilities and access to a consortium of more than 100 major Ph.D.-granting institutions, ORAU works with federal, state, local and commercial customers to advance national priorities and serve the public interest. A 501(c)(3) nonprofit corporation and federal contractor, ORAU manages ORISE for DOE. ISBN: 978-0-9890502-1-0 Copyright © 2013 by ORAU. This report was published by ORAU using corporate funds and was developed by the ORAU Communications and Marketing Department. Director Pam Bonee Contributing Writers Becki Hopson Nicole Merrifield Amy Schwinge Wendy West Designers Mark Sieger Melanie Shedlock
  4. 4. Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education Delivering Agile Mission Solutions for DOE to Strengthen and Secure America An Impact Report, 1992-2013 Edited by Pam Bonee Director, ORAU Communications and Marketing Wendy West Managing Editor, ORAU Communications and Marketing ORAU 13-0602
  5. 5. Select Acronyms AAAS ANSI ARRA CBD CDC CER CHRS COMPETES American Association for the Advancement of Science American National Standards Institute American Recovery and Reinvestment Act chronic beryllium disease Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Center for Epidemiologic Research Center for Human Reliability Studies Creating Opportunities to Meaningfully Promote Excellence in Technology, Education and Science DHHS Department of Health and Human Services DHS Department of Homeland Security DOE Department of Energy DOJ Department of Justice DTPA Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic EEOICPA Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act EERE [Office of] Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy EPA Environmental Protection Agency ETTP East Tennessee Technology Park GLOBE Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment HBCU/MEI historically black college and university/minority education institution IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency LANL Los Alamos National Laboratory LPT lymphocyte proliferation test MARSSIM Multi-Agency Radiation Survey and Site Investigation Manual NAACP National Association for the Advancement of Colored People NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration NIH National Institutes of Health NIOSH National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health NNSA National Nuclear Security Administration NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NRC Nuclear Regulatory Commission NSF National Science Foundation OMB Office of Management and Budget ORAU Oak Ridge Associated Universities ORISE Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education ORNL Oak Ridge National Laboratory REAC/TS Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site RF radio frequency [engineer] SCGF [Office of] Science Graduate Fellowship SNS Spallation Neutron Source START Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty STEM science, technology, engineering and mathematics SWAT special weapons and tactics UNIRIB University Radioactive Ion Beam [Consortium] (formerly UNISOR) UNISOR University Isotope Separator at Oak Ridge VPP [DOE] Voluntary Protection Program WMD weapons of mass destruction 2
  6. 6. Table of Contents Foreword ..............................................................................................................................................4 Introduction ........................................................................................................................................6 Alignment of Missions .....................................................................................................................10 Timeline of ORISE Impacts and Influencing Factors ..................................................................12 The Early 1990s (1992-1994) ................................................................................................13 The Mid 1990s (1995-1997) .................................................................................................29 The Late 1990s (1998-1999) .................................................................................................43 The Early 2000s (2000-2002) ................................................................................................55 The Mid 2000s (2003-2005) .................................................................................................69 The Late 2000s (2006-2009) .................................................................................................87 The Early 2010s (2010-2013) ..............................................................................................113 3
  7. 7. Foreword Experience has shown that our nation’s prosperity is best realized when we effectively capitalize on opportunities that strengthen U.S. competitiveness, whether building a strong scientific and technical workforce, investing in research and development, or improving the wellbeing of our citizens and the environment. Although this is an enduring strategy for success, our nation must also continually combat threats to our basic freedoms and security and address health and environmental consequences of scientific research, pursuits of economic growth, or even changes in the natural world. This can result in a national agenda that often changes dramatically over time as the government strives to keep the U.S. progressing at a steady pace, even when we must divert national resources to respond effectively to unforeseeable events. To balance this, the government relies on consistent performance through missionfocused strategies as it also tries to be nimble and responsive when national and world events dictate. The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), officially established in 1992, is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) asset that delivers agile solutions to strengthen and secure our nation in this dynamic environment. For the past four years, it has been an honor and a privilege for me to serve as director of ORISE. When I first stepped into this role in 2009, I already knew I would be leading something distinctive. I had been with ORAU since 1999 when I was brought on as a project manager for ORISE national security and emergency management programs. It was a time of great uncertainty in our country as we faced a significant rise in terrorism. During those ten years, I saw first-hand that the greatest strength of ORISE is its ability to transform and leverage diverse capabilities, develop and integrate new skills, and provide an expedient response when called upon. This retrospective report illustrates 20 years of positive impact that ORISE has had on DOE’s mission accomplishment and support of the national agenda. An introductory section provides historical context and demonstrates the early foundations of and need for ORISE, as well as how it was expanded and strengthened over time by DOE. A 20year timeline provides evidence of how, as world events and national priorities changed through time, DOE’s missions aligned with those needs, and ORISE provided an agile and integrated response to the agency and the federal government. 4
  8. 8. Looking to the future, ORISE is already supporting a new DOE strategic plan, key priorities from Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz, and extended focus areas and new approaches from the national labs. We will closely partner with DOE and other federal agencies to determine how to apply the diverse capabilities of ORISE to further support those emerging priorities and strategies. As you read this report, you’ll see how the need for ORISE was apparent from the beginning. Today, the value of ORISE is still clear. As long as there are significant challenges and opportunities in ensuring our nation’s prosperity, ORISE will be an enduring asset for accomplishing DOE’s mission and addressing changing national priorities. Andy Page ORISE Director ORAU President and CEO 5
  9. 9. Introduction One moment in time, one event, one discovery can change the course of history and affect the pace, progress, and potential of the human experience. In the first half of the twentieth century, that one moment came in the form of splitting an atom and harnessing its energy to provide the U.S. with a strategic advantage in an increasingly devastating world war. This would strengthen the U.S. position as a super power and put the country on a path to innumerable scientific and technological innovations that would both enhance and challenge our environment, health, security and economic prosperity. From those early days, the idea that science could propel the U.S. to the top on a global scale would fuel government interest and investment in that pursuit. ORISE would eventually be a key part of that strategy. The Foundations of ORISE Shortly after World War II, the need for an increased focus on science and education became apparent. As a result of the Manhattan Project and harnessing the atom for a new kind of weapon, DOE (known as the Atomic Energy Commission at the time) launched an aggressive mission and an expansive complex of laboratories and research programs to explore and expand upon this new science. With this network of scientific labs and research facilities also came the opportunity to apply the knowledge gained from this effort to the higher education community. At the height of the war, researchers and engineers had left their universities to contribute to the research and scientific knowledge that fueled the making of nuclear weapons at the government’s world-class facilities. After the war, many went back to their universities with the knowledge that these research facilities existed and that their area of study had changed dramatically with the development of this new technology. During this time, ORAU (originally called the Oak Ridge Institute for Nuclear Studies) began working to link universities with the tremendous scientific assets born out of the Manhattan Project. Clinton Laboratories (today known as Oak Ridge National Laboratory) was in the “backyard” of many southern universities, including the University of Tennessee, and ORAU closely partnered with DOE to provide postdoctoral training courses and other science education opportunities for university students, faculty and researchers at facilities like ORNL. They performed research alongside the laboratory’s scientists in DOE facilities on groundbreaking discoveries that further transformed the field of science. 6
  10. 10. As ORAU and DOE developed more cohesive programs to bring academic researchers and laboratory scientists together for mutually beneficial collaborations, the early foundations for an Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) were being formed. These research participation programs promoted the influx of new ideas and skills into the laboratories in support of the DOE mission, complemented and extended traditional academic research and training programs, and enhanced interactions between the academic community and federal researchers. The Establishment of ORISE Even though World War II had ended, the world became engaged in a decades-long Cold War and nuclear arms race among the world super powers, and DOE continued to design and produce nuclear weapons for years. At the same time, with the growing collaboration between academia and laboratory scientists, the promise of breakthroughs in nuclear fission were being realized in our national laboratories for experimental nuclear energy production and use of radionuclides for other research applications. Nuclear power plants were built across the U.S. to address increased energy demands. Nuclear medicine became a growing field in the quest to cure cancer and treat other diseases. Research programs continued to grow with academic and federal researchers increasingly performing experiments with controlled nuclear reactions. While there were many positive uses of this science, the resulting environmental and health impacts as well as the potential criticality safety issues were not clear at the time. As the 1980s began, however, DOE created programs to address human and environmental risks from nuclear weapons and power production. Waste management often had been secondary to weapons production from the early 1940s through the 1960s. But, as the Cold War thawed and the production of large-scale nuclear weapons declined in the 1970s and 1980s, cleanup of contaminated facilities became a focus. Reactor accidents at Three Mile Island in 1979 and Chernobyl in 1986 changed the public’s perception of radiation safety. As a result, the U.S. government generated more waste management legislation and funding for DOE and the NRC to address emerging environmental and occupational safety and health issues. ORAU began developing and integrating new capabilities over time to meet national priorities and support DOE in environmental cleanup verification, worker and public health, scientific and technical peer review, radiation emergency medicine, and technical training. In 1992, DOE officially established the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, recognizing this expertise and continuing in partnership with ORAU to manage it. 7
  11. 11. The Expansion of ORISE With the Cold War over and national priorities shifting, DOE began expanding ORISE to support a wide range of changing needs. Worker exposure to workplace hazards, cleanup of contaminated facilities, nuclear safety issues, and continual challenges in the U.S. quest to remain on top in science and technology globally, all demanded effective action from the government. ORISE provided expertise for major epidemiological health surveillance and mortality studies of workers exposed to radiation through years of weapons-making and other nuclear energy and research operations. ORISE also built a strong reputation for providing characterization and independent verification of environmental cleanup initiatives in support of DOE’s efforts to begin downsizing its nuclear weapons complex. In addition, ORISE provided evaluations of nuclear facilities and developed customized technical training programs to address the safety of nuclear operations and prevention of nuclear criticality accidents at DOE and NRC facilities. And, as the focus of these facilities continued to dramatically shift toward more technological innovation and groundbreaking scientific research across a broad range of fields, ORISE began placing a steady stream of students into an ever-increasing number of research participation and science education programs. This helped to create a pipeline of talent to ensure the next generation of U.S. scientists and engineers at our national laboratories. In the mid-to-late 90s, and especially after September 11, 2001, the threat of terrorism against the U.S. was significant and increasing. News stories reported on bombings of U.S. embassies and U.S. military ships abroad. Domestically, devastating terrorist incidents fueled the public’s demand for swift retaliation against enemies of our country. As a result, DOE established an ORISE national security program, which began assisting efforts for furthering U.S. terrorism preparedness and response. The Impact of ORISE With this breadth and diversity of capabilities under a single contract, ORISE offers DOE and the federal government a single source for integrated solutions for mission accomplishment. Whether supporting the national agenda, delivering a deliberate strategy or addressing unplanned events or crises, ORISE brings consistently high-performing capabilities to bear on the issue at hand and provides agility to DOE in responding to needs, both national and international in scope. The impact of ORISE has been both broad and deep, including: • More than 55,000 faculty and student research experiences at national laboratories and federal research centers • Scientific peer reviews supporting more than $5 billion annually in potential research awards 8
  12. 12. • High-quality technical training and certification for more than 40,000 DOE, contractor and grantee employees • Decontamination verification at more than 500 sites in 42 states • Health assessment and registries of more than 1.5 million energy workers • Nuclear security support and training in more than 20 countries • Multiple awards and commendations for safety, environmental responsibility, operational excellence and quality including: two Hammer Awards, a Tennessee Quality Commitment Awards, a Tennessee Quality Achievement Award, an Energy Quality Champion Award, VPP Star Site safety designation, two consecutive VPP Legacy of Stars Awards, ISO-14001 registration for environmental excellence, a Facility Management Contractor Small Business Diversity Achievement Award, a U.S. Small Business Administration Dwight D. Eisenhower Award for Excellence in Small Business Subcontracting, Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design gold-level certification, and numerous DOE Secretarial Honor Awards. In the pages that follow, an extensive timeline provides a detailed look at this impact over the past twenty years since ORISE was officially established. The activities highlighted are evidence of how, as national and international events unfolded and the U.S. government, DOE and other federal agencies responded, ORISE provided valuable and integrated support in a number of key areas. The Future of ORISE As long as there is research, there will be environmental, health and economic consequences. ORISE supports this with environmental assessments, robust worker health programs, and independent peer review of research proposals, building public trust and confidence in the government’s efforts to address them. As long as there is political, military or religious unrest in the world, there will be threats of terrorism and a need to prepare our country for an effective national security response. ORISE supports this with comprehensive national security and emergency management training, radiation emergency response capabilities and forensic science services. As long as we are dependent on foreign countries for oil and other resources, the need for U.S. energy independence, alternative energy sources and a strong energy workforce becomes more critical. As long as U.S. leadership in science and energy is challenged, a need for scientific literacy, science education and improved knowledge of STEM disciplines is urgent. ORISE supports this by filling the pipeline with next-generation scientists and engineers and providing them with meaningful science education and research participation experiences. DOE is well positioned and prepared to support the United States in its efforts to maintain global leadership in science as well as respond effectively to a wide range of threats to our national security. ORISE is and will continue to be a key part of DOE’s strategy for tackling these challenges and opportunities. 9
  13. 13. ORISE capabilities align with DOE missions and support critical national priorities Key domestic and international events continually shape and influence our national agenda. As the government devises strategies and programs to address critical issues and emerging needs, responsibility to take action. In support of DOE mission Critical National Priorities accomplishment, ORISE has developed • Global leadership in science is driven down to federal agencies, such as DOE, private sector entities, and academia diverse, yet integrated, capabilities to provide scientific and technical solutions to these challenges and opportunities. • Knowledge and workforce development • International emergency response • National and nuclear security • Radiation and operational safety • Energy and environmental stewardship • Worker and public health • Operational excellence and efficiencies 10
  14. 14. ORISE Capabilities Key DOE Missions • Transforming the nation’s energy system and leading in clean energy technologies • Finding scientific and technological solutions to the most complex and pressing challenges • Enhancing nuclear safety and security and environmental responsibility • Strengthening the U.S. scientific research and education enterprise, particularly in energy and the STEM fields to enhance global competitiveness • Building public trust and confidence in the management of worker and public health and environmental cleanup initiatives • Enhancing our nation’s preparedness to respond to emergencies related to terrorist incidents, natural disasters, and other health and security threats 11
  15. 15. Timeline of ORISE Impacts and Influencing Factors
  16. 16. The Early 1990s In the early nineties, the Soviet Union had collapsed, the first Gulf War was beginning, and the Cold War and nuclear weapons race had ended. U.S. President George H.W. Bush had signed the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START) to reduce nuclear weapons stockpiles. From decades of sustained global focus on nuclear weapons had come many benefits including new energy technologies, improved use of radiation for medical treatments, increased awareness of medical effects of radiation exposure, and improved methods of environmental remediation and radiation research science. The first Energy Policy Act was enacted in 1992, assisting in implementation of a national energy strategy. Scientists around the world were working to map the human genome to advance medicine and health sciences research. STEM education was also increasingly promoted by NSF, AAAS and other entities as important for maintaining U.S. global leadership in science. With active nuclear weapons production diminishing, DOE started to focus more on reducing its footprint of weapons production facilities and expanding its cleanup activities. As the agency began to fully realize the outcomes of decades of nuclear weapons-making, DOE also significantly increased its efforts in strengthening national nuclear security and addressing its worker health concerns. DOE continued to place paramount importance on enhancing its scientific research capabilities and investing in the education of the next generation of scientists and engineers. And with a new president in the White House by 1993, the Clinton administration was ramping up the Climate Change Action Plan, which established a goal to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions at 1990 levels by the year 2000. As the country focused on a new era of science education, energy and environmental stewardship and breakthroughs in health, the 1993 bombing of the World Trade Center in New York City occurred, sparking a new threat—terrorism—that would eventually change our country’s focus dramatically. To provide integrated support to achieve these varied missions and help the agency address these critical national needs, DOE officially established the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE). 13
  17. 17. THE 2 00 0- 1992-1994 3 01 -2 10 20 3200 20062009 The events along this timeline demonstrate how DOE responded to and ORISE supported key national priorities. Accomplishments addressed needs in or strengthened opportunities for: Energy and Environmental Stewardship Global Leadership in Science International Emergency Response Knowledge and Workforce Development National and Nuclear Security Operational Excellence and Efficiencies Radiation and Operational Safety Worker and Public Health ORISE officially created, annual budget $75M 1992 - ORISE was officially created as a DOE institute with an operating budget of $75 million and encompassing programs long-managed for DOE by ORAU in science education, training, environmental and occupational health. Dr. James Drewry was appointed director of ORISE. 19 95 -19 97 1999 1998- EARLY 1990s 1992 1992 - Energy Secretary James Watkins testified before the Senate Armed Services Committee that for the first time since 1945 the United States was not building any nuclear weapons. 1992 1992 - ORISE Cytogenetic Program began using the technique of chromosome painting—a method born out of DOE’s Human Genome Program—to identify areas of chromosome damage potentially caused by radiation or chemicals.
  18. 18. Beryllium Program began Photo Credit: Y-12 1992 - ORISE Beryllium Program began with 7,429 current Y-12 workers surveyed for beryllium exposure, 3,000 of which were identified for medical monitoring. Seven former Y-12 workers had already been diagnosed with chronic beryllium disease. 1992 1992 - Four new ORISE fellowship programs began their first year of appointments: Graduate Fellowships for Global Change Program, Global Change Distinguished Postdoctoral Fellowship Program, Human Genome Distinguished Postdoctoral Fellowships, and Industrial Hygiene Fellowship Program. 1992 - Energy Secretary Watkins began transferring managerial and oversight responsibilities for worker health analytical studies from DOE to DHHS-CDC to increase trust and confidence in DOE’s research programs and improve contractor commitment. 1992 1992 - ORISE consolidated its K-12 science education programs, including management of DOE’s MathQuest, a free summer camp that taught 7th and 8th graders math through fun activities. 7,429 Number of Y-12 workers surveyed for beryllium exposure, 7 confirmed cases of chronic beryllium disease among Y-12 workers 15
  19. 19. 1992 Four new fellowship programs supported education, environmental and health initiatives Aligned with national education, environmental and health initiatives strongly supported by DOE, four new ORISE fellowship programs began their first year of appointments in 1992: Graduate Fellowships for Global Change Program, Global Change Distinguished Postdoctoral Fellowship Program, Human Genome Distinguished Postdoctoral Fellowships, and Industrial Hygiene Fellowship Program. The Graduate Fellowships for Global Change Program was created to produce highly trained scientists who spent three months researching the problems of global change at an approved facility. The fellowships were sponsored by DOE’s Office of Energy Research, Office of Health and Environmental Research, Atmospheric and Climate Research Division. The Global Change Distinguished Postdoctoral Fellowship Program offered recently graduated postdoctoral researchers the opportunity to participate in up to two years of global change research at DOE or other approved federal and university laboratories. The program was a joint effort between DOE, the U.S. Departments of Agriculture, Commerce, State and the Interior, NSF, EPA, NASA, the Office of Science and Technology Policy, OMB, and the Council on Environmental Quality. Participants in Human Genome Distinguished Postdoctoral Fellowships conducted research in biology, chemistry, physics, engineering, mathematics and information science in support of the DOE Human Genome Program, which was started to develop the tools, technologies and resources required to decipher the molecular nature of the human genome. The fellowships were sponsored by DOE’s Office of Health and Environmental Research. The Industrial Hygiene Fellowship Program was sponsored by DOE’s Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health, Industrial Hygiene Division, and was designed to increase the number of industrial hygienists to help ensure environmental quality and the health of workers at DOE facilities. Each of these fellowship programs was established in direct response to critical DOE mission needs at the time. Over the life of these programs, hundreds of fellows were provided with meaningful research experiences. As a result, the federal government also developed workforce capability in key areas of focus for the nation. 16
  20. 20. 1992 New program designed to identify workers with beryllium disease due to occupational exposure ORISE scientists began a program in January 1992 to monitor the health of workers exposed to beryllium at the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex which began producing nuclear weapons components as part of the World War II Manhattan Project. Funded by DOE and directed by the ORISE Center for Epidemiologic Research, the Y-12 Beryllium Worker Enhanced Medical Surveillance Program was designed to identify workers who had developed or may develop chronic beryllium disease (CBD) because of exposure to beryllium. ORISE conducted short health and work history surveys of 7,429 current workers at the Y-12 plant. Information from the survey was combined with historical information from Y-12 records to identify former and current beryllium workers. Approximately 3,000 workers were identified for medical monitoring during Phase One of this program. Seven former Y-12 workers who had worked with beryllium were diagnosed as having CBD through an earlier screening effort. Phase Two involved the completion of detailed work and medical history questionnaires as well as a clinical examination consisting of a physical examination focused on the skin and lungs, a chest X-ray, a lung function test, a routine blood count, and a blood test known as the lymphocyte proliferation test. 18
  21. 21. Postdoctoral fellowships promoted influx of new ideas and skills into national labs 1993 - More than 120 ORISE-managed 1993 - Hazel R. O’Leary named Secretary of Energy. science education programs supported an average of 3,000 participants. A new science education program in 1993 was ScienceQuest, funded by DOE and NSF, which provided middle school minority students with a month-long science camp experience. 1993 1993 1993 - The first 12 fellows were appointed by ORISE in a new DOE Distinguished Postdoctoral Research Fellowship Program for research experiences in the physical sciences, computer sciences, engineering and other fields. 3,000 Number of students, faculty and postdocs who participated in 120+ ORISE-managed science education programs in 1993 20
  22. 22. Research Spotlight Brothers in student lab co-op now in important ORNL jobs 1993 - DOE embarked on a 30-year, $100 John Wagner, Ph.D. Robert Wagner, Ph.D. In the early 1990s, brothers John Wagner (Ph.D., nuclear engineering, Pennsylvania State University, 1997) and Robert Wagner billion cleanup of its nuclear weapons production complex. Energy Secretary O’Leary promised “openness” concerning past nuclear weapons testing and emphasized the importance of “employee safety and health as a top priority” because of worker exposure to dozens of hazards in nearly 50 years of nuclear weapons-making. 1993 (Ph.D., mechanical engineering, University of Missouri-Rolla, 1999) were participants in an ORISE-managed program known as the DOE Lab Co-op Student Research Participation Program. The program included ten weeks in the summer and offered students the opportunity to gain practical experience by participating in research, development and demonstration programs at approved DOE laboratories, like ORNL, or energy technology centers. Today, John Wagner is the manager of Used Fuel Research, Development, and Demonstration in the Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division at ORNL. Included among his award-winning work are two patents related to nuclear fuel storage and transportation. Robert Wagner is the director of Fuels, Engines and Emissions Research Center at ORNL, where he performs research in combustion, engine controls, thermodynamics, and thermal energy recovery for conventional and biorenewable fuel applications. Robert also is an adjunct research professor at the University of Tennessee and a member of the executive committee for the DOE U.S.-China Clean Energy Research Center on Clean Vehicles. 21
  23. 23. Just-in-time training helped DOE respond to worker health/ environmental needs 1993 - Experts with the ORISE program for safety, health and quality assurance completed an ANSI standard on Nuclear Criticality Safety Training, which DOE and NRC accepted as a model for training workers who handled fissile materials at nuclear sites. ORISE also developed a nuclear criticality safety course for supervisors at DOE’s Y-12 plant and a nuclear criticality safety course for fuel facility inspectors for the NRC. 1993 - ORISE worker health support for DOE shifted from long-term analytical studies to short-term, quick-response studies focusing on investigations of alleged facility health problems. 1993 1993 - ORISE professionals designed and delivered a series of new training courses for DOE in radiological control and risk communication to address worker health and environmental-related needs. 22 1993 1993 - ORISE’s Radiation Internal Dose Information Center worked with ORNL to develop a mathematical model for calculating radiation dose to a mother and her fetus during each stage of pregnancy.
  24. 24. 1993 New ORISE training courses helped DOE address worker health and environmental-related needs Responsive to Energy Secretary O’Leary’s vow to protect the health and safety of all DOE workers, ORISE professionals designed and delivered a series of new training courses for DOE to address worker health and environmental concerns. The first effort involved coordinating, developing and test-piloting a set of courses that provided consistent and appropriate training for DOE personnel working in radiological control. The series consisted of seven courses in radiological control attended by 148 DOE auditors and inspectors. ORISE also delivered nine courses in radiological control for 88 DOE managers. Additionally, ORISE experts developed and delivered training workshops for approximately 200 DOE-Oak Ridge staff, contract personnel, and federal and state regulatory officials to learn to use a new DOE computer code known as RESRAD. The computer code was designed to calculate what the soil remediation guidelines should be to ensure any radiation doses to the public or to future workers were within allowable limits. The code also could be used to determine the radiation dose based on the actual contamination levels. 23
  25. 25. 1993 New postdoctoral program offered research opportunities for recent graduates in science and engineering The new Distinguished Postdoctoral Research Fellowship Program, sponsored by the DOE Office of University and Science Education Programs, appointed 12 fellows in its first year. Providing participants with opportunities to become integral parts of research teams at numerous participating national laboratories and universities across the country, the program offered fellowships in the physical sciences, computer sciences, engineering and other related disciplines. This promoted an influx of new ideas and skills into the laboratories, complemented and extended traditional academic research and training programs, and enhanced interactions between the academic community and federal researchers. Participants surveyed had positive comments on the value of the program: “I have acquired innumerable technical and theoretical skills ... and have been afforded a wide range of scientific interactions with other researchers. I have broadened my interest and expertise and have initiated studies in environmental research, which I intend to carry through the remainder of my career.” 24
  26. 26. Photo Credit: Y-12 1994 - ORISE helped launch the DOE-sponsored NAACP Scholarship Program, placing 40 participants in the first year. 1994 1994 - DOE completed a classified, interagency operation to transfer weapons-grade highly enriched uranium out of Kazakhstan to DOE’s Y-12 plant at Oak Ridge, Tenn. REAC/TS provided radiation emergency response readiness for this effort. 40 Number of minority students selected in first year of DOE NAACP Scholarship Program 25
  27. 27. Rare, new recoil mass spectrometer brought online for nuclear physics research 1994 - ORISE’s Center for 1994 - Staff at the University Isotope Separator at Oak Ridge (UNISOR) and ORNL brought into operation a recoil mass spectrometer, one of only five in the world. UNISOR and ORNL also worked toward the development of the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility, which was expected to become the first in the world to provide radioactive ion beams for nuclear structure and nuclear astrophysics research. 1994 Epidemiologic Research completed a second medical survey of workers formerly assigned to the Centrifuge Program at the K-25 site, also known as the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant, and found no increase in bladder cancers over an initial medical survey of workers in 1989. 1994 1994 - The new DOE Manufacturing Opportunities Through Science and Technology summer institute, a collaborative effort between ORISE and Y-12, provided teachers with firsthand experience in the area of manufacturing technology to enhance teaching skills. 1994 - ORISE scientists began developing a computer model to determine the maximum dose of a radionuclide needed to treat a malignant tumor without damaging other organs. Precedent-setting model was developed to protect healthy organs during cancer treatment 26
  28. 28. Research Spotlight Russian teachers studied at ORISE in DOE cultural exchange ORISE examined Y-12 workers for mercury exposure effects and K-25 workers for bladder cancer 1994 - ORISE’s Center for Epidemiologic Research began work to reexamine a group of mercury workers at Y-12 originally found in 1987 to have had adverse health effects resulting from mercury exposure. The reexamination included testing for damage to the nervous systems of the workers. Konstantin Efimov Fedor Karmanov Vladimir Shablov Konstantin Efimov, Fedor Karmanov and Vladimir Shablov from Obninsk, Russia, (pictured here from left to right) studied at ORISE in the summer of 1994 as DOE- 1994 1994 - The ORISE Cytogenetics Program began using cryopreservation techniques to store lymphocytes from more than 2,000 Soviet workers involved in the cleanup of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. This allowed for future studies of chromosome damage caused by the workers’ exposure to radiation. sponsored cultural exchange participants in the Manufacturing Opportunities Through Science and Technology summer institute. Alongside U.S. teachers in the program, these Russian teachers used computer-aided design equipment and various machinery to gain firsthand knowledge and teaching skills in the area of manufacturing technology, a field that included many disciplines and offered career opportunities to individuals with a variety of skills and educational backgrounds. The institute was a collaborative effort between ORISE and the Center for Manufacturing Technology at the Y-12 plant in Oak Ridge and was funded by DOE through the Federal Council for Science, Energy and Technology. 2,000 Number of Chernobyl cleanup workers from whom lymphocytes were preserved for future study 27
  29. 29. 1994 Model developed to protect healthy organs during tumor treatments ORISE scientists initiated precedentsetting work in internal dosimetry that improved the understanding of the beneficial uses of radionuclides as diagnostic and therapeutic tools. Staff at the ORISE Radiation Internal Dose Information Center developed a systematic computer model that allows 1994 physicians to determine how much of a radiolabeled compound a patient needs to effectively treat a malignant tumor 1994 - ORISE evaluated the technology transfer and commercial impact of DOE winners of the annual Research and Development 100 Awards, finding that more than 50 percent of DOE’s laboratory-born technologies had been transferred to the private sector and were providing positive economic effects. without unduly damaging any other organs. In perfecting the model, ORISE teamed with New-Hampshire-based Diatech, a biotechnology firm that developed radioactive compounds for use in treating cancer patients. Using patient-specific data sets supplied by Diatech, ORISE’s computer model calculated the maximum dose of a radionuclide that a patient can tolerate, thus eliminating some of the risks to other organs. By optimizing the administered dose for each patient, this procedure was expected to reduce medical follow-up periods and health care costs, as well as add a new level of safety to radionuclide therapy. 28
  30. 30. The Mid 1990s Midway through this decade, the U.S. government was dealing with the outcomes of an early 90s recession, which caused federal downsizing and some government shutdowns. Budgets for science and research were being greatly reduced. DOE made tough decisions about closing out some of its long-running research programs that weren’t directly aligned with its current missions in industrial competitiveness, energy resources, national security, environmental quality, and science and technology. The Internet and web-based platforms were being used to generate more efficiencies and create a globalized workforce. Environment, safety and health were increasingly a focus with more clean up being executed complex-wide by DOE, more worker health studies implemented, and more stringent safety guidelines established for nuclear facilities. The Clinton administration released a Congressional report titled “Building Public Trust: Actions to Respond to the Report of Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments,” which highlighted the need for safer practices in human subjects research involving radiation. Although budgets were tight, key education agencies and associations continued to push for increased focus on STEM disciplines, and national laboratories remained committed to breakthroughs in science. The National Research Council published its “National Science Education Standards” to meet a goal of scientific literacy for all by the year 2000. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory opened a new international user facility—the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility—that would stretch the boundaries of radiation research using ion beams. As the nation focused its attention toward priorities of environmental responsibility, education and health initiatives, the threat of terrorism was growing. On a spring morning in 1995, the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in downtown Oklahoma City was bombed, marking the worst terrorist attack to take place on American soil at that time. In the next year, Congress established the U.S. Domestic Preparedness Program to facilitate nationwide training in preparation for a terrorist act involving nuclear, chemical or biological weapons of mass destruction. DOE would be tasked with delivering the nuclear training portion of the program. With decades of experience in radiation training, science education, environmental assessments, worker health studies and emergency management, ORISE provided critical support to these efforts. 29
  31. 31. THE 1995 - DOE’s first comprehensive strategic plan, “Fueling a Competitive Economy,” identified five core mission areas: industrial competitiveness, energy resources, national security, environmental quality, and science and technology. 19 98 -19 99 -2002 2000 MID 1990s 2 00 3- 1995-1997 1995 1995 06 20 94 -19 92 19 2010-2 013 The events along this timeline demonstrate how DOE responded to and ORISE supported key national priorities. Accomplishments addressed needs in or strengthened opportunities for: Energy and Environmental Stewardship Global Leadership in Science International Emergency Response Knowledge and Workforce Development National and Nuclear Security Operational Excellence and Efficiencies Radiation and Operational Safety Worker and Public Health 1995 - ORISE science education specialists supported more than 100 teachers participating in the Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) program, which was funded by six federal agencies and linked K-12 teachers and their students with scientists around the world for enhanced environmental awareness. ORISE supported GLOBE science education partnership
  32. 32. Leukemia linked to radiation exposure in ORISE mortality study 1995 - ORISE study revealed a significant relationship between death from leukemia and occupational radiation exposure of workers at the Savannah River Site. 1996 - The ORISE Radiation Internal Dose Information Center was a key contributor to release criteria for patients receiving radiopharmaceuticals, specifically including guidelines for breastfeeding mothers who were being treated with nuclear medicine. 1996 1996 1995 - ORISE was recognized with the Tennessee Quality Commitment Award for its demonstrated commitment to continuous improvement and total quality management practices. ORISE recognized with quality management award 9,860 Number of Savannah River workers in ORISE study on leukemia and occupational radiation exposure 31
  33. 33. 1995 ORISE supported GLOBE science education partnership for environmental awareness The Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) program came to Oak Ridge when ORAU was chosen as one of 13 GLOBE teacher training sites in the country. Announced by Vice President Al Gore during the 1994 Earth Day celebration, GLOBE was funded by six federal agencies and was designed to promote a better understanding of earth systems and enhance environmental awareness of individuals throughout the world. Approximately 1,500 schools across the country took part in the GLOBE program, which functioned as a science and education partnership linking K-12 teachers and their students with scientists around the world. As a designated teacher training site, ORAU hosted 106 teachers eager to learn about implementing the program in their schools. ORISE science education specialists provided support for the three-day training sessions, which taught teachers how to take a variety of environmental measurements and observations such as air temperature, soil moisture, and vegetation characteristics. The teachers then taught the techniques to their students, who sent their data via the Internet to a GLOBE processing facility and received in return graphic global images for classroom study. 32
  34. 34. 1995 Leukemia linked to radiation exposure in ORISE mortality study of Savannah River workers ORISE’s Center for Epidemiologic Research has conducted some of the most comprehensive studies of how occupational exposure to low-level radiation and/or chemical toxicants affects employee health and mortality. One study completed in 1995 revealed a statistically significant relationship between death from leukemia and occupational radiation exposure of workers at DOE’s Savannah River Site in Aiken, S.C. It built upon a 1988 study that examined the mortality, through 1980, of 9,860 white males who were first employed at the site between 1952 and 1974. The 1995 study involved an additional six years of follow-up through 1986 and included dosimetry data for 99 percent of the study population. Because similar studies have produced varied results, ORISE recommended that further research be done in this area. 34
  35. 35. 1996 - ORISE’s Federal Academic and Research Reviews Program coordinated the review of federal research proposals in support of 11 DOE offices, processing more than 3,157 reviewer comments in 1996. 1996 1996 1996 - ORISE was recognized with the Tennessee Quality Achievement Award for operational excellence and continuous improvement practices. 1996 - Secretary O’Leary signed a record of decision for stockpile stewardship, finalizing plans for a smaller, more efficient weapons complex. 3,157 Number of reviewer comments processed by ORISE from research proposals supporting 11 DOE offices 35
  36. 36. 140 Number of previously unreported radiation accidents in Russia between 1950 and 1993 that were added to the REAC/TS database 1996 - In response to the Defense Against Weapons of Mass Destruction Act of 1996, the ORISE National Security Program was established to enhance national preparedness in the event of a terrorist attack. 1996 1996 - ORNL’s Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility was officially dedicated as an international user facility, serving approximately 300 scientists from 33 states and 20 foreign countries. 1996 - The ORISE National Security Program prepared safety and security personnel for the 1996 Summer Olympics, the Presidential Inauguration and the Denver Summit of the Eight. 1996 1996 - The ORISE Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/ Training Site (REAC/TS) added more than 140 serious radiation accidents in Russia between 1950 and 1993 to the REAC/TS Radiation Accident Registry. This information was not available prior to the collapse of the Soviet Union. Photo Credit: ORNL New ORISE National Security Program was established to enhance terrorism preparedness 36
  37. 37. ORISE report found male workers at Fernald had increased lung cancer death rates 1996 - The ORISE Center for Epidemiologic Research reported on death rates of males who were hired at DOE’s Feed Materials Production Center in Fernald between 1951 and 1981. The results showed a statistically significant increase in lung cancer with high levels of external radiation received by the workers. 1996 - ORISE developed DOE’s Safeguards and Security Awareness Refresher Briefing using the ORAU-copyrighted Advisor tool for authors of computer-based training, which saved DOE $150,000 and more than 2,700 development hours. The training was adopted by DOE Headquarters as its standard briefing. 1996 1996 1996 - ORISE environmental survey professionals began work on inspection plans—focused on survey procedures, instrument calibration, soil sampling techniques and data management—for 15 uranium mill sites in the western U.S. 1996 - ORISE prototyped a new interactive distance learning training course, “Energy Manager Workshop,” for DOE’s Federal Energy Management Program with the first pilot course involving more than 80 participants from 15 different DOE sites. 1.3 million Number of hours of training conducted annually by ORISE programs, including computer-based and distance learning courses 37
  38. 38. 1996 REAC/TS added previously unavailable information on Russian radiation accidents to its registry Knowledge of the radiobiology of humans when exposed to high levels of radiation was increased significantly through an agreement between the ORISE-managed Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site (REAC/TS) and the Institute of Biophysics of the Russian Federation. In collaboration with the institute, REAC/TS added to its Radiation Accident Registry new information on more than 140 serious accidents that occurred in Russia between 1950 and 1993. More than 400 cases of acute radiation syndrome were represented by the institute’s records. This cooperative effort to centralize the information proved significantly valuable to the medical community in diagnosing, treating and following individuals accidentally exposed to ionizing radiation. REAC/TS, a deployable asset of DOE, is part of ORISE. 1996 ORISE report found male workers at Fernald had increased lung cancer death rates The ORISE Center for Epidemiologic Research evaluated various DOE worker populations for studies of occupational health effects to help DOE address worker health concerns. In 1996, an ORISE study reported on the death rates of a cohort of males who were hired at DOE’s Feed Materials Production Center in Fernald, Ohio, between 1951 and 1981. The researchers observed that the number of deaths due to lung cancer did increase with higher external radiation doses; however, no other cancer causes of death showed a correlation with the radiation dose received by the workers. For internal radiation exposure, a relationship was seen only with deaths from chronic nonmalignant respiratory disease. 38
  39. 39. 30,000 Number of past participants involved in a 10-year study of effectiveness of DOE fellowships and research participation programs 1997 - ORISE evaluated the effectiveness of DOE fellowships and research participation programs, generating a ten-year series of evaluation reports on 30,000 past participants. 1997 1997 - Federico F. Peña appointed Secretary of Energy. 1997 1997 - Ron Townsend was hired as ORAU president and CEO and assumed the role of director of ORISE; ORAU was named DOE Oak Ridge Operations Contractor of the Year for outstanding performance in support of small business. 1997 - In an international expansion of nuclear safety training, ORISE presented its Nuclear Criticality Safety for Fuel Facility Inspectors course in Moscow, Russia, for DOE and in Kiev, Ukraine, for the NRC. 39
  40. 40. Research Spotlight DOE fellow received R&D 100 recognition for bioremediation technology research Photo Credit: UT Susan Pfiffner, Ph.D. Susan Pfiffner, a former DOE postdoctoral fellow in a research associate program administered by ORISE 1997 - REAC/TS was approved to store and distribute the pharmaceutical Prussian blue for individuals contaminated with radiocesium or radiothallium. As the only U.S. source, REAC/TS used Prussian blue for two medical emergencies involving thallium poisoning. 1997 at ORNL, was recognized as a major co-contributor to a new bioremediation technology. In 1996, she was named by Research & Development magazine as participating in one of the top 100 research projects in the U.S. Pfiffner contributed to PHOSter, a technology that was initiated to gain a basic understanding of microorganisms in subsurface soils and their potential 1997 - The ORISE Radiation Internal Dose Information Center (RIDIC) developed a model for physicians treating blood vessels with radiation following a balloon angioplasty to keep blockages from reoccurring. The model helped determine the safest amount of radiation to apply to a blood vessel. for assisting in the cleanup of contaminants. The PHOSter, or phosphate-accelerated bioremediation, technology reduced degradation time by years or decades, especially if longer cleanup periods were anticipated, and the added cost of implementation was only about eight percent, which was often offset by reduced cleanup times. It was a prime example of a new emphasis on “green” or environmentally friendly remediation methods. These methods worked with nature to clean up sites using minimal energy. The technology developed through this project has been transferred and used by companies across the U.S. and internationally to remediate hydrocarbonand chlorinated solvent-contaminated sites. The development and application of PHOSter was funded by the Office of Science and Technology within DOE’s Office of Environmental Management. Pfiffner is currently a research associate professor at the University of Tennessee. 40 RIDIC model used for irradiating blood vessels during heart angioplasty
  41. 41. REAC/TS and DOE supported safe launch of NASA’s Cassini probe 1997 - DOE and the Energy Quality Council recognized ORISE with an Energy Quality Champion Award for noteworthy achievement in quality performance. 1997 - REAC/TS and DOE supported the NASA “Cassini” deep space probe launch, fueled by plutonium-238. REAC/TS conducted medical radiation accident preparedness training at Kennedy Space Center and for five Brevard County hospitals. 1997 1997 - ORISE staff were key members of the team that drafted the Multi-Agency Radiation Survey and Site Investigation Manual (MARSSIM) and developed the first MARSSIM training course to assist participants in learning this new approach for radiological surveys decommissioning. 1997 1997 - Since 1992, ORISE has independently verified completion of several FUSRAP, or Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, projects for DOE, helping to demonstrate by 1997 that nearly ten of the major FUSRAP sites were cleaned up to regulatory standards. 1997 - DOE requested that ORISE verify that the facilities at the former K-25 site were safe for public use following a major cleanup effort. ORISE selected to independently verify cleanup of K-25 plant 41
  42. 42. 1997 PeerNet saved time, money for peer review of DOE research proposals ORISE staff manage the reviews that determine which research proposals 1997 - The ORISE Center for Epidemiologic Research completed “A Mortality Study of Employees of the Nuclear Industry in Oak Ridge, TN,” which examined the mortality of workers employed between 1943 and 1985 at DOE’s three largest Oak Ridge sites—K-25, X-10 and Y-12. By comparing the data across multiple sites, results were more statistically reliable and provided a more comprehensive view of the health effects of low-level radiation. receive federal funding for multiple DOE offices. In 1997, ORISE piloted its newly developed, web-based system for peer review management, PeerNet, with DOE’s Environmental Management Science Program. Using PeerNet, reviewers entered their 1997 comments directly into the secure, password-protected system, providing immediate feedback. The time needed 1997 - ORISE staff at the University Radioactive Ion Beam (UNIRIB) consortium used the recoil mass spectrometer at ORNL’s new Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility in the discovery of thulium-145. to key in the previously handwritten comments was eliminated, as were misinterpretations and errors. The data could be used throughout the process, from peer discussions to making the actual awards. DOE sponsors and reviewers had remote access to the system and could complete much of their work from anywhere. The pilot involved an evaluation of 2,400 research proposals by more than 200 reviewers. The system allowed the project to be completed three weeks early and saved more than $218,000. For its contribution to automating the federal grants process, PeerNet was recognized with Vice President Gore’s Hammer Award in 1997. Thulium-145 was discovered using recoil mass spectrometer 42
  43. 43. The Late 1990s By the last few years of the twentieth century, the economy was beginning to stabilize, and America was enjoying more prosperous times. At home, Americans were preoccupied with the possible impeachment of President Clinton, the first docking of Space Shuttle Discovery with the International Space Station, and whether the Internet and computer systems would crash as the country moved into the year 2000. Globally, security issues remained a top priority as al-Qaida militants, particularly leader Osama bin Laden, led simultaneous attacks on two U.S. embassies — Kenya and Tanzania — killing 224 people. On the nuclear weapons front, tensions were high as both India and Pakistan tested nuclear weapons in a race to establish themselves as nuclear powers, further degrading the uneasy relationship between these two countries. The speed of technological advancements increased exponentially as engineers worked to find new ways to process information and data at even faster speeds. It was during this time that IBM unveiled designs for a supercomputer that could perform more than a quadrillion operations per second. More effort was focused on sustainable business and reducing the environmental footprint of doing business. Advances were made in recycling, and greater emphasis was placed on developing and using biodegradable products. Progress continued in cleaning up and downsizing the federal system of legacy nuclear facilities, and more current and former energy workers were being screened for health effects from occupational exposures to hazardous materials. Many ORISE capabilities were integrated into elements of the nation’s response to these ongoing and emerging needs. These included increased training to better prepare the nation’s response to terrorism, educating the next generation of scientists and researchers who could adapt and build upon technological advancements, and ensuring cleanup efforts at legacy nuclear facilities would facilitate the re-industrialization of this land. 43
  44. 44. THE 20 00 -2 00 2 005 2003-2 LATE 1990s Beryllium screening program expanded to include former Rocky Flats workers 2 00 6-2 1998-1999 1998 - Bill Richardson appointed Secretary of Energy. 1998 - ORISE implemented an organizational restructuring that resulted in cost reductions of $1.5 million. 1998 1998 1020 97 -19 95 19 1992 -1994 The events along this timeline demonstrate how DOE responded to and ORISE supported key national priorities. Accomplishments addressed needs in or strengthened opportunities for: Energy and Environmental Stewardship Global Leadership in Science International Emergency Response Knowledge and Workforce Development National and Nuclear Security Operational Excellence and Efficiencies Radiation and Operational Safety Worker and Public Health 1998 - Beryllium screening program expanded with $4 million DOE contract to include former Rocky Flats workers.
  45. 45. 1998 - ORISE served as the final checkpoint to verify that contaminated items and buildings had been cleaned up at the DOE East Tennessee Technology Park (former K-25 facility), kicking off a multiyear project. 1998 1998 - ORISE assisted DOE’s Office of Emergency Response in providing the nuclear training portion of the U.S. Domestic Preparedness Program, established in 1996 as a result of terrorism incidents, such as the World Trade Center bombing of 1993. 1998 - DOE announced the Workforce for the 21st Century Initiative to recruit technical and management staff with skills to match changing mission requirements. 1998 1998 - DOE certified that the U.S. nuclear stockpile was safe and secure. ORISE selected to provide radiological training with U.S. Domestic Preparedness Program 45
  46. 46. 1998 ORISE served as final decontamination checkpoint for cleanup at DOE’s East Tennessee Technology Park ORISE began its crucial role of independent verification in DOE’s multiyear effort to reindustrialize the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP). ETTP encompassed the former DOE K-25 Gaseous Diffusion Plant, where enriched uranium was produced from 1945 to 1987 for use in nuclear weapons and commercial reactor fuel. Once other contractors were satisfied with their decontamination work, ORISE provided the independent verification of the approved final release and waste acceptance criteria. ORISE efforts supported confirmation that the 100-plus acres of building space and materials from the site had been decontaminated to meet regulatory standards, and the site was safe and ready for new occupants in the East Tennessee Technology Park. ORISE also provided quality checks on waste from the site that was headed for disposal in landfills licensed to hold radioactive material. 1999 ORISE partnered with federal agencies to address the changing face of terrorist threats In mid-1998, the U.S. had again been the target of terrorism, but this time on an international scale. U.S. embassies in Nairobi, Kenya, and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, were attacked in coordinated terrorist truck bombings. Following similar attacks in the U.S. in the early-to-mid 90s—Oklahoma City and the World Trade Center bombings—Congress established the U.S. Domestic Preparedness Program in 1996. The intent of the program was to teach local emergency response teams in 120 U.S. cities what actions should be taken when confronted with an act of terrorism in their communities, including the use of WMD. ORISE became a major partner in this program in 1996 when it was tasked by DOE’s Office of Emergency Response to provide the radiological training portion of this program. In 1999, ORISE trained more than 5,500 fire and rescue personnel, emergency medical technicians and hospital staff in how to respond to nuclear/radiological emergencies and conducted 70 radiological weapons training events across the nation. On an international scale, ORISE expanded its role in support of the International Preparedness Training Program in 1999. ORISE coordinated the training for more than 50 high-level government officials in Amman, Jordan, in the first international Weapons of Mass Destruction Crisis Response/Consequence Management Seminar. 46
  47. 47. Research Spotlight ORISE researcher solved neutron scattering challenge with instrument innovation “The years I’ve spent at ORNL 1998 - On the drawing board for ORNL was a $1.3 billion DOE-funded project, the Spallation Neutron Source, providing the most intense, pulsed neutron beams in the world. have definitely been the most fruitful of my career.” Michael Agamalian, Ph.D. From 1995 to 1998, Michael Agamalian, a physicist with a doctorate from St. Petersburg Nuclear Physics 1998 Institute in Russia, studied the disparity in performance between the ultra-small-angle neutron scattering (USANS) instrument at ORNL and the classical X-ray analog (USAXS). Agamalian quickly found the reason for the difference. Essentially, reflection from the back surface of channel-cut silicon crystals was resulting in a parasitic scattering, which dramatically decreased the sensitivity of the USANS instrument. Agamalian redesigned the crystals by cutting an additional groove (the Agamalian cut) and placed a cadmium absorber in that groove, thereby placing the parasitic scattering behind “cadmium bars.” This innovation increased the sensitivity of the USANS instrument threefold, making it the best in the world and of equal quality to the X-ray analog. Researchers can use USANS to probe the supramolecular structures of plastics, rocks, porous materials, fibers and many other objects. Agamalian received two international awards for this research, the Arnold O. Beckman Award from the International Society of Instrumentation and Control (1999) and the A. Guinier Prize from the International Union of Crystallography (2002). Today, he is the lead instrument scientist responsible for the USANS instrument at the ORNL Spallation Neutron Source. 48 1998 - ORISE researchers at UNIRIB and ORNL’s Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam facility discovered five new protonemitting isotopes using the recoil mass spectrometer, one of only five in the world.
  48. 48. Researchers discovered five new isotopes using recoil mass spectrometer 10,300 Number of active and former beryllium workers screened since 1992 1999 - ORISE trained more than 5,500 emergency and medical personnel in nuclear/radiological emergency response. ORISE also conducted 70 nuclear weapons training events targeted toward large population centers across the nation, supporting DOE’s Office of Emergency Response and the U.S. Domestic Preparedness Program. 1999 1999 1999 - DOE began increasing its study of nuclear proliferation, including biological and chemical threats. 1999 - DOE increased its focus on sustainable energy technologies, including significantly increasing use of wind power over the next ten years as part of the Wind Powering America Initiative. ORISE received DOE Energy Quality Champion Award 5,500 Number of emergency and medical personnel trained in radiological emergency response 49
  49. 49. Nationwide beryllium screening effort launched by ORISE 1999 As a strategically important material used in the nuclear industry since the 1940s, beryllium had been ground, machined and welded by workers for years, and that exposure to beryllium dust or fumes caused a number of workers to become ill with chronic beryllium disease (CBD). Late in 1998, DOE funded a $4 million ORISE program to consolidate and expand beryllium worker screening efforts. Since beryllium screenings had begun in 1992, more than 10,300 active and former beryllium workers had been screened, including more than 2,500 in 1999. With at least 20,000 eligible workers yet to be screened, ORISE set up 28 two-day screening clinics in major U.S. cities in an effort to reach them. In addition to the screening activities, ORISE continued to work with a number of key research hospitals across the country to refer workers who might have CBD for additional testing and follow-up care. 50
  50. 50. 1999 - As part of the expanded, nationwide Beryllium Screening Program, ORISE set up screening clinics in major U.S. cities to reach more than 20,000 active and former workers for chronic beryllium disease screening. 1999 1999 1999 - REAC/TS was called upon to assist in the Tokaimura, Japan, uranium processing facility accident. Having previously trained some of the Japanese physicians, REAC/TS consulted with them on the treatment of the three victims and helped refine dose estimates. REAC/TS provided radiation medicine expertise to Japanese physicians following Tokaimura accident 51
  51. 51. 1999 ORISE supported DOE in metals recycling initiative The recycling of radioactive scrap metals had stirred a national debate over whether such activities could be a costeffective solution or were a safety hazard to the public. With integrated expertise in both environmental surveys and 1999 - UNIRIB, with the ORNL Joint Institute for Heavy Ion Research and ORNL Physics Division, cosponsored the International Symposium on Proton-Emitting Nuclei, the first specialty conference of its kind. 1999 radiation safety, ORISE was involved in one of the largest metals recycling efforts in the country as one of DOE’s partners in the reindustrialization of the department’s K-25 former uranium enrichment plant in Oak Ridge. In the first year of the project, more than 3,400 tons had been decontaminated and recycled to industry for reuse. ORISE served as the independent third party verifying that the metals and other materials met release criteria before they were recycled, based on DOE’s requirements for the protection of the public and the environment. In related work, ORISE also partnered with the NRC to develop standards and survey methods to ensure the safe release of previously contaminated scrap metals for future uses. 52 1999 - Energy Secretary Richardson proposed legislation to compensate current and former contract employees at uranium enrichment facilities for cancers resulting from exposure to radioactive contaminants. Sites included Paducah, Kentucky; Oak Ridge, Tennessee; and the Portsmouth plant in Piketon, Ohio.
  52. 52. 3,400 Number of tons of decontaminated scrap metal independently verified by ORISE 1999 - As part of the reindustrialization of DOE’s K-25 plant, thousands of tons of radioactive scrap metal were independently verified by ORISE as decontaminated and safe for recycling or release to industry. 1999 - ORISE team members that supported development of the MultiAgency Radiation Survey and Site Investigation Manual (MARSSIM) and subsequent training were recognized with Vice President Gore’s Hammer Award. 1999 1999 1999 - New DOE Institutes for Biotechnology, Environmental Science, and Computing for Community Colleges program was launched by ORISE, with 107 students from 48 twoyear colleges placed at five DOE laboratories in the 1999 summer session. 1999 - REAC/TS personnel evaluated workers’ injuries following a chemical explosion at the Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge. UNIRIB sponsored first-of-its-kind conference on protonemitting nuclei 53
  53. 53. 1999 REAC/TS personnel evaluated workers’ injuries following Y-12 chemical explosion In December 1999, workers at the Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge were injured in a chemical explosion while trying to clear a spill of a sodium and potassium mixture, known as NaK. Ten workers were treated for injuries, including one initially evaluated at the REAC/TS facility and subsequently transferred to the Methodist Medical Center Emergency Department in Oak Ridge for treatment of chemical Photo Credit: Lynn Freeny 1999 - Vice President Al Gore attended the groundbreaking ceremony for ORNL’s Spallation Neutron Source in Oak Ridge. 1999 burns. Based on REAC/TS’ evaluation, radiation contamination levels were below levels of concern for all workers involved in the accident. Many of the emergency personnel had been trained at the REAC/TS facility, enhancing their ability to care for the injured and contain any contamination. By 2000, more than 4,300 individuals from 48 states and more than 50 countries had taken REAC/TS courses. 1999 - Energy Secretary Richardson announced a proposal to help current and former DOE contract workers who developed medical problems resulting from exposure to beryllium. He also recommitted DOE to meeting its cleanup responsibilities. 4,300 Number of individuals that had taken REAC/TS courses by 2000 54
  54. 54. The Early 2000s In the earliest years of a new century, the U.S. was still focused on enduring issues in environmental protection, addressing concerns over climate change, advanced technologies for energy, research, and education, and protecting workers’ health. The Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act of 2000 was passed, providing compensation and medical benefits to eligible former energy workers and subcontractors. International conflict was centered on the Middle East, with terrorism increasing as evidenced by the bombing of the USS Cole in Yemen. The incident was linked to the al-Qaida terrorist network, which was growing in strength. U.S. domestic preparedness efforts continued with expanded capabilities and readiness for perceived threats. Congress established a new agency within DOE— the National Nuclear Security Administration—with responsibility for the management and security of the nation’s nuclear weapons, nuclear nonproliferation and naval nuclear reactors. By early 2001, the U.S. had sworn in its 43rd President, George W. Bush. One of his first accomplishments as president was the release of a National Energy Policy. The Bush administration had laid out an aggressive agenda to modernize conservation and the energy infrastructure, increase energy supplies and the nation’s energy security, and accelerate the protection and improvement of the environment. Just as Americans were caught by surprise in 1993 and 1995 with the bombings of the World Trade Center in New York City and the Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, respectively, the U.S. would again be rocked by terrorism in our own country. On September 11, 2001, al-Qaida-led terrorists flew airplanes into the twin towers of the World Trade Center and then into the Pentagon. One other terrorist-controlled plane was destined for the White House but ultimately crashed in a Pennsylvania field. With thousands of U.S. citizens killed, it was and continues to be the deadliest terrorist incident on American soil. It arguably changed the American way of life forever and launched a Global War on Terror. To coordinate and unify our country’s homeland security efforts, Congress passed the Homeland Security Act of 2002. With this act, Congress established the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, which consolidated key security capabilities of 22 different federal departments and agencies under one, cabinet-level department in the largest federal government reorganization since the creation of the U.S. Department of Defense in 1947. Because of ORISE’s diverse skill sets and agile response capability, it would be called upon to quickly support DOE, DHS and other agencies in strengthening U.S. national security and emergency management, as well as research and workforce development. 55
  55. 55. THE ORAU awarded five-year contract from DOE to manage ORISE 2000 - DOE signed a competitively awarded, five-year contract with ORAU to manage ORISE. The contract continued a management relationship with ORAU that had existed since ORISE was established in 1992. 20 03 -2 00 5 009 06-2 20 EARLY 2000s 201 0- 2000-2002 99 -19 98 19 2199 1995-1 997 The events along this timeline demonstrate how DOE responded to and ORISE supported key national priorities. Accomplishments addressed needs in or strengthened opportunities for: Energy and Environmental Stewardship Global Leadership in Science International Emergency Response Knowledge and Workforce Development National and Nuclear Security Operational Excellence and Efficiencies Radiation and Operational Safety Worker and Public Health 2000 2000 2000 - Energy Secretary Richardson announced a contract reform initiative to hold contractors more accountable and to move toward more performance-based contracts.
  56. 56. 740 2000 - Beryllium screening program expanded to include DOE workers from Pantex Plant, Kansas City Plant, Iowa Army Ammunition Plant, Lawrence Livermore National Lab, and Knolls Atomic Power Lab. Since the program began in 1992, more than 6,700 beryllium lymphocyte proliferation tests have been performed at the ORISE lab. Number of students that participated in the Bomb Technician Training Program 2000 - ORISE Technical Training and Operations Program specialists developed a Web-based Radiation Safety Officer (RSO) course, saving travel costs and time for RSOs who are required to meet stringent training and testing requirements. 2000 2000 - ORISE trained more than 9,000 emergency response personnel in the First Responder Domestic Preparedness Program and more than 740 students in 22 classes across the U.S. in the Bomb Technician Training Program. ORISE also provided security planning for the Republican and Democratic National Conventions and Summer Olympic Games. 2000 2000 - DOE released its new strategic plan, “Strength Through Science, Powering the 21st Century,” focused on science, energy resources, national security, environmental quality and corporate management. 9,000 Number of emergency responders that received ORISE First Responder Domestic Preparedness training 57
  57. 57. ORISE supported DOE readiness for 2002 Winter Olympics 2001 - Spencer Abraham appointed Secretary of Energy. 2001 2000 - National Nuclear Security Administration established for the management and security of the nation’s nuclear weapons, nuclear nonproliferation and naval reactor programs. 58 2001 - In response to the 9/11 terrorist attacks, DOE contributed equipment, emergency medical technicians and other assistance in support of rescue efforts. 2001 2001 - In support of 9/11 response efforts, REAC/TS senior staff deployed with other members of DOE’s Consequence Management Response Team for five weeks to safeguard against additional acts of terrorism that might involve nuclear materials. REAC/TS also marked 25 years in operation in 2001.
  58. 58. 40 million Number of pounds of decontaminated material verified safe for recycle/reuse Photo Credit: Lynn Freeny 2001 - In ongoing work at ETTP over the past four years, ORISE assisted DOE with the release of more than 40 million pounds of decontaminated materials for recycle/reuse and provided quality assurance evaluations for materials being sent for disposal. ORISE also analyzed nearly 11,000 samples from 27 sites in 12 states, achieving nearperfect analysis of blind samples. 2001 - As part of the National Energy Policy implementation, Energy Secretary Abraham directed that DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy undertake strategic reviews of its research and development programs. 2001 2001 - ORISE’s National Security Program specialists worked in conjunction with FBI SWAT and DOE Search Response Teams in the FBI’s Wasatch Rings II Field Training Exercise in Salt Lake City, Utah, to validate and test security procedures and the agencies’ emergency response posture prior to the 2002 Winter Olympics. 2001 2001 - Energy Secretary Abraham outlined DOE’s priorities, noting the department's “overarching mission is national security” as well as identifying new sources of energy, protecting the nation’s energy infrastructure and implementing environmental cleanup faster and cheaper. REAC/TS deployed after September 11 terrorist attacks 59
  59. 59. 2001 REAC/TS deployed after Sept. 11 attacks to support DOE terrorism response efforts Sept. 11, 2001, changed the world and brought terrorism to the forefront of American lives. For the staff of REAC/TS, Sept. 11 meant immediate deployment as part of DOE’s Consequence Management Response Team (CMRT). REAC/TS has been DOE’s organization responsible for the medical management of radiation accidents since 1976—25 years of highly specialized mission work in responding to radiation accidents and training physicians, nurses, and other emergency responders in the safe medical response to an accident involving radiological factors. Following the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks, REAC/TS senior staff were deployed for five weeks with other members of the CMRT to ensure DOE’s readiness to respond to additional acts of terrorism that might involve nuclear materials. The REAC/TS staff spent those five weeks checking and rechecking equipment and procedures, training others in emergency response, and advising and consulting with senior government officials. REAC/TS was then asked to enhance the overall planning for U.S. response to nuclear terrorism. In a matter of weeks, REAC/TS personnel established closer relationships with senior staff from the U.S. Department of Defense, Food and Drug Administration, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The REAC/TS staff also began to increase awareness of the need for a variety of medications required for the national pharmaceutical stockpile as well as a more unified approach for medical management of radiation emergencies. 60
  60. 60. 3,000 Number of participants ORISE supported in science education programs and research experiences in FY2001 2001 - By the close of FY2001, ORISE’s Center for Epidemiologic Research staff had held 47 clinics in 15 states and screened more than 4,000 individuals for beryllium disease, representing a 278 percent increase in tests performed since 1998. Additional sites were also added to the screening program: Argonne, Fermi, Ames, Chicago, Fernald and Brookhaven. 2001 2001 - Of the nearly 3,000 participants ORISE supported in science education programs and research experiences in FY2001, half were female, 30 percent were from underrepresented minority groups, and 30 percent of undergraduate students were from HBCUs/MEIs. 2001 - ORISE had supported DOE’s Tennessee Science Bowl for 10 years, promoting knowledge of scientific concepts in a competitive format among Tennessee’s high school students. The program has also been a regional feeder for the annual National Science Bowl competition, for which ORISE has also provided support to DOE. ORISE has managed DOE’s Tennessee Science Bowl for 10 years 62
  61. 61. ORISE tripled beryllium screenings in four years 2001 In just four years, the ORISE Center for Epidemiologic Research had experienced tremendous growth in DOE’s Former Beryllium Workers Medical Surveillance Program. During 1998, staff had hosted 13 clinics in cities across the country and screened 2,180 former workers. By the close of FY2001, ORISE staff had crisscrossed the country with 47 clinics held in 15 different states. At year end, more than 4,000 individuals had been screened. This growth was attributed to increased focus in recent years on the hazards of beryllium and chronic beryllium disease as well as a desire by workers and DOE to speed up the process for screening. During FY2000, ORISE staff expanded the program to three sites in addition to Rocky Flats and Y-12, and in FY2001 the program began screening former workers from Argonne National Laboratory, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Ames Laboratory, Chicago Operations, the Fernald Plant, and Brookhaven National Laboratory. ORISE technicians that completed the beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (Be-LPT) in the ORISE Beryllium Laboratory—one of only five laboratories in the country that could perform the Be-LPT—also saw a 260 percent increase in tests performed in just four years. Through all this growth, the lab performed with exceptionally high accuracy as was evidenced by an error rate below two percent. Beryllium Statistics Number of LPTs completed in ORISE Lab 6000 5899 5500 5000 4500 Total LPTs done for people screened 4000 3000 Number of people screened 2500 2000 1500 Number of clinics 3391 3500 1000 500 2220 1931 2180 903 1998 4075 2720 3253 2499 1900 1429 47 42 20 13 1999 2000 2001 63
  62. 62. 130,451 Number of records on DOE workers in new beryllium registry 2002 - In a special address to the nation, President Bush proposed the formation of the new cabinet-level Department of Homeland Security. DOE and all other federal agencies were asked to support and collaborate with the new agency to ensure its mission success. 2002 - ORISE constructed a 4,000-square-foot beryllium testing lab in Oak Ridge, Tenn. The data center for DOE’s newly mandated beryllium registry was located at ORISE, and 130,451 records were processed on workers from 16 DOE facilities. 2002 2002 - Through the DOE-NNSA Emergency Response Exercise Program, ORISE and REAC/TS advanced counterterrorism awareness and readiness by planning and conducting a consequence management exercise—Exercise Joint Venture—at the Savannah River Site, which included deployment of the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC). Lessons learned from this exercise led to the establishment of the Laboratory Analysis Section as part of the FRMAC organization. 2002 2002 - ORISE established an antiterrorism tabletop exercise program for training U.S. Customs Service personnel in the detection and handling of radioactive material that could be used to make a “dirty bomb.” Photo Credit: Lynn Freeny “This new agency will ... prevent terrorists from entering our country ... respond quickly and effectively to emergencies ... and bring together our best scientists to develop technologies that detect biological, chemical, and nuclear weapons ...” - U.S. President George W. Bush, in calling for the proposed formation of the Department of Homeland Security 64
  63. 63. New ORISE Beryllium Testing Laboratory constructed 2002 - DOE, EPA and the state of Tennessee announced an agreement to accelerate cleanup at the Oak Ridge Reservation. 2002 - ORISE began working with DOJ and DOE on the Homeland Defense Equipment Reuse Program, which provided refurbished radiation detection equipment to emergency responders in the 10 largest U.S. metro areas. 2002 2002 - DOE issued regulations for assistance for DOE contractor employees who have become ill from occupational exposures at DOE facilities, implementing the program established by Part D of the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act of 2000. 2002 2002 - Secretary Abraham committed to “significantly improve the reach and effectiveness” of the nation’s nuclear nonproliferation programs by “preventing, detecting and reversing the spread of weapons of mass destruction, while improving nuclear security worldwide.” 65
  64. 64. 2002 Equipping those on the domestic front lines for future terrorist attacks ORISE partnered with DOE and DOJ on a cooperative effort known as the Homeland Defense Equipment Reuse (HDER) Program. One of the goals of the program was to provide surplus radiological detection and other equipment to emergency responder agencies nationwide to strengthen their domestic preparedness capabilities. During the pilot phase of the HDER program, DOJ offered the refurbished equipment to the 10 largest metropolitan areas in the United States. “The HDER Program is an excellent example of federal agencies and private organizations working together to address a critical domestic preparedness issue. This program demonstrates the administration’s commitment to equipping those on the domestic front lines — our state and local emergency first responders — in the nation’s effort to prevent future terrorist attacks,” said Attorney General John Ashcroft. In the first year of this program, more than 1,000 surplus radiological detectors were provided to first responders in Washington, D.C., Pennsylvania, Michigan, New York, and Massachusetts. 66
  65. 65. 2002 - ORISE provided smallpox preparedness training to 100 DOE occupational health directors and field emergency managers. Originally developed by ORISE for the CDC to prepare the U.S. for a smallpox bioterrorist attack, the training was delivered to DOE at no cost to the agency per approval from CDC. 2002 2002 - ORISE reported zero lost work days for the entire year of 2002, attributable to outstanding safety awareness and performance. 2002 - DOE tasked ORISE with coordinating a science competition for middle school students as part of the National Science Bowl annual competition. 1,000 Number of radiation detectors provided to first responders 67
  66. 66. 2002 - NOAA tasked ORISE experts and its Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Division (ATDD) with building and deploying a system of more than 200 stations in the U.S. Climate Reference Network to study how climate changes over time. In 2002, nearly 40 stations were completed and deemed operational. 2002 2002 - In FY2002, ORISE research participants represented 77 different HBCUs and MEIs. Recruiting such a diverse group of applicants and placing qualified, enthusiastic participants involved a significant focused effort and investment of resources. This effort helped ORISE garner a 10 percent growth rate in participants for FY2002, high customer satisfaction marks, and minority representation in the science and engineering fellowships that far exceeded the percentages in target populations. 68
  67. 67. The Mid 2000s By the mid-2000s, the nation remained intensely focused on the war on terrorism as the U.S. began the war in Iraq with the bombing of Baghdad. Citizens were on alert for the possibility of terrorist attacks within the United States as President Bush stated that the greatest risk to the U.S. or anywhere else in the world is the possibility of a nuclear, radiological, chemical or biological terrorist attack. Terms like weapons of mass destruction, improvised explosive devices and dirty bombs were discussed more frequently in the national news and quickly became part of discussions and debate around the world. The unrest in the Middle East, which created greater fluctuations in oil prices, added to the growing international economic problems, and in response, the United States placed an even greater emphasis on finding ways to reduce its dependency on foreign oil. President George W. Bush announced a $1.2 billion Hydrogen Fuel Initiative and, two years later, following his re-election, he enacted the Energy Policy Act of 2005 that outlined steps to combat the country’s growing energy problems. At the same time, the U.S. leadership recognized the nation’s need to stay competitive in an increasingly challenged global economy. The White House's National Science and Technology Council released "Science for the 21st Century," an overview of the Bush administration's science policies and accomplishments that outlined how the nation’s “science enterprise has responded to the President’s priorities for homeland and national security, economic growth, health research and the environment.” On the home front, the nation was faced with the need to manage the consequences of a huge national disaster as, on August 29, 2005, Hurricane Katrina hit the Gulf Coast, devastating the coastline and displacing hundreds of thousands of residents from Louisiana to Alabama. Nearly 2,000 people perished in one of the worst natural disasters to strike the United States. Throughout this time, ORISE resources were called upon to continue building the nation’s readiness for potential terrorist attacks. ORISE was cultivating a new generation of scientists and researchers to gain further understanding of the technical aspects of these attacks, while also building the nation’s global competitiveness. At the same time, DOE continued to focus on reducing its footprint of contaminated buildings and land with the goal of releasing this land for new industrialized efforts. 69
  68. 68. THE 20 06 -2 00 9 3 -201 2010 MID 2000s 2003 - The international journal Toxicology published an ORISE paper on the lymphocyte proliferation test, which DOE has recommended that all laboratories adopt for determination of beryllium sensitivity and chronic beryllium disease. Since 1992, the program has tested more than 21,000 people for beryllium-related health problems, leading to the diagnosis of 198 cases of chronic beryllium disease and hundreds more cases of beryllium sensitization. 199 2- 2003-2005 2 00 -2 00 20 5199 1998-1 999 The events along this timeline demonstrate how DOE responded to and ORISE supported key national priorities. Accomplishments addressed needs in or strengthened opportunities for: Energy and Environmental Stewardship Global Leadership in Science International Emergency Response Knowledge and Workforce Development National and Nuclear Security Operational Excellence and Efficiencies Radiation and Operational Safety Worker and Public Health 2003 2003 2003 - ORISE was selected by the Department of Homeland Security to establish a new scholarship and fellowship program in national security. Within 90 days, ORISE had established the first class of 102 students. ORISE also supported the CDC with more than 700 research program participants studying critical and timely issues from pandemic flu to HIV/AIDS. New DHS Scholars and Fellows Program up and running in 90 days
  69. 69. 21,000 Number of workers tested since 1992 for beryllium-related health problems 2003 - DOE and NIH announced the successful completion of the Human Genome Project. 2003 2003 - DOE expanded its coverage under the Former Workers Program to offer medical screenings to all former workers who were exposed to hazardous or radioactive substances during their employment at DOE facilities at Oak Ridge, Tenn., Portsmouth, Ohio, and Paducah, Ky. 2003 2003 - DOE hosted the Top Officials 2 (TopOff 2) nationwide exercise, spanning from Washington state with a simulated “dirty bomb” to a biological attack on the Chicago area. ORISE provided exercise planning assistance to DOE and assisted DHS’s participation in the exercise with its newly formed Crisis Action Team. Major nationwide exercise tested response to dirty bomb incidents Photo Credit: California Emergency Management Agency 71
  70. 70. 2003 Research program established in record time to build workforce for national security Within one year after the establishment of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, ORISE science education experts expedited, established and administered a national scholarship and fellowship program for DHS to develop workforce competencies and support research in areas critical to national security. In less than three months, ORISE designed the program, recruited and reviewed more than 2,500 applications, and assisted DHS in selecting and appointing the first class of 102 students. This education program was an important component of the DHS effort to use university research communities and prepare a new generation of students to address the department’s needs. Concerned about meeting future workforce demands in a wide range of disciplines, DHS was prompted to find ways to attract exceptional students and provide them with a monthly stipend, tuition and fees, an internship at a DHS-designated facility, and potential DHS employment after graduation. The awards were intended for undergraduate and graduate students interested in pursuing careers in the full range of fields that could be applied to the DHS mission, including chemical, electrical and civil engineering, physics, mathematics, animal science, international relations and clinical psychology to name a few. 72
  71. 71. 2003 - REAC/TS’ supply of Prussian blue and DTPA was expanded as the drugs moved from investigational to new drug status. REAC/TS had managed the sole supply of these drugs since 1967 and 1997, respectively, for the treatment of radiationrelated injuries. 2003 - Since 1992, more than 1,100 former Rocky Flats radiation workers have been tested and monitored for DOE in the Former Radiation Worker Medical Surveillance Program, a program managed by ORISE since 1998. 2003 2003 - Secretary Abraham announced that a new, accelerated environmental cleanup contract had been finalized for work at sites in Oak Ridge, Tenn., which was expected to be completed by 2008. 1,100 Number of former workers from Rocky Flats tested for health effects from occupational exposure to radiation 73
  72. 72. Research Spotlight Homeland security scholar helped ORNL refine sensors for dirty bomb detection 2003 - The ORISE Center for Human Reliability Studies completed research using infrared thermography to detect deception and supported DOE in developing a security and safety reliability program called the Human Reliability Program. Kevin Taff North Carolina State University (NCSU) undergraduate 2003 Kevin Taff was one of the first 50 scholars in the DHS Science and Technology Directorate’s Scholars and Fellows Program administered by ORISE. Taff spent time at ORNL helping refine a national network of sensors for the early detection of terrorist attacks involving chemical, radiological and biological threats. Working with ORNL scientists on the SensorNet and AquaSentinel projects, he researched ways to improve sensor capabilities and their relay of information to a central computer for analysis and response. The sensors were expected to be deployed in locations considered at high risk for attack, as well as at places like highway weigh stations to detect the possible movement of a “dirty bomb.” For Taff, the experience challenged him to think creatively and solve engineering problems. “I was also able to make a meaningful contribution to society in the process,” Taff said. Taff received bachelor’s and master’s degrees in electrical engineering from NCSU. He worked in the private sector as an electrical engineer for Raytheon and Hittite Microwave, and more recently served as an RF engineer for Blackbird Technologies, a technology company providing technical solutions for government and industries. He is currently on staff with Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, providing engineering, research and development for the defense industry. 74 2003 - DOE launched an effort to introduce science students of all ages from across the country to the promise of hydrogen and fuel cell technology and the basic concepts and principles of hydrogen-based energy in fun and creative ways.

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