Adam Caroll - Robotics and Remote Systems An Overview
Robotics andRemote Systems An OverviewAdam CarrollAdam AaronGordon Williams
Robotics vs. Remote Systems• My group specializes in Remote Systems, which can include the use of robots.• Define the difference… – According to Robotics Industries Association: “A robot is a reprogrammable multifunction manipulator designed to move material, parts, tools, or specialized devices through variable programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks. – Remote systems, is the manipulation of hazardous material, parts, tools through mechanical means or programmable devices.
Presentation Overview• History of Remote Systems• Robotics at ORNL• Where robots are really used• Future of robotics
History of Robotics A long time ago in a galaxy far far away… There were robots!
But, Here on Earth• US remote systems development started at ORNL with the Manhattan Project (1942-46).• With the goal to create distance between people and hazardous radiation. – But why?
Distance and Shielding• Distance – Imagine being in a dark room with one light bulb, as you move away from the light less of the light hits you. This same principle is true for radiation.
Distance• To achieve distance from the radioactive source, long poles with a hook or impact wrench provide a good method of protecting personnel• This method is still used today
Distance and Shielding• Shielding – Concrete, steel, lead, even water can protect you from radiation
Shielding• Shield allows personnel to be closer to a hazard, but now what???• Through-the-wall manipulators were developed• Purely mechanical systems composed of gears, metal tapes, and wires.
Through-the-Wall Manipulator• This technology is used today at ORNL and other research facilities around the world• Capable of complex motion
Hot Cell Design (small cell)• A Hot Cell is a shielded room that contains radioactive material and/or Through-‐the-‐Wall Manipulators contamination• Through-the-wall • Small cell Range of each Dexterous handling manipulator are • • Light capacity manipulator arm excellent for small cells that require dexterous handling• However, the range Manipulators is limited• What if the cell needs to be larger? Technician
Power Arm• Next step in remote system is the power arm• Each dial connected to one motor on the power arm• Slow to operate, must carefully plan handling operation
Hot Cell Design (large cell)• Power arm typically mounted on a bridge crane and • • Large cell Slow handling telescoping tube set • High capacity possible• Allows for access all over the cell TV Monitors Switch Control Box Technician Power Arm Bridge Crane
Power Arm• Today power arms are commonly used by bomb squads
Power Arm + Computer = Robot• The industrial robot was invented in the 1950s by Joseph Engelberger and George Devol.• First applied to a GM automotive die casting assembly line in 1961/62• The age of robot manufacturing begins!
Through-the-Wall Manipulator + PowerArm ~= Servomanipulator• Through-the-wall manipulators have dexterity but limited operational range• Power Arms can operate remotely, but slow to control• The servomanipulator provides the dexterity and the range. All Digital
Servomanipulators• Use a series of servo-motors on both the Master and the Manipulator.• A servo-motor has a position sensor – As the Master moves the motors on the Manipulator side match the position of the Master.• The operator does not need to pay attention to individual joints, like with power arms, but focus on the remote handling task.
Servomanipulator Deployed atSpallation Neutron Source• Dual arm, mirror configuration• Digital Control• Force Reflecting• Force Ratio Control 2:1 up to 20:1• 55 lbf (25 kg) continuous /100 (45 kg) lbf peak capacity
SNS Control Room• The servo master station and attendant video systems are co-located with the bridge and cell utility control systems to unify operations.• Interconnected bridge, video, and audio controls at each window workstation are also required to facilitate efficient operator interface
History Outside of ORNL…• Robotics is a huge field that has interesting beginnings… The Tortoise invented by Grey Walter • Light sensors, touch sensors, propulsion motor, steering motor, and two vacuum tube analog computers (amazing the computer could be sized this small) • AutomaIcally moved towards light and away aJer physically contacIng an obstacle • Reac8ve behavior
History Outside of ORNL…• Stanford Research Institute developed the first general- purpose mobile robot• Able to reason about its own actives• Communicated remotely with massive computer• Deliberative AI
Outside of ORNL…• Robots of all types have been invented…• Anthropomorphic• Animal-like• Unmanned vehicles• Industrial• Future
Anthropomorphic Robotics• Looks and functions like a human• Creepy factor
Animal-Like Robots Robot Eel Big Dog Snake Robots – Yeah, just like the eel but can’t go in water!
Unmanned vehicles Quadrotor – The UAV for the everyone Google’s driverless car, plus it gets good gas mileage. Military UAVs
Industrial Robotics Common Industrial Robot Skilled technician required to program Baxter – teach and repeat robot Easy to program and implement
Future Robotics• Lower cost• Easier to program• More capable• More common• But only time will tell…
What Now? If you want a future in robotics! Here are a few things you should do...
1. Right Now• Take Physics• Do well in your math classes• Join FIRST Robotics
2. College• Few colleges offer a degree in robotics engineers so, select a degree in… – Mechanical engineering – Electrical engineering – Computer programing – Industrial engineering – Systems engineering – Computer science
3. Internships• While in college take internships over the summers with companies or organizations that work in the field of robotics you are interested in.• https://www3.orau.gov/ORNL_TOppS/• ORNL takes ~300 interns each summer – SULI – HERE – NESLS
4. You found a career!Robotics is not just a job… it is acareer with an excellent future.