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8051 microcontrollers

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  • 1. 8051 MICROCONTROLLERS The 8051 Microcontroller and Embedded Systems: Using Assembly and C Mazidi, Mazidi and McKinlay Chung-Ping Young 楊中平 Home Automation, Networking, and Entertainment Lab Dept. of Computer Science and Information Engineering National Cheng Kung University, TAIWAN
  • 2. Microcontrollers and embedded OUTLINES processors Overview of the 8051 family Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering HANEL National Cheng Kung University, TAIWAN 2
  • 3. General-purpose microprocessors MICRO- CONTROLLERS contains AND No RAM EMBEDDED No ROM PROCESSORS No I/O ports Microcontroller Microcontroller has vs. General- CPU (microprocessor) Purpose RAM Microprocessor ROM I/O ports Timer ADC and other peripherals Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering HANEL National Cheng Kung University, TAIWAN 3
  • 4. Data bus MICRO- General- purpose CONTROLLERS Micro- Processor I/O Serial AND RAM ROM Port Timer COM Port EMBEDDED PROCESSORS CPU Address bus Microcontroller vs. General- Purpose Microcontroller Microprocessor CPU RAM ROM (cont’) Serial I/O Timer COM Port Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering HANEL National Cheng Kung University, TAIWAN 4
  • 5. General-purpose microprocessors MICRO- Must add RAM, ROM, I/O ports, and CONTROLLERS timers externally to make them functional AND Make the system bulkier and much more EMBEDDED expensive PROCESSORS Have the advantage of versatility on the amount of RAM, ROM, and I/O ports Microcontroller Microcontroller vs. General- The fixed amount of on-chip ROM, RAM, Purpose and number of I/O ports makes them ideal Microprocessor for many applications in which cost and (cont’) space are critical In many applications, the space it takes, the power it consumes, and the price per unit are much more critical considerations than the computing power Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering HANEL National Cheng Kung University, TAIWAN 5
  • 6. An embedded product uses a MICRO- microprocessor (or microcontroller) to CONTROLLERS do one task and one task only AND There is only one application software that EMBEDDED is typically burned into ROM PROCESSORS A PC, in contrast with the embedded Microcontrollers system, can be used for any number of for Embedded applications Systems It has RAM memory and an operating system that loads a variety of applications into RAM and lets the CPU run them A PC contains or is connected to various embedded products Each one peripheral has a microcontroller inside it that performs only one task Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering HANEL National Cheng Kung University, TAIWAN 6
  • 7. Home MICRO- Appliances, intercom, telephones, security systems, CONTROLLERS garage door openers, answering machines, fax AND machines, home computers, TVs, cable TV tuner, VCR, camcorder, remote controls, video games, EMBEDDED cellular phones, musical instruments, sewing PROCESSORS machines, lighting control, paging, camera, pinball machines, toys, exercise equipment Microcontrollers Office for Embedded Telephones, computers, security systems, fax Systems machines, microwave, copier, laser printer, color printer, paging (cont’) Auto Trip computer, engine control, air bag, ABS, instrumentation, security system, transmission control, entertainment, climate control, cellular phone, keyless entry Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering HANEL National Cheng Kung University, TAIWAN 7
  • 8. Many manufactures of general-purpose MICRO- microprocessors have targeted their CONTROLLERS microprocessor for the high end of the AND embedded market EMBEDDED There are times that a microcontroller is PROCESSORS inadequate for the task x86 PC When a company targets a general- Embedded purpose microprocessor for the Applications embedded market, it optimizes the processor used for embedded systems Very often the terms embedded processor and microcontroller are used interchangeably Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering HANEL National Cheng Kung University, TAIWAN 8
  • 9. One of the most critical needs of an MICRO- embedded system is to decrease CONTROLLERS power consumption and space AND EMBEDDED In high-performance embedded PROCESSORS processors, the trend is to integrate more functions on the CPU chip and let x86 PC designer decide which features he/she Embedded wants to use Applications In many cases using x86 PCs for the (cont’) high-end embedded applications Saves money and shortens development time A vast library of software already written Windows is a widely used and well understood platform Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering HANEL National Cheng Kung University, TAIWAN 9
  • 10. 8-bit microcontrollers MICRO- CONTROLLERS Motorola’s 6811 AND Intel’s 8051 EMBEDDED Zilog’s Z8 PROCESSORS Microchip’s PIC Choosing a There are also 16-bit and 32-bit Microcontroller microcontrollers made by various chip makers Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering HANEL National Cheng Kung University, TAIWAN 10
  • 11. Meeting the computing needs of the MICRO- CONTROLLERS task at hand efficiently and cost AND effectively EMBEDDED Speed PROCESSORS Packaging Power consumption Criteria for The amount of RAM and ROM on chip Choosing a Microcontroller The number of I/O pins and the timer on chip How easy to upgrade to higher- performance or lower power-consumption versions Cost per unit Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering HANEL National Cheng Kung University, TAIWAN 11
  • 12. Availability of software development MICRO- tools, such as compilers, assemblers, CONTROLLERS and debuggers AND EMBEDDED Wide availability and reliable sources PROCESSORS of the microcontroller The 8051 family has the largest number of Criteria for diversified (multiple source) suppliers Choosing a Intel (original) Atmel Microcontroller (cont’) Philips/Signetics AMD Infineon (formerly Siemens) Matra Dallas Semiconductor/Maxim Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering HANEL National Cheng Kung University, TAIWAN 12
  • 13. Intel introduced 8051, referred as MCS- OVERVIEW OF 51, in 1981 8051 FAMILY The 8051 is an 8-bit processor The CPU can work on only 8 bits of data at a time 8051 Microcontroller The 8051 had 128 bytes of RAM 4K bytes of on-chip ROM Two timers One serial port Four I/O ports, each 8 bits wide 6 interrupt sources The 8051 became widely popular after allowing other manufactures to make and market any flavor of the 8051, but remaining code-compatible Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering HANEL National Cheng Kung University, TAIWAN 13
  • 14. External Interrupts OVERVIEW OF 8051 FAMILY Counter Inputs On-chip Interrupt ROM On-chip Etc. Control Timer 0 8051 for code RAM Timer 1 Microcontroller (cont’) CPU OSC Bus I/O Serial Control Ports Port P0 P1 P2 P3 TXD RXD Address/Data Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering HANEL National Cheng Kung University, TAIWAN 14
  • 15. The 8051 is a subset of the 8052 OVERVIEW OF 8051 FAMILY The 8031 is a ROM-less 8051 Add external ROM to it 8051 Family You lose two ports, and leave only 2 ports for I/O operations Feature 8051 8052 8031 ROM (on-chip program 4K 8K 0K space in bytes) RAM (bytes) 128 256 128 Timers 2 3 2 I/O pins 32 32 32 Serial port 1 1 1 Interrupt sources 6 8 6 Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering HANEL National Cheng Kung University, TAIWAN 15
  • 16. 8751 microcontroller OVERVIEW OF 8051 FAMILY UV-EPROM PROM burner Various 8051 UV-EPROM eraser takes 20 min to erase Microcontrollers AT89C51 from Atmel Corporation Flash (erase before write) ROM burner that supports flash A separate eraser is not needed DS89C4x0 from Dallas Semiconductor, now part of Maxim Corp. Flash Comes with on-chip loader, loading program to on-chip flash via PC COM port Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering HANEL National Cheng Kung University, TAIWAN 16
  • 17. DS5000 from Dallas Semiconductor OVERVIEW OF 8051 FAMILY NV-RAM (changed one byte at a time), RTC (real-time clock) Various 8051 Also comes with on-chip loader Microcontrollers OTP (one-time-programmable) version (cont’) of 8051 8051 family from Philips ADC, DAC, extended I/O, and both OTP and flash Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering HANEL National Cheng Kung University, TAIWAN 17