Governance

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Governance

  1. 1. Governance
  2. 2. Definition of Governance• The traditions and institutions by which authority in a country are exercised. This includes: – The process by which governments are selected, monitored and replaced – The capacity of the government to effectively formulate and implement sound policies – The respect of citizens and the state for the institutions that govern economic interactions among them
  3. 3. How do we measure?• Voice and accountability• Political stability• Government effectiveness• Regulatory quality• Rule of law• Control of corruption
  4. 4. Corrupting Democracy• An individual or group of individuals is entrusted with collective decisions or actions• Common norms exists regulating the ways individuals and groups use their power over collective decisions or actions• An individual or group breaks with the norms• Breaking with the norms normally benefits the individual or group and harms to the collectivity
  5. 5. Parties to Corruption• State: – Executive departments and agencies – Judiciary – Legislations• Public sphere: – Media and Discursive Venues• Civil Society (Associations)• Markets
  6. 6. Table: Distribution of Reported Cases of Corruption 1997 (January-March) 2000 (January-June)Police, BDR, Ansar etc. 46.00% 30.00%Local Government 13.00% 17.00%Education 10.00% 16.00%Health 5.00% 11.00%Taxation (Income, Customs, VAT etc.) 6.00% 6.00%Financial Institution (Banks, Non-Formal 7.00% 6.00%micro credit)Forestry 4.00% 6.00%Water (including Water Board) 4.00% 5.00%Transport (including Water Transport) 4.00% 2.00%Sub-Total 390 (100%) 927 (100%)Others -188 -418Total (N) 578 1345
  7. 7. Table: Manifestation of Corruption by Types and Sector (2000) Misuse of Power Bribe Taking Embezzlement & Misuse of Resources Negligence of Duty ExtortionPolice, BDR, Ansar etc. 48.00% 20.00% 12.00% 1.00% 18.00%Local Government 18.00% 5.00% 58.00% 8.00% 8.00%Education 22.00% 9.00% 49.00% 7.00% 11.00%Health 20.00% 6.00% 42.00% 5.00% 26.00%Taxation 34.00% 30.00% 30.00% - 6.00%Financial Institution 26.00% 4.00% 67.00% - 4.00%Transport 37.00% 12.00% 27.00% 10.00% 14.00%Water 17.00% 5.00% 52.00% 25.00% -Post, Telegraph, Telephone- 28.00% 23.00% 25.00% 10.00% 13.00%TelecomLand Administration 22.00% 38.00% 31.00% 3.00% 6.00%Forestry & Environment 24.00% 20.00% 39.00% 12.00% 5.00%
  8. 8. Motown 25 and Teodoro of Equatorial Guinea

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