Introduction to Radiation Detection
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Introduction to Radiation Detection

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Presented on March 16, 2013, as part of the Science Saturday series of lectures sponsored by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at ORAU.

Presented on March 16, 2013, as part of the Science Saturday series of lectures sponsored by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at ORAU.

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    Introduction to Radiation Detection Introduction to Radiation Detection Presentation Transcript

    • Introduction toRadiation DetectionA Presentation for Science SaturdayAlex EndersDeputy Program Manager,Second Line of Defense SupportOak Ridge National Laboratory
    • 2 Managed by UT-Battellefor the U.S. Department of Energy Presentation_nameWhat Is Radiation?ALPHABETAGAMMANEUTRONPAPERALUMINUMLEADWATER
    • 3 Managed by UT-Battellefor the U.S. Department of Energy Presentation_nameWhat Is Gamma Radiation?RadioMicrowavesVisibleX-RayGamma Ray
    • 4 Managed by UT-Battellefor the U.S. Department of Energy Presentation_nameRadiation Is All Around Ushttp://web.mit.edu/newsoffice/1994/safe-0105.htmlAstronauts:25,000 millirem / mission !Average Person Livingin the US:620 millirem per year
    • 5 Managed by UT-Battellefor the U.S. Department of Energy Presentation_nameWhat Is Radiation Detection?PhotonMagic!!ElectronsHappyEngineer
    • 6 Managed by UT-Battellefor the U.S. Department of Energy Presentation_nameThe “Magic” of Geiger-Muller Tubes
    • 7 Managed by UT-Battellefor the U.S. Department of Energy Presentation_nameA Peek Inside a G-M tube
    • 8 Managed by UT-Battellefor the U.S. Department of Energy Presentation_nameLots of Other Types of GammaRadiation Detectors, too
    • 9 Managed by UT-Battellefor the U.S. Department of Energy Presentation_nameFind the Hidden Radioactive Material• Different models will be set up withhidden radioactive material• Use the radiation detector todetermine where the hidden materialis located
    • 11 Managed by UT-Battellefor the U.S. Department of Energy Presentation_nameBasic electricity concepts• The relation between current, voltage and resistance in an electriccircuit is described by Ohm’s Law– I = V/R– “current equals voltage divided by resistance”– current (amps) is a measure of the flow of electrons– voltage (volts) is the force that makes the electrons move– resistance (ohms) are forces that oppose the flow• Think of a water hose– current is how much water goes through– voltage is the water pressure– resistance is the size of the pipe– If the pressure is high (high voltage), more water comes out– If the pipe is small (high resistance) less water will come out
    • 12 Managed by UT-Battellefor the U.S. Department of Energy Presentation_nameHow to use breadboards• Breadboards help you build electronic circuits withoutsoldering components together.• A breadboard is an array of conductive strips with holeswhere component leads can be inserted.• The links in the following figures are connectedelectrically.• The circuit is made when components are connected byinserting them into breadboard rows that are electricallythe same.
    • 13 Managed by UT-Battellefor the U.S. Department of Energy Presentation_nameBreadboards(which pins are connected to each other)http://www.instructables.com/id/How-to-use-a-breadboard/?ALLSTEPSThe power voltage is the red line onthe left, whereas the ground is theblue line on the right.The bread board is connectedas shown below.
    • 14 Managed by UT-Battellefor the U.S. Department of Energy Presentation_nameComponents of your circuit• Photoresistor made of cadmium sulfide (CdS)• Resistance with no light is 1 MΩ• Resistance decreases when light shines onthe CdS, down to 8000 Ω• Resistance changes by a factor of 125• Battery pack consists of 3 AAAbatteries in series• Each has an output voltage of 1.5 V• Total voltage is 4.5 V (3 x 1.5)
    • 15 Managed by UT-Battellefor the U.S. Department of Energy Presentation_nameComponents of your circuit (contd.)• This button is only “ON” while it isactivated (i.e. momentary button)• The leads directly across from eachother are always connected• The leads beside each other are onlyconnected when the button is pressed• LED (light emitting diode)• available in many colors• They only work when the electrons flowthe right direction• The longer lead must be connected tothe positive terminal of the battery• these LEDs have a current limit of 20 mAalwaysconnectedonly connected whilebutton is pressed
    • 16 Managed by UT-Battellefor the U.S. Department of Energy Presentation_nameElectrical Schematic and picture of setup
    • 17 Managed by UT-Battellefor the U.S. Department of Energy Presentation_nameHow much current is flowing in your circuit?•