Educational design and innovative
pedagogies for open and online
teaching and learning
Patrick McAndrew
Institute of Educa...
Innovating Pedagogy
Exploring new forms of
teaching, learning and
assessment, to guide
educators and policy
makers
Institute of Educational Technology
iet.open.ac.uk
Catwalk to ready to wear
Adams, A., FitzGerald, E., and Priestnall, G. (to appear) Of
Catwalk Technologies and Boundary Cr...
The Open University is open to
people, places, methods and ideas.
Open University Supported Open Learning
“Walter Perry, told his new staff … to
design the teaching system to suit an
individual working in a lighthouse off
the co...
Lighthouse keeper

Heidigoseek http://www.flickr.com/photos/75396048@N00/188730566
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-...
Everything in the box?
Wikipedia
Open Educational Resources
Open Access Journals
eBooks
YouTube
Google
Title : Deal Or No ...
Material-based learning
–Texts
• Talk to the learner
• Sets out tasks
• Gets the highest rating

–Media
• Impresses
• Moti...
Assessment tasks
• Can steer the learning
process
• Design for feedback and for
feedforward
• Formative assessment
makes i...
Retaining students (learners)

Bounce users

Volunteer students

Social learners

Get students past the first
assessment
G...
Human element
• Human in the loop can
make it all work!
• Support and Feedback
• Some learners do not
need all we give the...
Equivalency Theory
1. “Deep and meaningful formal learning is supported as long as one of the three
forms of interaction (...
Balancing support

Miyazoe & Anderson (2013)
http://jime.open.ac.uk/2013/09
Activity Hexagon

Learner

Tasks

Community

Content

Teacher

Crowd
Designing for open
• Concept
– What will learners do?
– How does assessment work?
– What feedback do they get?
– What are ...
http://www.open.ac.uk/blogs/OULDI/
Innovating Pedagogy
Exploring new forms of
teaching, learning and
assessment, to guide
educators and policy
makers
Distinguish hype from reality

Gartner hype cycle

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Gartner_Hype_Cycle.svg
Image Jeremyke...
Distinguish hype from reality

MOOCs

Social learning

Open learning
Connectivist learning
Instructivist learning

http://...
Innovating Pedagogy 2012

The Open University's Institute of Educational
Technology
Weak signals

Innovating Pedagogy 2012
1. New pedagogy for e-books
Innovative ways of teaching and learning with next-gene...
Innovating Pedagogy 2013
Weak signals

Innovating Pedagogy 2013
1. MOOCs
Massive Open Online Courses

1. Badges to accredit learning
Open framework...
Themes and groups

Seamless learning
MOOCs
Badges

Crowd learning
Citizen Inquiry

Analytics
Geo-learning
Maker culture
Ga...
MOOCs, Badges and Analytics
Weak signals

MOOCs
“… ways need to be found to support less experienced
students and those lacking confidence.
Pedagogies...
olnet.org
Koller, Daphne, Ng, Andrew, Do, Chuong and Chen, Zhenghao (2013) “Retention and Intention in Massive Open Online Courses: ...
http://oerresearch.org

oerresearchub.org
Weak signals

Learning analytics
“in the USA, the STEMscopes online
science curriculum is currently
producing visualisatio...
Citizen, Crowd and Seamless
Weak signals

Seamless learning
“Seamless learning [is] connecting learning
experiences across locations, times, technolog...
Weak signals

Crowd learning
“Crowd learning involves harnessing the
knowledge and expertise of many people
in order to an...
Maker, Geo and Gaming
Weak signals

Geo learning
“Location-based technology… can provide
‘touch points’ that link the physical to the
digital.…
...
Out There In Here
• Live collaboration
between students on
field trip and in
technology-enhanced
room
• Sharing and commen...
Weak signals

Maker culture
“the emerging ‘maker culture’
emphasises informal, networked, peerled, and shared learning mot...
Digital Scholarship
“… there are four inter-related areas that can be seen to
represent major aspects of digital scholarsh...
Weak signals

Innovating Pedagogy 2013
1. MOOCs
Massive Open Online Courses

1. Badges to accredit learning
Open framework...
Incubating Innovation
• Harness passion: individual motivation
• Build on what others have done – way to join in but also
...
2014: Year of the Crowd?
Crowd learning

0%

5.0%

10.0% 15.0% 20.0%

MOOCs
Seamless
Maker culture
Badges
Learning analyti...
iSpot
•
•
•
•
•
•

Open citizen science
Web and mobile
25,000 registered users
250,000 observations
150 wildlife organisat...
Crowd learning
• Allows for the individual
• Communities of learners
• Builds on massive
• Operates in the open
• Authenti...
Institute of Educational Technology
www.open.ac.uk/iet
patrick.mcandrew@open.ac.uk
@openpad
www.open.ac.uk/innovating
Educational design and innovative pedagogies for open and online teaching and learning
Educational design and innovative pedagogies for open and online teaching and learning
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Educational design and innovative pedagogies for open and online teaching and learning

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Slides for keynote presentation at EADTU conference
Patrick McAndrew
http://conference.eadtu.eu

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  • Summary of talk:
    Thanks to Mike
    Reports
    Why us pedagogy v technology
  • I work in IET – research and support OU. Courses, labs
    Proud of it
    Acting Director
  • Materials
    Texts
    Talks to the learner
    Sets out tasks
    Gets the highest ratings
    Resources
    From everything in the box to power of search
    Media
    Motivates
    Integrates
    May be skipped
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/75396048@N00/188730566
    Whitefish Point lighthouse keeper
  • Can steer the learning process
    Sets out the tasks
    Do not assume read material first
    Design for feedback/feedforward
    What comes back is major part of OU teaching
    Formative assessment makes interactivity
    Asking the student to do things is key
    Offer achievements along the way
    Avoid failures and
  • Share design but avoid custom and practice
  • Summary of talk:
    Thanks to Mike
    Reports
    Why us pedagogy v technology
  • Mentioned in Working document from EU “Analysis and mapping of innovative teaching and learning for all through new
    Technologies and Open Educational Resources in Europe :
  • Fix to be IP13 data
  • Interactive graphic by Katy Jordan showing completion rates against enrolment rates for MOOCs.
    http://www.katyjordan.com/MOOCproject.html
    Visualisation of student data from inBloom:
    http://intentionalfutures.com/inBloomdemo
    Badges from the Open Learning Design Studio MOOC:
    http://www.olds.ac.uk/blog/oldsmoocbadgedesign
    Image CC-BY-NC-SA 2.0.
  • A developer, Loic Le Meur, selected for Google Glass explorer edition, shows off wearing Google Glass. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:A_Google_Glass_wearer.jpgImage CC-BY 2.0.
    Cover of The Pub and the People by Mass Observation.Image at: http://georgeorwellnovels.com/reviews/the-pub-and-the-people-by-mass-observation/
    iSpot mobile app. Image from:
    https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=uk.ac.open.ispot
  • Just in time learning
    Micro learning
    Self-managed learning
    Crowd sourced
  • The Zapp application identifying a distant landmark. Photograph by Mike Sharples, CC-BY 2.0.
    Mediaeval town researched and built by children from three continents learning together informally in the Jokaydia Minecraft community.Image by Rebecca Ferguson and Jacob Weinbren, CC-BY 2.0.
    Exploring how wavelength affects pitch with a home-made theremin at Electromagnetic Field, a hacker camp/maker fayre in the UK.Photograph by Mark Gaved, CC-BY 2.0.
  • Just in time learning
    Micro learning
    Self-managed learning
    Crowd sourced
  • Fabbster
  • Underpins
  • Divide the learners
    1:20 -> 1:200 -> ~5:5000
    Build on massive
    Authentic experiments: personal data, science in the field
    Social science simulations
    Operate in the open (iSpot)
  • IET has specialist role in Accessibility. Module H810: Accessible Online Learning.
    Research – long history. Work on Standards, Personalisation.
    Practical support to improve accessibility – including specialist testing facilities.
  • Educational design and innovative pedagogies for open and online teaching and learning

    1. 1. Educational design and innovative pedagogies for open and online teaching and learning Patrick McAndrew Institute of Educational Technology
    2. 2. Innovating Pedagogy Exploring new forms of teaching, learning and assessment, to guide educators and policy makers
    3. 3. Institute of Educational Technology iet.open.ac.uk
    4. 4. Catwalk to ready to wear Adams, A., FitzGerald, E., and Priestnall, G. (to appear) Of Catwalk Technologies and Boundary Creatures. Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction CC-BY-NC http://www.flickr.com/photos/thestylepa/6157909577/ CC-BY-NC-SA http://www.flickr.com/photos/57340921@N03/7527822002/
    5. 5. The Open University is open to people, places, methods and ideas.
    6. 6. Open University Supported Open Learning
    7. 7. “Walter Perry, told his new staff … to design the teaching system to suit an individual working in a lighthouse off the coast of Scotland.” Sir John Daniels
    8. 8. Lighthouse keeper Heidigoseek http://www.flickr.com/photos/75396048@N00/188730566 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/
    9. 9. Everything in the box? Wikipedia Open Educational Resources Open Access Journals eBooks YouTube Google Title : Deal Or No Deal Source : http://www.flickr.com/photos/thunderchild5/533038405 license : http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/deed.en_GB Bridge 2 Success …
    10. 10. Material-based learning –Texts • Talk to the learner • Sets out tasks • Gets the highest rating –Media • Impresses • Motivates • But may be skipped Bridge 2 Success
    11. 11. Assessment tasks • Can steer the learning process • Design for feedback and for feedforward • Formative assessment makes interactivity • Offer achievements along the way
    12. 12. Retaining students (learners) Bounce users Volunteer students Social learners Get students past the first assessment Give less experienced students goals linked to life Be flexible (but not too flexible!) Life gets in the way Optional activities cannot be expected to happen
    13. 13. Human element • Human in the loop can make it all work! • Support and Feedback • Some learners do not need all we give them
    14. 14. Equivalency Theory 1. “Deep and meaningful formal learning is supported as long as one of the three forms of interaction (student–teacher; student–student; student–content) is at a high level. The other two may be offered at minimal levels, or even eliminated, without degrading the educational experience. 2. “High levels of more than one of these three modes will likely provide a more satisfying educational experience, although these experiences may not be as cost- or time effective as less interactive learning sequences.” Terry Anderson (2003) http://equivalencytheorem.info
    15. 15. Balancing support Miyazoe & Anderson (2013) http://jime.open.ac.uk/2013/09
    16. 16. Activity Hexagon Learner Tasks Community Content Teacher Crowd
    17. 17. Designing for open • Concept – What will learners do? – How does assessment work? – What feedback do they get? – What are the expected exit points? • Practical – How does the social and support side operate? – Is it Accessible? – Do you have the right content and media?
    18. 18. http://www.open.ac.uk/blogs/OULDI/
    19. 19. Innovating Pedagogy Exploring new forms of teaching, learning and assessment, to guide educators and policy makers
    20. 20. Distinguish hype from reality Gartner hype cycle http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Gartner_Hype_Cycle.svg Image Jeremykemp at en.wikipedia. CC-BY-SA-3.0,2.5,2.0,1.0
    21. 21. Distinguish hype from reality MOOCs Social learning Open learning Connectivist learning Instructivist learning http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Figure_1_MOOCs_and_Ope n_Education_Timeline_p6.jpg Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license.
    22. 22. Innovating Pedagogy 2012 The Open University's Institute of Educational Technology
    23. 23. Weak signals Innovating Pedagogy 2012 1. New pedagogy for e-books Innovative ways of teaching and learning with next-generation e-books 1. Publisher-led short courses Publishers producing commercial short courses for leisure and professional development 1. Assessment for learning Assessment that supports the learning process through diagnostic feedback 1. Badges to accredit learning Open framework for gaining recognition of skills and achievements 1. MOOCs Massive open online courses 1. Rebirth of academic publishing New forms of open scholarly publishing 1. Seamless learning Connecting learning across settings, technologies, and activities 1. Learning analytics Data-driven analysis of learning activities and environments 1. Personal Inquiry learning “ the innovations are not independent, but fit together into a new and disruptive form of education that transcends boundaries” Learning through collaborative inquiry and active investigation 1. Rhizomatic learning Knowledge constructed by self-aware communities adapting to environmental conditions
    24. 24. Innovating Pedagogy 2013
    25. 25. Weak signals Innovating Pedagogy 2013 1. MOOCs Massive Open Online Courses 1. Badges to accredit learning Open framework for gaining recognition of skills and achievement 1. Learning analytics Data-driven analysis of learning activities and environment 1. Seamless learning Connecting learning across settings, technologies and activities 1. Crowd learning Harnessing the local knowledge of many people 1. Digital scholarship Scholarly practice through networked technologies 1. Geo-learning Learning in an about locations 1. Learning from gaming Exploiting the power of digital games for learning 1. Maker culture Learning by making 1. Citizen inquiry Fusing inquiry-based learning and citizen activism “the innovations described in this report are not technologies looking for an application in formal education. They are new ways of teaching, learning and assessment. If they are to succeed, they need to complement formal education, rather than trying to replace it”
    26. 26. Themes and groups Seamless learning MOOCs Badges Crowd learning Citizen Inquiry Analytics Geo-learning Maker culture Gaming Digital Scholarship
    27. 27. MOOCs, Badges and Analytics
    28. 28. Weak signals MOOCs “… ways need to be found to support less experienced students and those lacking confidence. Pedagogies that could benefit such learners are missing from much of the first wave of massive courses. These pedagogies include materials designed to provide an integrated learning experience, feedback that is customised to meet learner needs, and direct mentoring of learners in difficulties. Some of these are hard to supply in a cost-free model. Social learning and peer support may provide alternative ways of generating some of the feedback that is needed.”
    29. 29. olnet.org
    30. 30. Koller, Daphne, Ng, Andrew, Do, Chuong and Chen, Zhenghao (2013) “Retention and Intention in Massive Open Online Courses: In Depth,” Educause Review: http://www.educause.edu/ero/article/retention-and-intention-massive-open-online-courses-depth-0.
    31. 31. http://oerresearch.org oerresearchub.org
    32. 32. Weak signals Learning analytics “in the USA, the STEMscopes online science curriculum is currently producing visualisations that reflect the activity of 50,000 teachers and over a million students. Work on the project so far has underlined the importance of understanding context, and of involving teachers in the process of developing and deploying analytics.” “The potential is emerging for a virtuous circle, where inquiry into the learning process feeds into learning design, which motivates learning analytics, which motivate future inquiry and thus the refinement of the design and analytics.” Visualisation of student data from inBloom: http://intentionalfutures.com/inBloomdemo Sleep Time Image Patrick McAndrew CC-BY
    33. 33. Citizen, Crowd and Seamless
    34. 34. Weak signals Seamless learning “Seamless learning [is] connecting learning experiences across locations, times, technologies or social settings. Mobile technologies are enabling learning to continue across contexts, so a piece of work started in the classroom can be continued at home; and ideas that occur on the move can be shared with colleagues online, then followed up in person.” “How, then, do we create ‘teachable moments’ from this technologysupported flow of experience” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:A_Google_Glass_wearer.jpg Image CC-BY 2.0. “There are ethical and social issues concerning which experiences should be shared and whether we should move towards a world where we record the entire flow of experience”
    35. 35. Weak signals Crowd learning “Crowd learning involves harnessing the knowledge and expertise of many people in order to answer questions or address immediate problems … anybody can be a teacher or source of knowledge, learning occurs flexibly and sporadically, can be driven by chance or specific goals, and always has direct contextual relevance to the learner. It places responsibility on individual learners to find a path through sources of knowledge and to manage the objectives of their learning.” https://play.google.com/store/apps/deta ils?id=uk.ac.open.ispot http://www.ispot.org.uk
    36. 36. Maker, Geo and Gaming
    37. 37. Weak signals Geo learning “Location-based technology… can provide ‘touch points’ that link the physical to the digital.… Situated cognition suggests that knowledge is situated within physical, social and cultural contexts and cannot be separated from these. … Learners may also be overwhelmed by a wealth of digital information that is not presented appropriately, resulting in cognitive overload. Social issues include intruding on a person’s privacy by knowing their location or tracking their movements. … We expect blended spaces to become more pervasive, especially given current worldwide investment in ‘smart cities’.” The Zapp application identifying a distant landmark. Photograph by Mike Sharples, CC-BY 2.0.
    38. 38. Out There In Here • Live collaboration between students on field trip and in technology-enhanced room • Sharing and commenting on field data at a distance Anne Adams, IET
    39. 39. Weak signals Maker culture “the emerging ‘maker culture’ emphasises informal, networked, peerled, and shared learning motivated by fun and self-fulfilment. … Affordable 3D printers and online sharing of designs have encouraged the creation of custom-made components, models and jewellery; the latter hinting at more recent interest not only from STEM educators but also from the arts. Maker culture offers an example of selforganised social learning that has been widely taken up across the world, and can offer principles that might be put into practice not only in formal learning contexts but also in informal learning http://www.flickr.com/photos/creative_tools/8121256525 environments …” CC-BY Exploring how wavelength affects pitch with a home-made theremin at Electromagnetic Field, a hacker camp/maker fayre in the UK. Photograph by Mark Gaved, CC-BY 2.0.
    40. 40. Digital Scholarship “… there are four inter-related areas that can be seen to represent major aspects of digital scholarship. These are: open access publishing, scholarly use of social networks and digital media, open resources and MOOCs, and network research and pedagogy. … development can be seen largely in terms of increased legitimacy. For institutions, this may include promotion and tenure practices rewarding profiles of digital scholarship or research agencies including digital scholarship …. So far, uptake of digital scholarship has been cautious, often held back by conservative practices within institutions and reward structures. It is this area that is likely to see the most significant changes over the
    41. 41. Weak signals Innovating Pedagogy 2013 1. MOOCs Massive Open Online Courses 1. Badges to accredit learning Open framework for gaining recognition of skills and achievement 1. Learning analytics Data-driven analysis of learning activities and environment 1. Seamless learning Connecting learning across settings, technologies and activities 1. Crowd learning Harnessing the local knowledge of many people 1. Digital scholarship Scholarly practice through networked technologies 1. Geo-learning Learning in an about locations 1. Learning from gaming Exploiting the power of digital games for learning 1. Maker culture Learning by making 1. Citizen inquiry Fusing inquiry-based learning and citizen activism “the innovations described in this report are not technologies looking for an application in formal education. They are new ways of teaching, learning and assessment. If they are to succeed, they need to complement formal education, rather than trying to replace it”
    42. 42. Incubating Innovation • Harness passion: individual motivation • Build on what others have done – way to join in but also … • Be prepared to create your own approach and system • Innovate on existing objectives: reach, online, international experience … • Be a user of the innovations not just a producer • Stay in touch – be involved • Experiment at different scales Brasher et al. (2013) http://www.medev.ac.uk/oer13/128/view/ olnet.org http://www.flickr.com/photos/graibeard/4082255623
    43. 43. 2014: Year of the Crowd? Crowd learning 0% 5.0% 10.0% 15.0% 20.0% MOOCs Seamless Maker culture Badges Learning analytics Digital scholarship Citizen inquiry Geo-learning Gaming Web analytics for first month of 2013 report http://www.open.ac.uk/innovating
    44. 44. iSpot • • • • • • Open citizen science Web and mobile 25,000 registered users 250,000 observations 150 wildlife organisations Re-discovered ‘extinct’ species • Spotted UK firsts • Identified invasive species
    45. 45. Crowd learning • Allows for the individual • Communities of learners • Builds on massive • Operates in the open • Authentic experiment
    46. 46. Institute of Educational Technology www.open.ac.uk/iet patrick.mcandrew@open.ac.uk @openpad www.open.ac.uk/innovating
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