Adam Caroll - Robotics and Remote Systems An Overview


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Presented by Adam Carroll, Adam Aaron, and Gordon Williams on March 9, 2013, as part of the Science Saturdays ser

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Adam Caroll - Robotics and Remote Systems An Overview

  1. 1. Robotics andRemote Systems An OverviewAdam CarrollAdam AaronGordon Williams
  2. 2. Robotics vs. Remote Systems•  My group specializes in Remote Systems, which can include the use of robots.•  Define the difference… –  According to Robotics Industries Association: “A robot is a reprogrammable multifunction manipulator designed to move material, parts, tools, or specialized devices through variable programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks. –  Remote systems, is the manipulation of hazardous material, parts, tools through mechanical means or programmable devices.
  3. 3. Presentation Overview•  History of Remote Systems•  Robotics at ORNL•  Where robots are really used•  Future of robotics
  4. 4. History of Robotics A long time ago in a galaxy far far away… There  were  robots!  
  5. 5. But, Here on Earth•  US remote systems development started at ORNL with the Manhattan Project (1942-46).•  With the goal to create distance between people and hazardous radiation. –  But why?
  6. 6. Two Ways to Protect People
  7. 7. Distance and Shielding•  Distance –  Imagine being in a dark room with one light bulb, as you move away from the light less of the light hits you. This same principle is true for radiation.
  8. 8. Distance•  To achieve distance from the radioactive source, long poles with a hook or impact wrench provide a good method of protecting personnel•  This method is still used today
  9. 9. Distance and Shielding•  Shielding –  Concrete, steel, lead, even water can protect you from radiation
  10. 10. Shielding•  Shield allows personnel to be closer to a hazard, but now what???•  Through-the-wall manipulators were developed•  Purely mechanical systems composed of gears, metal tapes, and wires.
  11. 11. Through-the-Wall Manipulator•  This technology is used today at ORNL and other research facilities around the world•  Capable of complex motion
  12. 12. Hot Cell Design (small cell)•  A Hot Cell is a shielded room that contains radioactive material and/or Through-­‐the-­‐Wall  Manipulators   contamination•  Through-the-wall •  Small cell Range  of  each   Dexterous handling manipulator are •  •  Light capacity manipulator  arm   excellent for small cells that require dexterous handling•  However, the range Manipulators   is limited•  What if the cell needs to be larger? Technician  
  13. 13. Power Arm•  Next step in remote system is the power arm•  Each dial connected to one motor on the power arm•  Slow to operate, must carefully plan handling operation
  14. 14. Hot Cell Design (large cell)•  Power arm typically mounted on a bridge crane and •  •  Large cell Slow handling telescoping tube set •  High capacity possible•  Allows for access all over the cell TV  Monitors   Switch  Control  Box   Technician   Power  Arm   Bridge  Crane  
  15. 15. Power Arm•  Today power arms are commonly used by bomb squads
  16. 16. Power Arm + Computer = Robot•  The industrial robot was invented in the 1950s by Joseph Engelberger and George Devol.•  First applied to a GM automotive die casting assembly line in 1961/62•  The age of robot manufacturing begins!
  17. 17. Robotic Manufacturing
  18. 18. Through-the-Wall Manipulator + PowerArm ~= Servomanipulator•  Through-the-wall manipulators have dexterity but limited operational range•  Power Arms can operate remotely, but slow to control•  The servomanipulator provides the dexterity and the range. All  Digital  
  19. 19. Servomanipulators•  Use a series of servo-motors on both the Master and the Manipulator.•  A servo-motor has a position sensor –  As the Master moves the motors on the Manipulator side match the position of the Master.•  The operator does not need to pay attention to individual joints, like with power arms, but focus on the remote handling task.
  20. 20. Servomanipulator
  21. 21. Servomanipulator Deployed atSpallation Neutron Source•  Dual arm, mirror configuration•  Digital Control•  Force Reflecting•  Force Ratio Control 2:1 up to 20:1•  55 lbf (25 kg) continuous /100 (45 kg) lbf peak capacity
  22. 22. SNS Control Room•  The servo master station and attendant video systems are co-located with the bridge and cell utility control systems to unify operations.•  Interconnected bridge, video, and audio controls at each window workstation are also required to facilitate efficient operator interface
  23. 23. History Outside of ORNL…•  Robotics is a huge field that has interesting beginnings… The  Tortoise  invented  by  Grey  Walter   •  Light  sensors,  touch  sensors,  propulsion   motor,  steering  motor,  and  two  vacuum   tube  analog  computers  (amazing  the   computer  could  be  sized  this  small)   •  AutomaIcally  moved  towards  light  and   away  aJer  physically  contacIng  an   obstacle   •  Reac8ve  behavior  
  24. 24. History Outside of ORNL…•  Stanford Research Institute developed the first general- purpose mobile robot•  Able to reason about its own actives•  Communicated remotely with massive computer•  Deliberative AI
  25. 25. Outside of ORNL…•  Robots of all types have been invented…•  Anthropomorphic•  Animal-like•  Unmanned vehicles•  Industrial•  Future
  26. 26. Anthropomorphic Robotics•  Looks and functions like a human•  Creepy factor
  27. 27. Animal-Like Robots Robot  Eel   Big  Dog   Snake  Robots  –  Yeah,  just  like  the  eel  but  can’t  go  in  water!  
  28. 28. Unmanned vehicles Quadrotor  –  The  UAV   for  the  everyone    Google’s  driverless  car,  plus  it  gets  good  gas  mileage.   Military  UAVs  
  29. 29. Industrial Robotics Common  Industrial  Robot  Skilled  technician  required  to  program   Baxter  –  teach  and  repeat  robot   Easy  to  program  and  implement  
  30. 30. Future Robotics•  Lower cost•  Easier to program•  More capable•  More common• But only time will tell…
  31. 31. What Now? If you want a future in robotics! Here are a few things you should do...
  32. 32. 1. Right Now•  Take Physics•  Do well in your math classes•  Join FIRST Robotics
  33. 33. 2. College•  Few colleges offer a degree in robotics engineers so, select a degree in… –  Mechanical engineering –  Electrical engineering –  Computer programing –  Industrial engineering –  Systems engineering –  Computer science
  34. 34. 3. Internships•  While in college take internships over the summers with companies or organizations that work in the field of robotics you are interested in.••  ORNL takes ~300 interns each summer –  SULI –  HERE –  NESLS
  35. 35. 4. You found a career!Robotics is not just a job… it is acareer with an excellent future.
  36. 36. Any Questions?