2010 12 8            Photo by digital cat
•••                OS•    •    •   TCP/IP    ••    •
•    •••    • Amazon   Google   Microsoft    • HPC•
Photo by ajlvi
2006 8 9           Search Engine StrategiesConference   “   ”             ...                                             ...
GoogleSOA      2004   2QWeb2.0     2005    4Q         2006SaaS     2006     4Q                              2008   1Q   4Q...
AmazonAmazon“Amazons cloud computing will surpass its retailingbusiness,” Larry Dignanhttp://blogs.zdnet.com/BTL/?p=847120...
SaaS                                                  UC Berkeley                                             ud      SP  ...
SaaS                                                    UC Berkeley                                            ud        S...
Gmail••••• etc...                   PC
•••           *    •   2    ••            *) Jack Dongarra, “An Overview of High Performance            Computing and Chal...
•    ••    •
• Salesforce.com   PaaS•          1•       SIer    •
mixi•• Amazon     WS    • EC2/S3/Load   balancing    • CloudFront•                   Flash/Flex
•1            180    /•    7000• Amazon   EC2    50           Hadoop    30     5•
Animoto.com•                      CPU• Facebook       SNS    •• Amazon   EC2
•    ••    ••    •
NIST         NIST Definition of Cloud Computing v15       http://csrc.nist.gov/groups/SNS/cloud-computing/
On-demand self-serviceBroad network access   Resource pooling    Rapid elasticity  Measured service                       ...
!   !   !   !   !
••1   10
•    •        •   MTBF* 3        1000   1   1   10           1   100        •   e.g., Google RAID                      ECC...
Photo by erix!
•    ••    •        •              2        PUE            PUE = DC       IT                                * Power Usage ...
•   IT••        Sun Black Box 2006         Google 2005    1          1160    /                 2003
Google                            GooglePublickey                                       2009   7   17http://www.publickey1...
Microsoft 4     DC Microsoft112          22.4                    IT-PAC: Free cooling      2000     /                     ...
DC                                               (2006     Microsoft        )       1000                      5     $95/Mb...
Google• Google                                        900                                                675    •3        ...
Amazon EC2Google App Engine Amazon Azure                    Photo by naixn
SaaS (Software as a Service): Service          Salesforce.com                   Google AppsContainer             PaaS (Pla...
• SaaS   (Software as a Service) • • Google Apps       Salesforce CRM• PaaS   (Platform as a Service) • • Google App     E...
Amazon Web Services• 2006           S3    •        Amazon          *    •                            Web• 2006       8    ...
Amazon•                                           •    •   Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2)             •   CloudWatch    •   E...
Amazon    Elastic  MapReduce       SNS                  SQS       RDS                SimpleDB                            K...
Amazon EC2•        OS    S3•                                                        EC2                                   ...
Regions Availability Zone•   Region    •        4•   Availability Zone Region    •    •        AWS region (US WEST)    AWS...
EC2•                                               Small      1                                                    $0.085 ...
EC2•    •                   1             0.085 ! 0.095•   Windows    •   3    4                0.085 ! 0.12•    •        ...
EC2•    •    •        •                        1/2 1/3            •   0.085 -> 0.029     8/20    •        •        •    •
AWS•    • PaaS:   RightScale Heroku   EC2   PaaS    • IaaS:   Eucalyptus EC2/S3• IaaS         PaaS    ••    •
SaaS (Software as a Service): Service          Salesforce.com                   Google AppsContainer             PaaS (Pla...
Google                        Google   Web          Gmail                         Maps     ...      Sawzall               ...
Google App Engine• Web    •       Web 3    •        Python   Java•    •        •    •                                DB   ...
Google App Engine        Google App Engine                            DB              DB Bigtable
GAE•    •    •      API    • 30    ••                SDK
•    •    •        CPU   6.5 hour/day      $0.10/hour               1GB/day          $0.10/GB               1GB/day       ...
Windows Azure• Windows                           ASP .NET • •                 Visual Studio• Microsoft • • Windows Azure  ...
•                                            IaaS    •    ••          PaaS SaaS                             http://jp.fuji...
HPC                     HPC•    •                SaaS        !IaaS                           User•                        ...
TOP500: LINPACK                                                                       2010       11    100                ...
AIST Green Cloud                          Amazon EC2                 (AGC)                               Cluster Instance ...
MPI PingPong                                                     PingPong                    2500                         ...
• Bloss:   Block Sakurai-Sugiura • 100 • MPI      OpenMP               rank 0              rank 0   N                     ...
Bloss:                                    Bloss (2 ranks per node, 4 threads per rank)                          120       ...
• HPC    ••    • CPU    • I/O        • Passthrough•
Photo by Nicholas_T
•••••••    “Assessing the Security Risks of Cloud Computing,” Gartner    http://www.gartner.com/DisplayDocument?id=685308
DDoSAPI           VPN                                       WAN                         IO           VM                   ...
••    •    ••    •   CPU
e-mail: takano-ryousei@aist.go.jptwitter ID: @oraccha
•   M.Armbrust, et al., “Above the Clouds: A Berkeley View of Cloud    Computing,” 2009•   L.A.Barroso and U.Holzle, “The ...
クラウドを支えるハードウェア・ソフトウェア基盤技術
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クラウドを支えるハードウェア・ソフトウェア基盤技術

  1. 1. 2010 12 8 Photo by digital cat
  2. 2. ••• OS• • • TCP/IP •• •
  3. 3. • ••• • Amazon Google Microsoft • HPC•
  4. 4. Photo by ajlvi
  5. 5. 2006 8 9 Search Engine StrategiesConference “ ” ... Wikipedia
  6. 6. GoogleSOA 2004 2QWeb2.0 2005 4Q 2006SaaS 2006 4Q 2008 1Q 4Q NTT 2009 7 29
  7. 7. AmazonAmazon“Amazons cloud computing will surpass its retailingbusiness,” Larry Dignanhttp://blogs.zdnet.com/BTL/?p=84712007 http://www.technologyreview.com/computing/22606/page3/
  8. 8. SaaS UC Berkeley ud SP lo A C Web Web SaaS SaaSWeb ASP SaaS IaaS, PaaS SaaS (Software as a Service)
  9. 9. SaaS UC Berkeley ud SP lo A C Web Web SaaS SaaSWeb SaaS IaaS, PaaS s y s dr le un b- Fo Fa NVIDIA Intel, Samsung TSMC
  10. 10. Gmail••••• etc... PC
  11. 11. ••• * • 2 •• *) Jack Dongarra, “An Overview of High Performance Computing and Challenges for the Future,” HPDC 2009.
  12. 12. • •• •
  13. 13. • Salesforce.com PaaS• 1• SIer •
  14. 14. mixi•• Amazon WS • EC2/S3/Load balancing • CloudFront• Flash/Flex
  15. 15. •1 180 /• 7000• Amazon EC2 50 Hadoop 30 5•
  16. 16. Animoto.com• CPU• Facebook SNS •• Amazon EC2
  17. 17. • •• •• •
  18. 18. NIST NIST Definition of Cloud Computing v15 http://csrc.nist.gov/groups/SNS/cloud-computing/
  19. 19. On-demand self-serviceBroad network access Resource pooling Rapid elasticity Measured service NIST Definition of Cloud Computing v15 http://csrc.nist.gov/groups/SNS/cloud-computing/
  20. 20. ! ! ! ! !
  21. 21. ••1 10
  22. 22. • • • MTBF* 3 1000 1 1 10 1 100 • e.g., Google RAID ECC• • * Mean Time Between Failures
  23. 23. Photo by erix!
  24. 24. • •• • • 2 PUE PUE = DC IT * Power Usage Effectiveness
  25. 25. • IT•• Sun Black Box 2006 Google 2005 1 1160 / 2003
  26. 26. Google GooglePublickey 2009 7 17http://www.publickey1.jp/blog/09/post_36.html
  27. 27. Microsoft 4 DC Microsoft112 22.4 IT-PAC: Free cooling 2000 / PUE 1.06
  28. 28. DC (2006 Microsoft ) 1000 5 $95/Mbps/ $13/Mbps/ 7.1 $2.20/GB/ $0.40/GB/ 5.7 140 / 1000 / 7.1 M. Armbrust, A. Fox, R. Griffith, A. D. Joseph, R. Katz,A. Konwinski, G. Lee, D. Patterson, A. Rabkin, I. Stoica, and M. Zaharia, “Above the Clouds: A Berkeley View of Cloud Computing,” 2009
  29. 29. Google• Google 900 675 •3 45 450 225• Microsoft 0 2006Q1 2007Q1 2008Q1 2009Q1 2010Q1 • 2008 21 8000 30• Amazon • 2009 EC2 4• 2009 52 “Who Has the Most Web Servers,” Data Center Knowledge, May 14, 2009, http://www.datacenterknowledge.com/archives/2009/05/14/whos-got-the-most-web-servers/
  30. 30. Amazon EC2Google App Engine Amazon Azure Photo by naixn
  31. 31. SaaS (Software as a Service): Service Salesforce.com Google AppsContainer PaaS (Platform as a Service): Google App Engine OS Windows Azure VMM aaS (Infrastructure as a Service): HW Amazon EC2 VMM: Virtual Machine Monitor
  32. 32. • SaaS (Software as a Service) • • Google Apps Salesforce CRM• PaaS (Platform as a Service) • • Google App Engine Force.com• IaaS (Infrastructure as a Service) • • Amazon EC2 Blue Cloud
  33. 33. Amazon Web Services• 2006 S3 • Amazon * • Web• 2006 8 EC2 • 2008 8• *)
  34. 34. Amazon• • • Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) • CloudWatch • Elastic MapReduce • • Auto Scaling • Virtual Private Cloud (VPC)• • Elastic Load Balancing • CloudFrond •• • Flexible Payments Service (FPS) • SimpleDB • DevPay • Relational Database Service (RDS) •• • Simple Storage Service (S3) • Simple Queue Service (SQS) • Elastic Block Storage (EBS) • Simple Notification Service (SNS) • AWS Import/Export
  35. 35. Amazon Elastic MapReduce SNS SQS RDS SimpleDB KVSElastic Load Balancing EBS EC2 S3 CloudFront CDN Edge Location
  36. 36. Amazon EC2• OS S3• EC2 launch• (Web service API) • upload S3•1 2007 Opteron 1.0 - 1.2 GHz
  37. 37. Regions Availability Zone• Region • 4• Availability Zone Region • • AWS region (US WEST) AWS region (APAC) Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 1 Zone 2
  38. 38. EC2• Small 1 $0.085 x 24 x 365 = $744.6• 1 Cluster Compute 10• $1.6 x 24 x 10 = $384 Instance type ECU Memory (GB) Storage (GB) Arch. Price ($/h) Small 1 1.7 160 32bit 0.085 Large 4 7.5 850 64bit 0.34 Ex-large 8 15 1690 64bit 0.68 High-mem quad 26 68.4 1690 64bit 2.4 High-CPU ex-large 20 7 1690 64bit 0.68 Cluster Compute* 33.5 23 1690 64bit 1.6 *) 10
  39. 39. EC2• • 1 0.085 ! 0.095• Windows • 3 4 0.085 ! 0.12• • 1/3 • small 1 • 0.085 x 24 x 365 = 744.6 • 0.03 x 24 x 365 + 227.5 = 489.8
  40. 40. EC2• • • • 1/2 1/3 • 0.085 -> 0.029 8/20 • • • •
  41. 41. AWS• • PaaS: RightScale Heroku EC2 PaaS • IaaS: Eucalyptus EC2/S3• IaaS PaaS •• •
  42. 42. SaaS (Software as a Service): Service Salesforce.com Google AppsContainer PaaS (Platform as a Service): Google App Engine OS Windows Azure VMM aaS (Infrastructure as a Service): HW Amazon EC2 VMM: Virtual Machine Monitor
  43. 43. Google Google Web Gmail Maps ... Sawzall App Engine MapReduce BigTable Google File System
  44. 44. Google App Engine• Web • Web 3 • Python Java• • • • DB •
  45. 45. Google App Engine Google App Engine DB DB Bigtable
  46. 46. GAE• • • API • 30 •• SDK
  47. 47. • • • CPU 6.5 hour/day $0.10/hour 1GB/day $0.10/GB 1GB/day $0.12/GB 1GB/day $0.15/GB x month 2000/day $0.0001/mail
  48. 48. Windows Azure• Windows ASP .NET • • Visual Studio• Microsoft • • Windows Azure platform appliance
  49. 49. • IaaS • •• PaaS SaaS http://jp.fujitsu.com/solutions/cloud/ http://cloud.nifty.com/ Softbank http://tm.softbank.jp/business/white_cloud/ IIJ GIO http://www.iij.ad.jp/GIO/
  50. 50. HPC HPC• • SaaS !IaaS User• App. • IaaS VM VM VM ! H/W H/W H/W
  51. 51. TOP500: LINPACK 2010 11 100 InfiniBand: 80% 90 80 70 10 Gigabit Ethernet: 74% 60% 50 40 Gigabit Ethernet: 54% 30 #231 Amazon EC2 InfiniBand 20 cluster compute instances Gigabit Ethernet 10 10 Gigabit Ethernet 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 Rank ※ : Rmax : Rpeak
  52. 52. AIST Green Cloud Amazon EC2 (AGC) Cluster Instance Intel E5540/2.53GHz Intel X5570/2.93GHz CPU 2 sockets 8 cores 2 sockets 8 coresMemory 48 GB 23 GBNetwork InfiniBnad, 10GbE 10GbE SAS 300GB x2 EBS 20GB HDD (RAID1) Ephemeral 850GB x2 CentOS 5.5 CentOS 5.4 OS BMM, PVM, HVM HVM BMM: Bare Metal Machine PVM: Para Virtualized Machine HVM: Full Virtualized Machine
  53. 53. MPI PingPong PingPong 2500 Send 0 1 2000 Recv IB-BMM 2Throughput (MB/s) 1500 15 BMM 1000 500 EC2 PVM HVM 0 16 1k 16k 1M 16M 1G Message size (byte)
  54. 54. • Bloss: Block Sakurai-Sugiura • 100 • MPI OpenMP rank 0 rank 0 N 760MB Bcast Reduce 10GB 1GB 1GB Bcast Gather 350MB
  55. 55. Bloss: Bloss (2 ranks per node, 4 threads per rank) 120 100Parallel Efficiency (%) 80 IB-BMM BMM 60 EC2 5% PVM HVM 40 BMM 21.06 PVM 22.33 20 HVM 22.66 EC2 20.00 0 1 2 4 8 16 Number of nodes
  56. 56. • HPC •• • CPU • I/O • Passthrough•
  57. 57. Photo by Nicholas_T
  58. 58. ••••••• “Assessing the Security Risks of Cloud Computing,” Gartner http://www.gartner.com/DisplayDocument?id=685308
  59. 59. DDoSAPI VPN WAN IO VM NoSQL VMPay-for-use M. Armbrust, A. Fox, R. Griffith, A. D. Joseph, R. Katz,A. Konwinski, G. Lee, D. Patterson, A. Rabkin, I. Stoica, and M. Zaharia, “Above the Clouds: A Berkeley View of Cloud Computing,” 2009
  60. 60. •• • •• • CPU
  61. 61. e-mail: takano-ryousei@aist.go.jptwitter ID: @oraccha
  62. 62. • M.Armbrust, et al., “Above the Clouds: A Berkeley View of Cloud Computing,” 2009• L.A.Barroso and U.Holzle, “The Data Center as a Computer” Google• SACSIS 2010• JJUG 2009 10 8• NTT 2009 7 29
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