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Oracle: Dw Design


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Oracle: Dw Design

Oracle: Dw Design

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  • 1. Oracle: Data Warehouse Design
  • 2. Characteristics of a Data Warehouse A data warehouse is a database designed for querying, reporting, and analysis. A data warehouse contains historical data derived from transaction data. Data warehouses separate analysis workload from transaction workload. A data warehouse is primarily an analytical tool.
  • 3. Comparing OLTP and Data Warehouses OLTP Data Warehouse Many Joins Some Comparatively Data accessed by Large lower queries amount Normalized Duplicated data Denormalized DBMS DBMS Derived data Rare and Common aggregates
  • 4. Data Warehouse Architectures Analysis Operational systems Metadata Sales Purchasing Materialized Raw data Staging views area Reporting Inventory Flat files Data mining
  • 5. Data Warehouse Design • Key data warehouse design considerations: – Identify the specific data content. – Recognize the critical relationships within and between groups of data. – Define the system environment supporting your data warehouse. – Identify the required data transformations. – Calculate the frequency at which the data must be refreshed.
  • 6. Logical Design – A logical design is conceptual and abstract. – Entity-relationship (ER) modeling is useful in identifying logical information requirements. • An entity represents a chunk of data. • The properties of entities are known as attributes. • The links between entities and attributes are known as relationships. – Dimensional modeling is a specialized type of ER modeling useful in data warehouse design.
  • 7. Oracle Warehouse Builder – Oracle Database provides tools to implement the ETL process. • Oracle Warehouse Builder is a tool to help in this process. – Oracle Warehouse Builder generates the following types of code: • SQL data definition language (DDL) scripts • PL/SQL programs • SQL*Loader control files • XML Processing Description Language (XPDL) • ABAP code (used to extract data from SAP systems)
  • 8. Data Warehousing Schemas – Objects can be arranged in data warehousing schema models in a variety of ways: • Star schema • Snowflake schema • Third normal form (3NF) schema • Hybrid schemas – The source data model and user requirements should steer the data warehouse schema. – Implementation of the logical model may require changes to enable you to adapt it to your physical system.
  • 9. Schema Characteristics – Star schema • Characterized by one or more large fact tables and a number of much smaller dimension tables • Each dimension table joined to the fact table using a primary key to foreign key join – Snowflake schema • Dimension data grouped into multiple tables instead of one large table • Increased number of dimension tables, requiring more foreign key joins – Third normal form (3NF) schema • A classical relational-database model that minimizes data redundancy through normalization
  • 10. Data Warehousing Objects – Fact tables • Fact tables are the large tables that store business measurements. – Dimension tables • A dimension is a structure composed of one or more hierarchies that categorizes data. • Unique identifiers are specified for one distinct record in a dimension table. – Relationships • Relationships guarantee integrity of business information.
  • 11. Fact Tables – A fact table must be defined for each star schema. – Fact tables are the large tables that store business measurements. – A fact table contains either detail-level or aggregated facts. – A fact table usually contains facts with the same level of aggregation. – The primary key of the fact table is usually a composite key made up of all its foreign keys.
  • 12. Dimensions and Hierarchies CUSTOMERS dimension – A dimension is a structure hierarchy (by level) composed of one or more hierarchies that categorizes data. REGION – Dimensional attributes help to describe the dimensional value. SUBREGION – Dimension data is collected at the lowest level of detail and aggregatedCOUNTRY into higher level totals. – Hierarchies are structures that use STATE ordered levels to organize data. – In a hierarchy, each level is CITY connected to the levels above and below it. CUSTOMER
  • 13. Dimensions and Hierarchies PRODUCTS CUSTOMERS #prod_id Unique identifier #cust_id Fact table cust_last_name cust_city cust_state_province Relationship SALES cust_id prod_id Hierarchy TIMES CHANNELS PROMOTIONS Dimension table Dimension table Dimension table
  • 14. Physical Design Logical Physical (Tablespaces) Entities Tables Indexes Materialized Relationships Integrity views constraints - Primary key - Foreign key Attributes - Not null Dimensions Unique identifiers Columns
  • 15. Data Warehouse Physical Structures • Tables and partitioned tables – Partitioned tables enable you to split large data volumes into smaller, more manageable pieces. – Expect performance benefits from: • Partition pruning • Intelligent parallel processing – Compressed tables offer scaleup opportunities for read-only operations. – Table compression saves disk space.
  • 16. Data Warehouse Physical Structures – Views: • Are tailored presentations of data contained in one or more tables or views • Do not require any space in the database – Materialized views: • Are query results that have been stored in advance • (Like indexes) are used transparently and improve performance – Integrity constraints: • Are used in data warehouses for query rewrite – Dimensions: • Are containers of logical relationships and do not require any space in the database
  • 17. Managing Large Volumes of Data • Work smarter in your data warehouse: – Partitioning – Bitmap indexes/Star transformation – Data compression – Query rewrite • Work harder in your data warehouse: – Parallelism for all operations • DBA tasks, such as loading, index creation, table creation, data modification, backup and recovery • End-user operations, such as queries • Unbounded scalability: Real Application Clusters
  • 18. I/O Performance in Data Warehouses – I/O is typically the primary determinant of data warehouse performance. – Data warehouse storage configurations should be chosen by I/O bandwidth, not storage capacity. – Every component of the I/O subsystem should provide enough bandwidth: • Disks • I/O channels • I/O adapters – In data warehouses, maximizing sequential I/O throughput is critical.
  • 19. I/O Scalability Parallel execution: – Reduces response time for data-intensive operations on large databases – Benefits systems with the following characteristics: • Multiprocessors, clusters, or massively parallel systems • Sufficient I/O bandwidth • Sufficient memory to support memory-intensive processes such as sorts, hashing, and I/O buffers Query servers Coordinator Data on disk Scan Sort Q1 Scan Sort Q2 Dispatch work Scan Sort Q3 Scan Sort Q4 Scanners Sorters (Aggregators)
  • 20. I/O Scalability • Automatic Storage Management (ASM) – Configuring storage for a DB depends on many variables: • Which data to put on which disk • Logical unit number (LUN) configurations • DB types and workloads; data warehouse, OLTP, DSS • Trade-offs between available options – ASM provides solutions to storage issues encountered in data warehouses.
  • 21. I/O Scalability • Automatic Storage Management: Overview – Portable and high-performance cluster file system Application – Manages Oracle database files – Data spread across disks Database to balance load File – Integrated mirroring across system ASM disks Volume manager – Solves many storage management challenges Operating system
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