0
William D. Magwood, IV
Commissioner
Nuclear Energy 

After Fukushima



Oak Ridge Associated Universities

Symposium



Pa...
!2
!3
Clockwise: December 1951 photo of EBR-1 team after the first
production of electric power from atomic energy. Hanford
P...
The AEC’s Role in Nuclear Power
• AEC was created in 1946 to take over Manhattan
Project assets and develop civilian appli...
• The Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 divided the Atomic Energy
Commission into a “promotional” technology development a...
Nuclear Regulatory Commission 

What We Regulate
• Nuclear Reactors - commercial
power reactors, research and test
reactor...
• The Commission is a collegial, quasi-judicial body
!• Five members with staggered five-year terms:
– Each is nominated b...
Regulatory Independence in the United
States

• Independence from economic interests regarding the use of any
nuclear mate...
Why Is Nuclear Power Different?

Because it is
!9
• Accidents are Rare, But Can be High-Consequence
!
• Nuclear Waste
!
• ...
Fukushima Daiichi

Leading to Changes in Regulation
10
Fukushima Daiichi on March 11

A Bad Day At the Plant

!11
!
• Magnitude 9.0 earthquake followed by 15
meter tsunami at th...
NRC Near-Term Task Force 

U.S. Plants Are Safe – But More Can
Be Done
• Continued operation and
licensing of nuclear powe...
After Fukushima

Learn the Big Lessons

• Must Understand the
Natural Hazard Risks
Facing Each Plant
!
• We Can’t Predict ...
Fukushima Teaches

The Public Also Learns
!14
!15
After Fukushima
Reinvigorated Anti-Nuclear Protests
Recent Nuclear Power Plant Closures

A Trend in the Making?
Plant Issue
SONGS (CA) Installation of Flawed
Steam Generators...
!
“The AEO96 reference case forecast assumes that all
nuclear units will operate to the end of their current license
terms...
0
500
1000
1500
1990
1992
1994
1996
1998
U.S. Undergrad Nuclear 

Engineering Enrollment 

(1990-1999)
 !
Through the 1990...
U.S. Nuclear Technology Education

Reversing the Trend
!19
• Federal (DOE and later NRC) Investments in:
• Scholarships an...
!20
Nuclear Engineering Enrollment 

(2004-2011)
0
1500
3000
4500
6000
2004-2005 2006-2007 2008-2009 2010-2011
1620
1687
1...
NRC Grant Program History
• NRC Implemented Grants to Universities – Made First
Grant Awards for Curriculum Development in...
Programs – NRC Grants Today
• Two Nuclear Education Grant Programs Currently
!
– Grants to Universities Program (Up to $5M...
Grants to Universities –

Curriculum Development
• Supports Development or Enhancement of Curricula
Related to Nuclear Saf...
Integrated University Program
• Scholarships*
– For undergraduate students
– 2 years, up to $200,000
– Maximum of $10,000 ...
• *NOTE:



Service Agreement Component to all scholarships and
fellowships – 6 months in nuclear-related employment
for e...
Awards Overview
Total Dollar Amount of Grant Awards
DollarsinMillions
$0.0
$4.0
$8.0
$12.0
$16.0
FY 2007 FY 2009 FY 2011 F...
NRC Grant Outcomes To Date
• 487 Individual Grants Awarded to 141 Institutions
– 204 Curriculum Development Grants
– 87 Fa...
FY 2014 IUP Funding Opportunity
Announcement (FOA) Schedule
• FOAs for IUP only issued on January 29, 2014 (no
new FOA for...
Grant Program Integration 

with Recruitment
• Nuclear Safety Professional Development Program
(NSPDP) – entry-level hirin...
Grant Program Integration 

with Recruitment (continued)
• All of these institutions have received
NRC grant funding2013 N...
31
What’s Next?
Prognostications of the End
Georgia Power has initiated full
scale construction of Vogtle units
3 and 4 after receipt of a
combined Construction and
O...
SCANA was the most recent power
company to receive a license to
build and operate a Generation III+
nuclear plant. Work is...
• A New Deployment Model—
Modules can come online as
investment continues to build
additional units
!
• Higher Flexibility...
WWW.NRC.GOVWWW.NRC.GOV
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Nuclear Energy 
After Fukushima

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Transcript of "Nuclear Energy 
After Fukushima"

  1. 1. William D. Magwood, IV Commissioner Nuclear Energy 
 After Fukushima
 
 Oak Ridge Associated Universities
 Symposium
 
 Patrice M. Bubar
 Chief of Staff – Commissioner Magwood
 March 5, 2014
  2. 2. !2
  3. 3. !3 Clockwise: December 1951 photo of EBR-1 team after the first production of electric power from atomic energy. Hanford PUREX Process “Canyon” Building, circa 1956. Shippingport Atomic Power Station outside Pittsburgh, PA, circa 1957. All photos courtesy the U.S. Department of Energy.
  4. 4. The AEC’s Role in Nuclear Power • AEC was created in 1946 to take over Manhattan Project assets and develop civilian applications for nuclear technology. ! • The AEC: – Sponsored or supported early commercial plants – Created and managed the uranium market – Supplied essentially all uranium enrichment services to US plants and to allied countries – Conducted and supported most U.S. reactor R&D – Regulated nuclear power and nuclear safety ! • However, by the late 1960s, AEC’s power, scope, and potential conflicts of interest became a matter of public debate. !4 Glenn T. Seaborg Chaired AEC from 1961 to 1971
  5. 5. • The Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 divided the Atomic Energy Commission into a “promotional” technology development agency – the Department of Energy – and a regulatory agency – the NRC. Nuclear Regulatory Commission 
 Who We Are • NRC is 4000 people dedicated to assuring the safe and secure use of nuclear materials in the United States in order to protect the health and safety of the American people. !5
  6. 6. Nuclear Regulatory Commission 
 What We Regulate • Nuclear Reactors - commercial power reactors, research and test reactors, new reactor designs. ! • Nuclear Materials - nuclear reactor fuel, radioactive materials for medical, industrial and academic use. ! • Nuclear Waste – transportation, storage and disposal of nuclear material and waste, decommissioning of nuclear facilities. !6
  7. 7. • The Commission is a collegial, quasi-judicial body !• Five members with staggered five-year terms: – Each is nominated by the President, approved by the Senate !– President designates one commissioner to serve as Chairman !• Decisions on all regulatory issues are determined by majority voting: The Commission
 Independence and Transparency !7
  8. 8. Regulatory Independence in the United States
 • Independence from economic interests regarding the use of any nuclear materials or technology. – NRC does not consider financial costs to nuclear plant operators when considering matters of safety significance. ! • Independence from policy interests. – NRC’s actions are based on scientific analysis and legal precedent – not on energy policy considerations. ! • Independence from political interests. – NRC does not report to a Ministry or to the White House – Standing committees of Congress oversee NRC operations – NRC decisions are subject to review by the courts. !8
  9. 9. Why Is Nuclear Power Different?
 Because it is !9 • Accidents are Rare, But Can be High-Consequence ! • Nuclear Waste ! • Plants Must Operate at a High Level of Safety for 60 years – perhaps longer ! • Most Difficult of all Industrial Activities to Explain to the General Public ! • Among Others Globally, the U.S. Industry is Unusual − The largest program – 99 operating power reactors − Almost entirely privately-owned, operating on a commercial basis
  10. 10. Fukushima Daiichi
 Leading to Changes in Regulation 10
  11. 11. Fukushima Daiichi on March 11
 A Bad Day At the Plant
 !11 ! • Magnitude 9.0 earthquake followed by 15 meter tsunami at the plant ! • Extended Station Blackout ! • Batteries depleted and subsequent loss of all reactor cooling ! • Core damage in units 1, 2, and 3 ! • Hydrogen explosions in reactor buildings housing units 1, 3, and 4
  12. 12. NRC Near-Term Task Force 
 U.S. Plants Are Safe – But More Can Be Done • Continued operation and licensing of nuclear power plants do not pose an imminent risk to safety. ! • Mitigation measures already in place (i.e., “B.5.b”) could reduce likelihood of core damage and radiological releases. ! • 12 technical recommendations to further enhance nuclear safety. 12
  13. 13. After Fukushima
 Learn the Big Lessons
 • Must Understand the Natural Hazard Risks Facing Each Plant ! • We Can’t Predict Every Event ! • Recovering from Disaster is At Least as Important as Preparing for Disaster ! • New, Challenging Scenarios: − Multi-Unit Events − Potential for Common Cause Failure of On-Site and Off- Site AC Power (SBO) 13
  14. 14. Fukushima Teaches
 The Public Also Learns !14
  15. 15. !15 After Fukushima Reinvigorated Anti-Nuclear Protests
  16. 16. Recent Nuclear Power Plant Closures
 A Trend in the Making? Plant Issue SONGS (CA) Installation of Flawed Steam Generators Crystal River (FL) Flawed Civil Work Damaged Concrete Containment Kewaunee (WI) Not Financially Competitive in Wisconsin Market Vermont Yankee (VT) Significant Local Political and Financial Challenges !16
  17. 17. ! “The AEO96 reference case forecast assumes that all nuclear units will operate to the end of their current license terms, with 49 units (37 gigawatts) retiring through 2015. ! Given these assumptions, 61 nuclear units are projected to provide 10 percent of total electricity generation in 2015…” ! ! U.S. Energy Information Administration Annual Energy Outlook 1996 !17 A Look Back The Future Outlook 17 Years Ago
  18. 18. 0 500 1000 1500 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 U.S. Undergrad Nuclear 
 Engineering Enrollment 
 (1990-1999)
 ! Through the 1990s, the U.S. experienced: ! ▪ A sharp decline in number of research reactors (66-24) ! ▪ Collapse in enrollment in nuclear engineering programs ! ▪ A negative shift in public perception regarding the future of nuclear energy U.S. Nuclear Technology Education
 A Decade of Decline !18
  19. 19. U.S. Nuclear Technology Education
 Reversing the Trend !19 • Federal (DOE and later NRC) Investments in: • Scholarships and fellowships • Research • Minority Institutions • Research reactors and other infrastructure • Time ! • Resurgence of Prospects of New Plants • Onrushing Retirements • High Salaries
  20. 20. !20 Nuclear Engineering Enrollment 
 (2004-2011) 0 1500 3000 4500 6000 2004-2005 2006-2007 2008-2009 2010-2011 1620 1687 1482 1239 11531110 1092 3985 3065 23232102193318311520 Undergraduate Graduate 2941 3086 3341 3805 4752 2612 5605 Undergraduate enrollment increased 30% in one year
  21. 21. NRC Grant Program History • NRC Implemented Grants to Universities – Made First Grant Awards for Curriculum Development in 2007 for total of $4.7M ! • NRC Implemented Scholarship (including scholarships to 2-year community college and trade schools) and Fellowship, and Faculty Development – Made First Grant Awards in 2008 for total of $15M 21
  22. 22. Programs – NRC Grants Today • Two Nuclear Education Grant Programs Currently ! – Grants to Universities Program (Up to $5M ) • Curriculum Development ! – Integrated University Program (Up to $15M) • Faculty Development • Scholarships and Fellowships • Scholarships to 2-year Trade Schools and Community Colleges 22
  23. 23. Grants to Universities –
 Curriculum Development • Supports Development or Enhancement of Curricula Related to Nuclear Safety, Nuclear Security, or Nuclear Environmental Protection (or other areas) ! • Funding - Up to $5M Annually ! • Awards - 2-Year Grant Awards for up to $200,000 ! •All Grants Fully Funded Upon Award 23
  24. 24. Integrated University Program • Scholarships* – For undergraduate students – 2 years, up to $200,000 – Maximum of $10,000 per student per year • Fellowships* – For graduate students – 4 years, up to $400,000 – Maximum of $50,000 per student per year • Trade Schools/Community College Scholarships* – For undergraduate students at 2-year educational institutions – 2 years, up to $150,000 – Maximum of $10,000 per student per year 24
  25. 25. • *NOTE:
 
 Service Agreement Component to all scholarships and fellowships – 6 months in nuclear-related employment for each year or partial year of academic support
 
 Faculty Development:
 
 - For probationary, tenure-track faculty during the first 6 years of their career
 
 - 3 years, up to $600.00 ($450, 000 from NRC; $150,000 institution match) Integrated University Program 25
  26. 26. Awards Overview Total Dollar Amount of Grant Awards DollarsinMillions $0.0 $4.0 $8.0 $12.0 $16.0 FY 2007 FY 2009 FY 2011 FY 2013 26
  27. 27. NRC Grant Outcomes To Date • 487 Individual Grants Awarded to 141 Institutions – 204 Curriculum Development Grants – 87 Faculty Development Grants – 67 Fellowships – 69 Scholarships – 4-year institutions – 60 Scholarships – 2-year Trades/CCs • Over 1700 Students Supported by Scholarships/ Fellowships • 89 Faculty Supported • Over 200 Courses Developed/Modified 27
  28. 28. FY 2014 IUP Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) Schedule • FOAs for IUP only issued on January 29, 2014 (no new FOA for Curriculum Development) – posted on www.grants.gov ! • Applications due March 31, 2014 ! • Review Panels to be held in April/May 2014 ! • Final award notifications by August 2014 28
  29. 29. Grant Program Integration 
 with Recruitment • Nuclear Safety Professional Development Program (NSPDP) – entry-level hiring program – 15% of 2013 NSPDP hires were NRC Scholarship/ Fellowship recipients 29
  30. 30. Grant Program Integration 
 with Recruitment (continued) • All of these institutions have received NRC grant funding2013 NSPDP Hires by Educational Institution *MinorityServing Institution Drexel UniversityGeorgia TechNC StateOregon State UniversityPenn State UniversityPurdue UniversityRenssalaer Polytechnic InstituteSC State*The Ohio State UniversityUniversity of MDUniversity of MichiganUniversity of MOUniversity of MO S&TUniversity of New MexicoUniversity of PittsburghUniversity of Puerto Rico-Mayaguez*University of South CarolinaUniversity of Southern CaliforniaUniversity of TennesseeVirginia Commonwealth UniveVirginia Polytechnic Institute and 11 4 1111111 2 1111111111
  31. 31. 31 What’s Next? Prognostications of the End
  32. 32. Georgia Power has initiated full scale construction of Vogtle units 3 and 4 after receipt of a combined Construction and Operating License from the NRC !32 What’s Next?
 The Work Continues
  33. 33. SCANA was the most recent power company to receive a license to build and operate a Generation III+ nuclear plant. Work is now underway at the V.C. Summer site in South Carolina to construct two AP1000 reactors !33 What’s Next?
 The Work Continues NRC continues to evaluate: ! • Four additional ALWR designs ! • 8 additional new plant applications ! • Power uprates ! • License renewals
  34. 34. • A New Deployment Model— Modules can come online as investment continues to build additional units ! • Higher Flexibility—small reactors can be deployed in more places by a wider range of users ! • Manufacturability—enables factory construction of more or less complete units, increasing quality and reducing cost, uncertainty, and schedule risk Key Regulatory Issues ! • Control Room Staffing ! • Security ! • Emergency Planning Zone Requirements What’s Next?
 Small Modular Reactors !34
  35. 35. WWW.NRC.GOVWWW.NRC.GOV
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