Designing an effectiveinformation architecture           LeanUX       Trent Mankelow       Wednesday 19 September 2012
Before we get going…
Today’s session is dedicated to this            New Zealand icon‘Good information architecture stands the test of time’
This afternoon   A bit about me   A bit about you   Why is information architecture important?   What is information a...
Why is information architecture          important?
I have 164 passwords
3,404 contacts in Outlook1,590 contacts in LinkedIn 318 friends on Bookface
130,000+ emails
Driver’s license    license plate numbers    bank account numbers      passport numbersbirthdays (8 nieces, 2 nephews)    ...
“It’s estimated that there will      be 44 times as much data and     content coming over the next     decade, reaching 35...
35,000,000,     000,000,000,20       000,000bytes
The #1 reason you should care about information      architecture?Hard to find information   wastes human life
Benefits of a well organized IA•   Users can quickly complete their task•   Users are more likely to complete their task• ...
So, what is information architecture?
“The combination of     organization, labeling,         and navigation       schemes within an     information system.”   ...
Information       architecture     connects people      to the content       that they are         looking for27
1. Organization   2. Labeling      3. Navigation    4. Search28
1. Organization      Information can be organized into different       schemes and structures      A scheme is overarchi...
For example, there are lots of ways to                 organize recipes ...     • French        • Breakfast     • Beef    ...
Organization is hard because…      Content can be organized in different ways      We all have different preferences    ...
2. Labeling      The goal of labeling is to communicate efficiently       and effectively      The goal of language is a...
Labels should be        Concise        Consistent        Distinguishable        In the users’ language33
3. Navigation      Good navigation design should show users:        Where they are        Where they’ve been        Wh...
Make it obvious where users are      Show users their context (e.g. highlighting their       location in the navbars with...
Make it obvious where users can go        Allow users to easily browse to what they need        Make it obvious what’s c...
Make it obvious where users have been      Use consistent labeling      Make visited in-page links a less saturated colo...
4. Search      Most users tend to start browsing over searching      5% - 30% of users start with search (3 studies sinc...
Organization and labelingSo, how do you do information                 V        architecture?
STEP ONE: KNOW your       users!
Quant                 Qual             Open card sorting     Contextual inquiry                                    Focu...
Quant                 Qual             Open card sorting     Contextual inquiry                                    Focu...
Quant                 Qual             Open card sorting     Contextual inquiry                                    Focu...
FOCUSGROUPSaren’tenough!
More than 60% ofparticipants testing a new     kitchen appliance indicated that they were “likely” or “very likely” to    ...
Quant                 Qual             Open card sorting     Contextual inquiry                                    Focu...
Quant                 Qual             Open card sorting     Contextual inquiry                                    Focu...
Quant                 Qual             Open card sorting     Contextual inquiry                                    Focu...
Quant                 Qual             Open card sorting     Contextual inquiry                                    Focu...
Quant                 Qual             Open card sorting     Contextual inquiry                                    Focu...
An example ‘ideal’ approach     1. Research      2. Create       3. Evaluate     a) Review user    a) Conduct        feedb...
Card sorting
Card sorting – step-by-step1. Plan the study2. Agree with stakeholders a set of ‘cards’ representing   current (and future...
1. Plan the study   Why are we running this study?   What do we specifically want to find out?   Who should we test?  ...
2. Write cards
Number of cards versus completion rate                               100%                               90%               ...
Number of participants who complete a card sort within an hour                        20000                        18000  ...
3. Recruit representative users Include a prominent link on your website, on the  pages the targeted users will visit Em...
How many participants?You need at least 20 – 30 participants for         each round of testingTullis, T., and Wood, L. (20...
4. Conduct the sort
Closed versus Open?        ç
Which is best: In-person or Online?         In-person                       Online• You can ask questions as    • Quick re...
Maybe both?
5. Analyse the results                         Plans & billing
Strong vs. weak groups
Card sorting limitations Participants sometimes like to be clever, and a  good IA is usually boringWe won’t call it‘Perso...
Card sorting limitations Participants sometimes like to be clever, and a  good IA is usually boring Analysis is often ti...
Tree testing
We firstcameacross theidea in2003
What is tree testing? A website is typically organized into a hierarchy (a  "tree") of topics and subtopics Tree testing...
Tree testing – step-by-step1. Plan the study2. Decide on site structures to test3. Create representative ‘find’ tasks4. Pi...
1. Plan the study   Why are we running this test?   What are we testing?   What do we specifically want to find out?  ...
2. Decide on site structures to test It’s very rare for us to only do one tree test in  isolation. Ideally we would:    ...
Benchmark your existing IA Tree testing the existing hierarchy lets you  benchmark any changes made    Was it better bef...
Come up with some alternatives as a team
3. Create representative ‘find’ tasks Create tasks that cover the parts of the tree that  need testing Look at the analy...
Tips for writing tasks Same rules as writing tasks for user tests    Dont lead the witness, dont give away critical term...
Completion rate of Treejack studies               1.2                 1               0.8Completion rate 0.6              ...
4. Pilot test Ideally pilot with a few people, since people can  read stuff in different ways Preview the test a few tim...
5. Recruit representative users Include a prominent link on your website    On the pages the intended users will visit ...
6. Analyse the results – overview
6. Analyse the results – task-by-task
6. Analyse the results - pie trees
7. Tweak and re-test variations Once you’ve digested your results, you need to think  about what would change in your IA...
How long does all this take?Analysing the last 30 Treejack consulting projectswe’ve done, on average it takes us 46 hours ...
Conclusion: IA the Lean UX way
versus Slow                      FastMillions            Tens of thousands
Feedback             Vcustomers                            It’s not how                            well you lap,          ...
An example ‘ideal’ approach     1. Research      2. Create       3. Evaluate     a) Review user    a) Conduct        feedb...
The ‘lightest weight’ approach     1. Research      2. Create       3. Evaluate     a) Review user    a) Conduct        fe...
ResourcesInformation Architecture             A Practical Guide to         Organizing Digital Information forfor the World...
Thank you, you’re   awesome!trent.mankelow@optimalusability.com         @optimalworkshop      www.optimalworkshop.com
Designing an effective information architecture
Designing an effective information architecture
Designing an effective information architecture
Designing an effective information architecture
Designing an effective information architecture
Designing an effective information architecture
Designing an effective information architecture
Designing an effective information architecture
Designing an effective information architecture
Designing an effective information architecture
Designing an effective information architecture
Designing an effective information architecture
Designing an effective information architecture
Designing an effective information architecture
Designing an effective information architecture
Designing an effective information architecture
Designing an effective information architecture
Designing an effective information architecture
Designing an effective information architecture
Designing an effective information architecture
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It’s such a waste when stuff is hard to find. In the book Ambient Findability, Peter Morville quotes a study that estimates that in a medium-sized hospital, 8,000 hours a year of staff time are spent explaining signs and redirecting people. That’s 4 person years!
Finding stuff online is even worse. According to IBM’s chairman, it’s estimated that there will be 44 times as much data and content coming over the next decade, reaching 35 zettabytes by 2020. That’s 35 followed by 21 zeros.

There is one thing you can do to help the madness. You can create an effective information architecture (IA) to connect people with the content that they’re looking for. In this practical workshop you’ll learn how to create an effective IA which will help ensure that your stuff is easy to find and provide your visitors with a great experience. You’ll leave with an armload of practical insights and tips, and with the inspiration to refine and test your own IA.

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Designing an effective information architecture

  1. 1. Designing an effectiveinformation architecture LeanUX Trent Mankelow Wednesday 19 September 2012
  2. 2. Before we get going…
  3. 3. Today’s session is dedicated to this New Zealand icon‘Good information architecture stands the test of time’
  4. 4. This afternoon A bit about me A bit about you Why is information architecture important? What is information architecture? How do you ‘do’ information architecture? Wrap up
  5. 5. Why is information architecture important?
  6. 6. I have 164 passwords
  7. 7. 3,404 contacts in Outlook1,590 contacts in LinkedIn 318 friends on Bookface
  8. 8. 130,000+ emails
  9. 9. Driver’s license license plate numbers bank account numbers passport numbersbirthdays (8 nieces, 2 nephews) clothing sizes ETC
  10. 10. “It’s estimated that there will be 44 times as much data and content coming over the next decade, reaching 35 zettabytes by 2020.” - I.B.M.’s chairman, Samuel Palmisano, September 201119
  11. 11. 35,000,000, 000,000,000,20 000,000bytes
  12. 12. The #1 reason you should care about information architecture?Hard to find information wastes human life
  13. 13. Benefits of a well organized IA• Users can quickly complete their task• Users are more likely to complete their task• Reduced frustration and increased satisfaction• Reduced calls to customer support• Better user experience• Improved productivity• Happy customers
  14. 14. So, what is information architecture?
  15. 15. “The combination of organization, labeling, and navigation schemes within an information system.” - Lou Rosenfeld26
  16. 16. Information architecture connects people to the content that they are looking for27
  17. 17. 1. Organization 2. Labeling 3. Navigation 4. Search28
  18. 18. 1. Organization  Information can be organized into different schemes and structures  A scheme is overarching philosophy e.g. by role, topic, date, task, alphabetical, geographical, etc  Structure is about the concrete relationships29
  19. 19. For example, there are lots of ways to organize recipes ... • French • Breakfast • Beef • Italian – Hot • Poultry – Cold • German • Lunch – Chicken – Turkey • Japanese • Dinner – Duck –Sushi • Pork • Snacks –Yakitori • Vegetarian • Chinese30
  20. 20. Organization is hard because…  Content can be organized in different ways  We all have different preferences  Organizing information is a subjective task, because relationships are subjective!31
  21. 21. 2. Labeling  The goal of labeling is to communicate efficiently and effectively  The goal of language is also to communicate efficiently and effectively  Labeling is hard because:  There is limited space on the page  Language is slippery – its ambiguous and confusing32
  22. 22. Labels should be  Concise  Consistent  Distinguishable  In the users’ language33
  23. 23. 3. Navigation  Good navigation design should show users:  Where they are  Where they’ve been  Where they can go34
  24. 24. Make it obvious where users are  Show users their context (e.g. highlighting their location in the navbars within the site or process) “Giving users a table of contents does much more than simply provide users with a means of navigating the content. The table of contents expresses the hierarchical relationships of your content, and by so doing gives users a sense of your content’s overall story and structure.” - Tom Johnson35
  25. 25. Make it obvious where users can go  Allow users to easily browse to what they need  Make it obvious what’s clickable  Show what’s related and relevant  Surface things users might not know about36
  26. 26. Make it obvious where users have been  Use consistent labeling  Make visited in-page links a less saturated colour37
  27. 27. 4. Search  Most users tend to start browsing over searching  5% - 30% of users start with search (3 studies since 2005)  But search is important because:  It is often used as the fallback option  It is useful for visitors who know what they are looking for38
  28. 28. Organization and labelingSo, how do you do information V architecture?
  29. 29. STEP ONE: KNOW your users!
  30. 30. Quant Qual Open card sorting Contextual inquiry Focus groupsGenerative User interviews Analytics Usability testing Closed card sortingEvaluative Tree testing Surveys
  31. 31. Quant Qual Open card sorting Contextual inquiry Focus groupsGenerative User interviews Analytics Usability testing Closed card sortingEvaluative Tree testing Surveys
  32. 32. Quant Qual Open card sorting Contextual inquiry Focus groupsGenerative User interviews Analytics Usability testing Closed card sortingEvaluative Tree testing Surveys
  33. 33. FOCUSGROUPSaren’tenough!
  34. 34. More than 60% ofparticipants testing a new kitchen appliance indicated that they were “likely” or “very likely” to buy it in the next 3 months.8 months later, only 12% had.
  35. 35. Quant Qual Open card sorting Contextual inquiry Focus groupsGenerative User interviews Analytics Usability testing Closed card sortingEvaluative Tree testing Surveys
  36. 36. Quant Qual Open card sorting Contextual inquiry Focus groupsGenerative User interviews Analytics Usability testing Closed card sortingEvaluative Tree testing Surveys
  37. 37. Quant Qual Open card sorting Contextual inquiry Focus groupsGenerative User interviews Analytics Usability testing Closed card sortingEvaluative Tree testing Surveys
  38. 38. Quant Qual Open card sorting Contextual inquiry Focus groupsGenerative User interviews Analytics Usability testing Closed card sortingEvaluative Tree testing Surveys
  39. 39. Quant Qual Open card sorting Contextual inquiry Focus groupsGenerative User interviews Analytics Usability testing Closed card sortingEvaluative Tree testing Surveys
  40. 40. An example ‘ideal’ approach 1. Research 2. Create 3. Evaluate a) Review user a) Conduct feedback a) Tree test open card candidate IAs sorting b) Review web analytics b) Workshop b) Usability c) Tree test candidate IAs testing existing tree57
  41. 41. Card sorting
  42. 42. Card sorting – step-by-step1. Plan the study2. Agree with stakeholders a set of ‘cards’ representing current (and future) website content and functionality3. Recruit representative users4. Have the participants sort the cards into groups that they think belong together. When they have finished sorting, they create a name for each group5. Analyse the card sorting results to find the patterns in how people group the cards and label the groups
  43. 43. 1. Plan the study Why are we running this study? What do we specifically want to find out? Who should we test? When will we test? Where / how will we test?
  44. 44. 2. Write cards
  45. 45. Number of cards versus completion rate 100% 90% 80% 70% 60%% of card sorts completed by 50% participants 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 1 21 41 61 81 101 121 145 167 207 268 403 Number of cards
  46. 46. Number of participants who complete a card sort within an hour 20000 18000 16000 14000 12000Total participant numbers 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 1 11 21 31 41 51 Minutes
  47. 47. 3. Recruit representative users Include a prominent link on your website, on the pages the targeted users will visit Email the link to your users Your invitation has to clearly state the proposition in one short phrase e.g. "5-minute survey - win an iPad”
  48. 48. How many participants?You need at least 20 – 30 participants for each round of testingTullis, T., and Wood, L. (2004), "How Many Users Are Enough fora Card-Sorting Study?" Proceedings UPA 2004 (Minneapolis,MN, June 7-11, 2004).
  49. 49. 4. Conduct the sort
  50. 50. Closed versus Open? ç
  51. 51. Which is best: In-person or Online? In-person Online• You can ask questions as • Quick results participants complete the • Can conduct sorts with large sort to better understand numbers of participants their thinking • You know that participants• No software costs are representative if you recruit via a link on the website • Analysis is aided by the software (no data entry)
  52. 52. Maybe both?
  53. 53. 5. Analyse the results Plans & billing
  54. 54. Strong vs. weak groups
  55. 55. Card sorting limitations Participants sometimes like to be clever, and a good IA is usually boringWe won’t call it‘Personals’because it’s a bitof an old word, wewant somethingfunky
  56. 56. Card sorting limitations Participants sometimes like to be clever, and a good IA is usually boring Analysis is often time consuming (remember, in LeanUX a good game is a fast game) Does not consider users’ goals and tasks Card sorting doesn’t create an IA – it’s a tool to assist in the creation of an IA
  57. 57. Tree testing
  58. 58. We firstcameacross theidea in2003
  59. 59. What is tree testing? A website is typically organized into a hierarchy (a "tree") of topics and subtopics Tree testing provides a way to measure how well users can find items in this hierarchy In a tree test, you test the organization and the Labeling of the IA (not the navigation or the search)
  60. 60. Tree testing – step-by-step1. Plan the study2. Decide on site structures to test3. Create representative ‘find’ tasks4. Pilot test5. Recruit representative users6. Analyse the results to see if participants went to the ‘right’ part of the tree7. Tweak and re-test variations of the tree to see which is best
  61. 61. 1. Plan the study Why are we running this test? What are we testing? What do we specifically want to find out? Who should we test? When will we test? Where / how will we test?
  62. 62. 2. Decide on site structures to test It’s very rare for us to only do one tree test in isolation. Ideally we would:  Benchmark the existing IA  Come up with some alternatives as a team  Iterate – we might tweak and re-test 2 or 3 times  Keep the same tasks from test to test (although you may add some new ones towards the end)
  63. 63. Benchmark your existing IA Tree testing the existing hierarchy lets you benchmark any changes made  Was it better before or after the changes?  How much better or worse?  Which bits performed better, which bits performed worse? It identifies those areas of the current site that need most attention – helps you prioritise your work
  64. 64. Come up with some alternatives as a team
  65. 65. 3. Create representative ‘find’ tasks Create tasks that cover the parts of the tree that need testing Look at the analytics – where are people going, getting lost? What are they Googling for? What do users say they want from the survey results? What do your personas tell you they want?
  66. 66. Tips for writing tasks Same rules as writing tasks for user tests  Dont lead the witness, dont give away critical terms, be specific, and ask yourself how participants could misunderstand the wording Try out your tasks on an innocent bystander! Loaded question: how many tasks should you test with?
  67. 67. Completion rate of Treejack studies 1.2 1 0.8Completion rate 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Number of tasks
  68. 68. 4. Pilot test Ideally pilot with a few people, since people can read stuff in different ways Preview the test a few times to get everything right Launch the test!
  69. 69. 5. Recruit representative users Include a prominent link on your website  On the pages the intended users will visit Email the link to your users Your invitation has to clearly state the proposition in one short phrase  We usually use the formula of "5-minute survey - win an iPad”
  70. 70. 6. Analyse the results – overview
  71. 71. 6. Analyse the results – task-by-task
  72. 72. 6. Analyse the results - pie trees
  73. 73. 7. Tweak and re-test variations Once you’ve digested your results, you need to think about what would change in your IA Go back to your original tree in Excel and amend  Add comments as to why you’ve changed things  Add notes where you still have questions  Maybe you need to generate a couple of different options to test
  74. 74. How long does all this take?Analysing the last 30 Treejack consulting projectswe’ve done, on average it takes us 46 hours effortto run a Treejack study (including all the tweaking andretesting).Over the 30 projects, we tested an average of 2.2trees with 239 participants.
  75. 75. Conclusion: IA the Lean UX way
  76. 76. versus Slow FastMillions Tens of thousands
  77. 77. Feedback Vcustomers It’s not how well you lap, it’s how fast you lap you Define V V Develop
  78. 78. An example ‘ideal’ approach 1. Research 2. Create 3. Evaluate a) Review user a) Conduct feedback a) Tree test open card candidate IAs sorting b) Review web analytics b) Workshop b) Usability c) Tree test candidate IAs testing existing tree98
  79. 79. The ‘lightest weight’ approach 1. Research 2. Create 3. Evaluate a) Review user a) Conduct feedback a) Tree test open card candidate IAs sorting b) Review web analytics b) Workshop b) Usability c) Tree test candidate IAs testing existing tree99
  80. 80. ResourcesInformation Architecture A Practical Guide to Organizing Digital Information forfor the World Wide Web – Information Architecture - Others – Nichani (FREE from Morville & Rosenfeld Spencer http://bit.ly/yEyfFZ)• Tree Testing: A quick way to evaluate your IA (http://bit.ly/OcJTN1)• Card sorting: a definitive guide (http://bit.ly/16rTpL)• How to: Card Sorting (http://bit.ly/9KQtzO)• Card sorting: designing useful categories (http://bit.ly/eAzQN)• Classification schemes and when to use them (http://bit.ly/aUcQPx)
  81. 81. Thank you, you’re awesome!trent.mankelow@optimalusability.com @optimalworkshop www.optimalworkshop.com
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