&We Provide You Confidence in Your Product ReliabilityTM   Ops A La Carte / (408) 654-0499 / askops@opsalacarte.com / www....
The Solar UniverseConfidence in Reliability   Mike Silverman      Thomas Ortman  Managing Partner        President Ops A L...
The Solar Universe AGENDA – Introduction – 5 minutes – Webinar – 45 minutes – Q&A – 10 minutes               Ops A La Car...
The Solar Universe INTRODUCTION – Who Are We? – Reliability vs. Regulatory Compliance Standards – What we will cover toda...
The Solar Universe Who Are We? – Ops A La Carte    HQ in Santa Clara, CA    Presenter: Mike Silverman, Managing Partner...
The Solar Universe Ops A La Carte  – Founded in 2001  – Named top 10 fastest growing, privately-held    companies in the ...
The Solar Universe Ops Solar Reliability Division  – We are the industry leader in reliability solutions in the    Solar ...
The Solar Universe Ops Solar Projects   Armageddon Energy - FMEA for residential solar product   Array Power - Rel. pro...
The Solar Universe Ops Solar Projects continued   Skyline Solar – FMEA and HALT on electronics   Solar Bridge – Compone...
The Solar Universe Concurrent Design, Inc.  – Founded in 1994  – Commercial Product Design  – Industrial Product Design  ...
The Solar Universe Concurrent Design Expertise  – Mechanical Engineering      Industrial Design / Conceptual Layout     ...
The Solar Universe Concurrent Solar Related Projects   CPV – 500 X Optical Concentration – System Design – Structures  ...
The Solar Universe Presenter 1: Mike Silverman  –   Founder and managing partner at Ops A La Carte  –   25 years of exper...
The Solar Universe Presenter 2: Tom Ortman  – Founder and managing partner at Concurrent Design  – 35 years of experience...
The Solar Universe Reliability vs. Regulatory Compliance  Standards  – Reliability ensures product performance over life ...
The Solar Universe Regulatory Compliance Standards  – Before we move on, one slide on standards      IEC 61215 – “Crysta...
The Solar Universe  “What is theuniverse of solar   products?”      Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
The Solar Universe   Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
The Solar Universe   Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
The Solar Universe   Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
The Solar Universe   Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
The Solar Universe   Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
The Solar Universe   Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
The Solar Universe        With acknowledgment to TechSearch International    Ops A La Carte and Concurrent               D...
The Solar Universe  “What is theuniverse of solar   products?”      Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
The Solar Universe   Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
The Solar Universe EXTRA-TERRESTRIAL INSOLATION  (SOLAR CONSTANT) ~1366W/M^2 VISIBLE LIGHT 46%, INFRARED 47%,  ULTRAVIOL...
The Solar Universe  “What is theuniverse of solar   products?”      Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
The Solar UniverseIn today’s presentation, we will cover thefollowing areas of the solar universe.   PhotoVoltaic Technol...
The Solar Universe  Reliability in the Solar UniverseReliability is going to play an important role for all ofthese indust...
The Solar Universe  Reliability in the Solar UniverseReliability Techniques in Each Product Life Cycle PhaseCONCEPT PHASED...
The Solar Universe  Reliability in the Solar UniverseCONCEPT PHASE RELIABILITY TECHNIQUES○ Assessment / Goal Setting / Gap...
The Solar Universe Reliability in the Solar UniversePROTOTYPE PHASE RELIABILITY TECHNIQUES○ HALT○ Reliability Demonstratio...
The Solar UniverseFor each type of system that we cover,we will describe the technology and thenpoint out some of the reli...
The Solar UniversePhotoVoltaic Technology    PV     Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
The Solar Universe PhotoVoltaic Technology (PV)  – Cells/Modules (Panels)  – Racking/Trackers  – Inverters/Converters    ...
The Solar Universe   Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
The Solar Universe   Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
The Solar Universe   Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
The Solar Universe              Reliability Risks of Panels  Failure Modes              Failure Effects               Reli...
The Solar Universe CASE STUDY: Vibration Failure on Module             Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
The Solar UniversePOLLING QUESTION 1: Are you familiarwith the following environmental techniquesused to characterize/miti...
The Solar UniversePhotoVoltaic TechnologyRacking/Trackers      Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
The Solar Universe   Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
The Solar Universe   Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
The Solar UniverseSPG Solar        Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
The Solar Universe Tracker Reliability   Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
The Solar Universe Reliability Trade-offs with Trackers Do you track by minute or once  an hour or a few times a day? –Mi...
The Solar Universe          Reliability Risks of TrackersFailure Modes             Failure Effects                        ...
The Solar Universe CASE STUDY: RCA on Tracker Failure  – Customer Failure During Windstorm  – We went to site and reviewe...
The Solar UniversePOLLING QUESTION 2: Are you familiarwith reliability techniques used tocharacterize life of trackers? M...
The Solar UniversePhotoVoltaic TechnologyInverters/Converters      Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
The Solar Universe         ConversionInverters DC-AC –String level (Scale) –Micro InvertersDC-DC Converters (Optimizers)  ...
The Solar Universe    Inverters   Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
The Solar Universe    Inverters   Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
The Solar Universe             Micro-invertersEnphase Micro-Inverters                     Ops A La Carte and Concurrent De...
The Solar UniverseDC-DC Converter (Optimizers)        Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
The Solar Universe“In addition to rigorous internal testing, SantaClara, Calif.- based Ops a La Carte providedreliability ...
The Solar Universe“The reliability modeling for the SunMizer(TM), asolar product manufactured by Xandex Solar, hasan expec...
The Solar Universe   Reliability Trade-off with Inverters Is it better to use DC-DC or DC-AC? Is it better to have one l...
The Solar Universe   Reliability Trade-offs with Inverters Currently the reliability of large  inverters is 7-10 years wh...
The Solar UniverseReliability Risks of Inverters/Converters  Failure Modes               Failure Effects                  ...
The Solar Universe CASE STUDY: Availability Analysis on Inverter  – Customer needed to maximize availability  – We perfor...
The Solar UniversePOLLING QUESTION 3: Are you familiarwith reliability techniques used during designcharacterization for i...
The Solar UniverseConcentratedPhotoVoltaic Technology    CPV    Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
The Solar Universe   Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
The Solar Universe   Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
The Solar Universe Emcore Corporation500X 2 Axis CPV Array             Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
The Solar Universe               Reliability Risks of CPV   Failure Modes                Failure Effects Rel. TechniqueDeg...
The Solar Universe  Built inPhotoVoltaicTechnology   BIPV   Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
The Solar Universe   Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
The Solar Universe   Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
The Solar Universe                          Sanyo Solar                             Arc   Ops A La Carte and Concurrent De...
The Solar Universe    Reliability Implications with BIPV If infrastructure then more expensive  to change. Becomes a cri...
The Solar Universe                      Reliability Risks of BIPV     Failure Modes                     Failure Effects   ...
The Solar Universe  Future   SolarTechnology?    Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
The Solar Universe   Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
The Solar Universe   Solar Clothing   Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
The Solar Universe     Hybrid Solar   Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
The Solar UniverseNanotechnology based Solar                                       Nanocolumns of hematite,               ...
The Solar Universe        Hybrid SolarMTPV Corporation     Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
The Solar Universe                        3DIC w / TSVThree Dimensional Integrated Circuits with Through Silicon Vias     ...
The Solar Universe        Reliability Challenges with        Future Solar Technologies Often new materials that have not ...
The Solar UniverseConcentrating Solar Power Technology    CSP    Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
The Solar Universe  Solar Trough    Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) vs. PhotoVoltaic (PV) collector.   Photovoltaic collect...
The Solar UniverseSolar Power Tower (Solucar PS10, Spain)           Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
The Solar UniverseSolar ThermalTechnologies     Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
The Solar Universe   Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
The Solar Universe General  SolarTechnology    Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
The Solar Universe              Solar Impulse   Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
The Solar Universe   Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
The Solar Universe   Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
The Solar Universe                        TÛRANOR PlanetSolar   Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
The Solar Universe   Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
The Solar Universe   Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
The Solar Universe        Reliability Challenges with              General Solar Often expanded environmental  requiremen...
The Solar UniverseConfidence in Reliability   Mike Silverman      Thomas Ortman  Managing Partner        President Ops A L...
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Solar Reliability - Reliability Across the Solar Universe - Nov 2010 - Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design - Webinar

  1. 1. &We Provide You Confidence in Your Product ReliabilityTM Ops A La Carte / (408) 654-0499 / askops@opsalacarte.com / www.opsalacarte.com
  2. 2. The Solar UniverseConfidence in Reliability Mike Silverman Thomas Ortman Managing Partner President Ops A La Carte LLC Concurrent Design , Inc.www.opsalacarte.com www.concurrentdesign.com Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  3. 3. The Solar Universe AGENDA – Introduction – 5 minutes – Webinar – 45 minutes – Q&A – 10 minutes Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  4. 4. The Solar Universe INTRODUCTION – Who Are We? – Reliability vs. Regulatory Compliance Standards – What we will cover today Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  5. 5. The Solar Universe Who Are We? – Ops A La Carte  HQ in Santa Clara, CA  Presenter: Mike Silverman, Managing Partner – Concurrent Design  HQ in Austin, TX  Presenter: Tom Ortman, President/CEO Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  6. 6. The Solar Universe Ops A La Carte – Founded in 2001 – Named top 10 fastest growing, privately-held companies in the Silicon Valley in 2006 and 2009 by the San Jose Business Journal. – Over 1350 projects completed in 10 years – Over 500 Customers in over 30 countries – Over 100 different industries, 6 main verticals  CleanTech, MedTech, Telecom, Defense, Oil/Gas, Consumer – We run FREE monthly webinars.  Next month is medical reliability on Dec 2. Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  7. 7. The Solar Universe Ops Solar Reliability Division – We are the industry leader in reliability solutions in the Solar market. We are committed to Highly Reliability Systems to help save our planet. – We provide Confidence in Reliability. – We offer a flexible method of engagement:  End-to-end reliability solutions  solving specific problems  providing individual services  Over 30 different training courses in reliability – We consult in every life cycle phase, train in every aspect of reliability, and test in our state-of-the-art HALT and HASS LabsTM Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  8. 8. The Solar Universe Ops Solar Projects Armageddon Energy - FMEA for residential solar product Array Power - Rel. program for a micro-inverter Black Swan Solar – Accelerated Life Test for mechanical items Carmanah - Accelerated Life Test for marine solar product Enecsys - Accelerated Life Test and HALT for a micro-inverter Energy Innovations - Reliability Program Plan and ALT Plan for solar tracker Enphase Energy – Component Reliability Program Konarka - Accelerated Life Test for portable solar product National Semiconductor – Rel. program for a solar optimizer OptiSolar - Reliability Test Plan for solar inverter Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  9. 9. The Solar Universe Ops Solar Projects continued Skyline Solar – FMEA and HALT on electronics Solar Bridge – Component Reliability Analysis Solar Electric Solutions - Warranty Analysis for solar product Solar Junction - Reliability program for solar product SolFocus - HALT for solar tracker controller SunPower - On-Going Reliability Test for solar product Thompson Technology – Root Cause Analysis for solar tracker Xandex - Reliability program for a solar optimizer Xantrex - HALT, FMEA, and Prediction for inverter for solar Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  10. 10. The Solar Universe Concurrent Design, Inc. – Founded in 1994 – Commercial Product Design – Industrial Product Design – Prototyping and Manufacturing Solutions – Over 1600 Projects in 17 years – Clients in US, Europe, Asia – Strategic Focus: Electronics / Semiconductor / Clean Energy / Solar Energy Product Design Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  11. 11. The Solar Universe Concurrent Design Expertise – Mechanical Engineering  Industrial Design / Conceptual Layout  Mechanical Design / Machine Design / E/M Pkg Design – Electrical Engineering  Power Distribution & Instrumentation and Control  Human Interface Design / HMI / PC / PLC – Thermal Engineering Analysis & Design – Structural Analysis (FEM/FEA) – Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) – Prototype Build & Engineering Verification Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  12. 12. The Solar Universe Concurrent Solar Related Projects CPV – 500 X Optical Concentration – System Design – Structures PV – Flat Plate – Utility Scale – Emerging Applications PV – Flat Plate – Commercial Scale – Cost Reduction Application Racking System - High volume custom Utility Scale application Racking System – Custom Solar Panel Shock and Vibration Analysis Tracker – HelioStat - Solar Structures Engineering Analysis Tracker – Two Axis – Low Cost, High Volume Commercial / Residential Scale Inverter – Electro-Mechanical Packaging Design Emerging Technology – R&D level activities focused on future generation Processing Equipment - High Volume Wafer Processing Test Equipment - Thin Film - Current Density and Voltage, Quantum Efficiency Test Equipment - Thin Film - Solar Spectrum Light Soaker Test Equipment Test Equipment - Monocrystalline - Flash Test Equipment Manufacturing Tools – Vacuum Process Chamber Analysis and Design Manufacturing Systems – Manufacturing Plant Line Layout, Custom Equipmt Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  13. 13. The Solar Universe Presenter 1: Mike Silverman – Founder and managing partner at Ops A La Carte – 25 years of experience in Reliability/Quality – World expert on HALT/HASS/ALT – Offers “HALT Calculator” to predict field failure rate from HALT results – being used by many solar companies – Author of “How Reliable Is Your Product: 50 Ways to Improve Product Reliability”, Dec 2010 – Book soon to be released in Mandarin – International speaker in 8 different countries – BSEE, CRE – IEEE ReliabilityOps A La CarteSilicon Valley Chapter Chair Society and Concurrent Design
  14. 14. The Solar Universe Presenter 2: Tom Ortman – Founder and managing partner at Concurrent Design – 35 years of experience  Commercial and Industrial Product Development  Manufacturing Process Technologies  Manufacturing Solutions – BS Mechanical Engineering – Speaker on Solar Products and Technologies – SEMI Texas Chapter Chair – Founding Partner – CleanTX Foundation Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  15. 15. The Solar Universe Reliability vs. Regulatory Compliance Standards – Reliability ensures product performance over life – Regulatory Compliance Standards ensure safety and compliance to industry standards – There is a big overlap between the two – There are big differences between the two – In this seminar we will focus on Reliability – Assess confidence in the warranty you are providing (bankability!) Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  16. 16. The Solar Universe Regulatory Compliance Standards – Before we move on, one slide on standards  IEC 61215 – “Crystalline silicon terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) modules - Design qualification and type approval”  IEC 61646 – “Thin-film terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) modules - Design qualification and type approval”  IEC 62093 – Micro-inverter standard (in process)  IEC 62108 – “Concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) modules and assemblies - Design qualification and type approval”  IEC 61730 – “Photovoltaic (PV) module safety qualification”  IEEE 1503-2001 “CPV Qualifications for Sections and Modules”  UL 1703 – “Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Modules and Panels” – This list is not a complete list Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  17. 17. The Solar Universe “What is theuniverse of solar products?” Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  18. 18. The Solar Universe Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  19. 19. The Solar Universe Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  20. 20. The Solar Universe Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  21. 21. The Solar Universe Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  22. 22. The Solar Universe Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  23. 23. The Solar Universe Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  24. 24. The Solar Universe With acknowledgment to TechSearch International Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  25. 25. The Solar Universe “What is theuniverse of solar products?” Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  26. 26. The Solar Universe Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  27. 27. The Solar Universe EXTRA-TERRESTRIAL INSOLATION (SOLAR CONSTANT) ~1366W/M^2 VISIBLE LIGHT 46%, INFRARED 47%, ULTRAVIOLET 6% TERRESTRIAL INSOLATION ~1000W/M^2 (MAXIMUM - DNI) Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  28. 28. The Solar Universe “What is theuniverse of solar products?” Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  29. 29. The Solar UniverseIn today’s presentation, we will cover thefollowing areas of the solar universe. PhotoVoltaic Technology (PV) Concentrated PhotoVoltaic Technology (CPV) Built-In PhotoVoltaic Technology (BIPV) Future Solar Technology Concentrating Solar Power Technology (CSP) Solar Thermal Technologies General Solar Technology Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  30. 30. The Solar Universe Reliability in the Solar UniverseReliability is going to play an important role for all ofthese industries because these industries areusually trying to take the place of an incumbent.Some of the reliability challenges are:  Higher Reliability Demands  Higher Availability Demands  Higher Warranty Requirements  New Materials/New Risks  Pressure on reducing power Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  31. 31. The Solar Universe Reliability in the Solar UniverseReliability Techniques in Each Product Life Cycle PhaseCONCEPT PHASEDESIGN/DEVELOPMENT PHASEPROTOTYPE PHASEMANUFACTURING PHASE Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  32. 32. The Solar Universe Reliability in the Solar UniverseCONCEPT PHASE RELIABILITY TECHNIQUES○ Assessment / Goal Setting / Gap Analysis○ Competitive Analysis / Benchmarking○ Reliability Program Plan DevelopmentDESIGN/DEVEL. PHASE RELIABILITY TECHNIQUES○ RoHS Conversion / Material Selection○ Risk Analysis/FMEA○ Reliability Modeling○ Thermal Analysis○ Derating Analysis○ Preventive Maintenance○ Warranty Predictions (Bankability Analysis) Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  33. 33. The Solar Universe Reliability in the Solar UniversePROTOTYPE PHASE RELIABILITY TECHNIQUES○ HALT○ Reliability Demonstration Test○ Accelerated Life TestMANUFACTURING PHASE RELIABILITY TECHNIQUES○ HASS○ ORT/OLT○ Field Data Analysis/Warranty Review Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  34. 34. The Solar UniverseFor each type of system that we cover,we will describe the technology and thenpoint out some of the reliability risks andwhat we are doing to mitigate these risks. Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  35. 35. The Solar UniversePhotoVoltaic Technology PV Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  36. 36. The Solar Universe PhotoVoltaic Technology (PV) – Cells/Modules (Panels) – Racking/Trackers – Inverters/Converters Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  37. 37. The Solar Universe Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  38. 38. The Solar Universe Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  39. 39. The Solar Universe Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  40. 40. The Solar Universe Reliability Risks of Panels Failure Modes Failure Effects Reliability TechniqueTemperature Cycling Seal Loss/Cell Degradation Environmental testingVoltage Mismatch Pulls down all the voltages Derating Analysis/Electr. Char.Humidity enters panel Corrosion/Loss of Efficiency Environmental testingPoor soldering joints Early failures HASSPanels get dirty Loss of efficiency Preventive maintenanceEarthquake Breaking Environmental testingHail/Bad Weather Breaking Environmental testingWalking on Breaking HALT (using increasing weight)Birds pecking at panels Damage to panels, wiring HALT (using increasing pressure)Premature Aging Warranty Concerns Matl/Warranty Analysis/ALTUV Exposure Embrittlement/Seal Loss UV ALTVibration Failure Broken Connections Environmental testingManufacturing Defects Various (many cases of fires) HASS/ORT/OLTInstallation Failure Various (many cases of fires) High voltage HALT Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  41. 41. The Solar Universe CASE STUDY: Vibration Failure on Module Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  42. 42. The Solar UniversePOLLING QUESTION 1: Are you familiarwith the following environmental techniquesused to characterize/mitigate failures? Temperature Cycling HALT HASS OLT/ORT Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  43. 43. The Solar UniversePhotoVoltaic TechnologyRacking/Trackers Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  44. 44. The Solar Universe Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  45. 45. The Solar Universe Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  46. 46. The Solar UniverseSPG Solar Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  47. 47. The Solar Universe Tracker Reliability Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  48. 48. The Solar Universe Reliability Trade-offs with Trackers Do you track by minute or once an hour or a few times a day? –Minute by minute will give you higher efficiency but lower reliability –You must optimize this for your application Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  49. 49. The Solar Universe Reliability Risks of TrackersFailure Modes Failure Effects Rel. TechniqueMechanical Failures Lose efficiency ALTHigh winds System Failure Wind Loading AnalysisInstallation Failure Weakens tracker, reduces life Design for InstallationFaulty Algorithm Tracker over-adjusts & breaks Software FMEA Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  50. 50. The Solar Universe CASE STUDY: RCA on Tracker Failure – Customer Failure During Windstorm – We went to site and reviewed evidence – Tools: Material Analysis, Wind-loading Analysis – Conclusions:  Change in Design after Windloading Analysis  Installation Error caused weak member  Software Bug caused overtracking Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  51. 51. The Solar UniversePOLLING QUESTION 2: Are you familiarwith reliability techniques used tocharacterize life of trackers? Mechanical loading analysis Prognostics to detect early failure signs Accelerated life testing Weibull field data analysis Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  52. 52. The Solar UniversePhotoVoltaic TechnologyInverters/Converters Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  53. 53. The Solar Universe ConversionInverters DC-AC –String level (Scale) –Micro InvertersDC-DC Converters (Optimizers) Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  54. 54. The Solar Universe Inverters Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  55. 55. The Solar Universe Inverters Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  56. 56. The Solar Universe Micro-invertersEnphase Micro-Inverters Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  57. 57. The Solar UniverseDC-DC Converter (Optimizers) Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  58. 58. The Solar Universe“In addition to rigorous internal testing, SantaClara, Calif.- based Ops a La Carte providedreliability testing of Nationals SolarMagic poweroptimizer at its HALT & HASS Labs in SantaClara. Ops a La Carte has had a long-termpresence in the reliability field, conductingextensive reliability testing for the aerospace,automotive, medical, telecom, defense & energy(including fuel cell, oil and solar) industries” - - National Semiconductor PR Department. Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  59. 59. The Solar Universe“The reliability modeling for the SunMizer(TM), asolar product manufactured by Xandex Solar, hasan expected Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF)of more than 500 years. Xandex has leveragedtheir experience in designing high quality, hightechnology products by utilizing Ops A La Carte forHighly Accelerated Life Testing (HALT) and HighlyAccelerated Stress Screening (HASS) to producethe SunMizer(TM)” - - - Xandex PR Department. Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  60. 60. The Solar Universe Reliability Trade-off with Inverters Is it better to use DC-DC or DC-AC? Is it better to have one large inverter or many micro-inverters? Is it better to place the inverter on the back of the panel or away from the elements? Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  61. 61. The Solar Universe Reliability Trade-offs with Inverters Currently the reliability of large inverters is 7-10 years while panels are pushing 25 years. Big single point failure here. Micro-inverter companies are starting to claim 25 years. Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  62. 62. The Solar UniverseReliability Risks of Inverters/Converters Failure Modes Failure Effects Rel. TechniqueElectronics degradation Won’t meet long life HALTECap Failures Won’t meet long life ALTSolder Joints Wear Out Won’t meet long life Lifetime AnalysisSolder Joint Defects Early Failures HASSConnector contacts wear Won’t meet long life ALTSeal integrity broken Won’t meet long life ALTLightning Early/Catastrophic Failure Environmental testingVoltage spikes from grid Early/Catastrophic Failure Electrical testingWrong Phase Match Early/Catastrophic Failure Electrical testing Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  63. 63. The Solar Universe CASE STUDY: Availability Analysis on Inverter – Customer needed to maximize availability – We performed FMEA to identify key risks – Design Analyses – Prediction, FMEA, Derating, Thermal Analyses – Conclusions:  Reducing stresses in key areas increased availability  We implemented prognostics to the equipment to detect early failures and perform preventive maintenance, thereby increasing the availability. Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  64. 64. The Solar UniversePOLLING QUESTION 3: Are you familiarwith reliability techniques used during designcharacterization for inverters/converters? FMEA Derating Analysis Thermal Analysis Finite Element Analysis Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  65. 65. The Solar UniverseConcentratedPhotoVoltaic Technology CPV Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  66. 66. The Solar Universe Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  67. 67. The Solar Universe Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  68. 68. The Solar Universe Emcore Corporation500X 2 Axis CPV Array Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  69. 69. The Solar Universe Reliability Risks of CPV Failure Modes Failure Effects Rel. TechniqueDegradation of Optics Less Concentrated Energy Life Testing on OpticsDegradation of Glues/Mounts Less Concentrated Energy Life Testing on GluesOptics Get Dirty Less Concentrated Energy Envir Test on SealingOptical Tolerancing Less Concentrated Energy DFSSThermal Issues Loss of Productivity Thermal Analysis Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  70. 70. The Solar Universe Built inPhotoVoltaicTechnology BIPV Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  71. 71. The Solar Universe Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  72. 72. The Solar Universe Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  73. 73. The Solar Universe Sanyo Solar Arc Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  74. 74. The Solar Universe Reliability Implications with BIPV If infrastructure then more expensive to change. Becomes a critical system. New age of building material that must be very reliable. Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  75. 75. The Solar Universe Reliability Risks of BIPV Failure Modes Failure Effects MitigationsFailure resulting in replacement Tear into building Design so that systems can be maintainedFailure of critical element Power loss to whole system Build in redundancy Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  76. 76. The Solar Universe Future SolarTechnology? Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  77. 77. The Solar Universe Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  78. 78. The Solar Universe Solar Clothing Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  79. 79. The Solar Universe Hybrid Solar Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  80. 80. The Solar UniverseNanotechnology based Solar Nanocolumns of hematite, one of the iron oxide compounds that Professors Allen Bard and Buddie Mullins are testing in their efforts to convert sunlight to fuel. Professor Allen Bard University of Texas at Austin Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  81. 81. The Solar Universe Hybrid SolarMTPV Corporation Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  82. 82. The Solar Universe 3DIC w / TSVThree Dimensional Integrated Circuits with Through Silicon Vias With acknowledgment to TechSearch International With acknowledgment to TechSearch International Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  83. 83. The Solar Universe Reliability Challenges with Future Solar Technologies Often new materials that have not yet been proven Often expanded environmental requirements – temperature – mechanical stress Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  84. 84. The Solar UniverseConcentrating Solar Power Technology CSP Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  85. 85. The Solar Universe Solar Trough Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) vs. PhotoVoltaic (PV) collector. Photovoltaic collectors use electronics (chips) to convert sunlight intoelectricity, while thermal solar collectors (CSP) concentrate heat and directly or indirectly convert this to electricity. Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design Source csposi.org
  86. 86. The Solar UniverseSolar Power Tower (Solucar PS10, Spain) Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  87. 87. The Solar UniverseSolar ThermalTechnologies Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  88. 88. The Solar Universe Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  89. 89. The Solar Universe General SolarTechnology Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  90. 90. The Solar Universe Solar Impulse Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  91. 91. The Solar Universe Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  92. 92. The Solar Universe Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  93. 93. The Solar Universe TÛRANOR PlanetSolar Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  94. 94. The Solar Universe Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  95. 95. The Solar Universe Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  96. 96. The Solar Universe Reliability Challenges with General Solar Often expanded environmental requirements – temperature – mechanical stress Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
  97. 97. The Solar UniverseConfidence in Reliability Mike Silverman Thomas Ortman Managing Partner President Ops A La Carte LLC Concurrent Design , Inc.www.opsalacarte.com www.concurrentdesign.com Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design

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