Open P2P Design
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  • 1. Open P2P Design: background, application, process and an exampleopenp2pdesign.orgDesign for Open Systems, Processes, Projects, Places.
  • 2. 01. Internet andmass-collaboration (and Design)
  • 3. Web 2.0: User-generated content + comment Source: http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1570810,00.html
  • 4. Web 2.0: User-generated content + comment Source: http://www.coroflot.com/heo/FOOTWEAR-RUNNING/1
  • 5. Peer-to-Peer: A new architecture of interactions Source: http://home.comcast.net/~gregory.bray/
  • 6. Peer-to-Peer: A new kind of service (design) Source: http://www.kiva.org/lend/333427
  • 7. Crowdsourcing: Outsourcing to the online crowd Source: http://www.innocentive.com/
  • 8. Crowdsourcing: Outsourcing to the online crowd Source: http://www.designcrowd.com/
  • 9. Mobile: single user designing, no collaboration Source: http://mashape.com
  • 10. Rebuilding a design from uncoordinated users Source: http://grail.cs.washington.edu/rome/
  • 11. Open Source: Open Collaborative software development Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ubuntu_%28operating_system%29
  • 12. Open Design: Open Source Design (under construction) Source: http://unlimiteddesigncontest.org/
  • 13. Crowdsourcing 50% + Web 2.0 30% + Open Source 20% Source: http://www.openideo.com/
  • 14. 02. Open Source:Mass collaboration everywhere
  • 15. A (software) project published with a license that facilitatesits access + modifying + sharing in a collaborative way.A (software) project developed collaboratively by acommunity, based not on hierarchy but on reputation. What is Open Source (Software)? A generic definition
  • 16. “Software is just the beginning … open source is doing for mass innovation what the assembly line did for massproduction. Get ready for the era when collaboration replaces the corporation.” Thomas Goetz, Wired November 2003 http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/11.11/opensource.html Open Source Everywhere...
  • 17. Open Source Everywhere... Open Drinks (marketing) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Free_Beer http://www.flickr.com/photos/16038409@N02/2327138220/in/photostream
  • 18. Open Movies + Open Videogames with Open Software Source: http://www.elephantsdream.org/ http://www.bigbuckbunny.org/ http://www.sintel.org/
  • 19. Open Hardware Source: http://www.arduino.cc
  • 20. Open Science, Open Biotechnology Source: http://www.cambia.org/
  • 21. Open Science, Open Biotechnology Source: http://www.dndi.org/
  • 22. Open Science, Open Biotechnology Source: http://diybio.org/
  • 23. 03.Open Design:Open Projects
  • 24. a project published with a license that facilitates its sharingand that can be “compiled” or “manufactured” locally.* sharing* collaboration* open licenses* code --> artifactOpen Design refers to every kind of design projects that canbe shared in a digital format over a network. What is Open Design? A generic definition
  • 25. OpenMoko: the first completely open product Source: http://wiki.openmoko.org/wiki/Main_Page
  • 26. OpenMoko: the first completely open product Source: http://wiki.openmoko.org/wiki/Main_Page
  • 27. BugLabs: a second open product, with more success Source: http://www.buglabs.net/
  • 28. Open and traditional business: BugLabs + Ford Source: http://www.buglabs.net/ford-buglabs
  • 29. Sketch Chair: Open Design as code Source: http://www.sketchchair.cc/
  • 30. Sketch Chair: Open Design as code Source: http://www.sketchchair.cc/
  • 31. The current status of Open Design: going mainstream Source: http://craphound.com/makers/download/ http://opendesignnow.org/
  • 32. The current status of Open Design: going mainstream Source: http://www.instructables.com/community/Instructables-Joins-Autodesk/
  • 33. * single persons or small groups design a project and then just publish it online* lack of new tools, processes, systems that enable designers and users in developing open design projects--> where is the collaboration?--> where are the open processes?--> where are the communities? The current status of Open Design
  • 34. … the big picture of Open Source software: the process Source: http://www.michaelogawa.com/research/storylines/
  • 35. Innovation in a closed process Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_Microsoft_Windows
  • 36. Innovation in an Open process Source: http://futurist.se/gldt/
  • 37. Metadesign is the design of the design tools, processes andsystems* research and share design knowledge* research and share business models* research and share financial and environmental sustainability* design and share design tools* design and share design processes* facilitate design & manufacturing & end-of-life systems* facilitate the distributed creativity What can we do for Open Design projects? Metadesign
  • 38. 04. Open P2P Design:metadesign of open and p2p systems
  • 39. * March 2005, Milan (Polytechnic)* a master degree thesis in industrial + service design* Design researchers were studying Design+Locality: * Spark! Design and Locality (Europe) http://www2.uiah.fi/virtu/spark/index.html * Me.Design (Italy) http://www.sistemadesignitalia.it/sdi/ricerche/medesign/index.php--> How can we design for a locality and its community?--> How can we enable the participation of a community in the design process? Open P2P Design and openp2pdesign.org come from...
  • 40. Designing Open Collaborative projects: Thinkcycle Source: http://www.thinkcycle.org (now closed) http://web.media.mit.edu/~nitin/thesis/
  • 41. P2P Service Design: Open Health (RED - Design Council) Source: http://www.designcouncil.info/mt/RED/ (now inactive) http://www.participle.net/
  • 42. Reti Collaborative.Il design per una auto-organizzazioneOpen Peer-to-Peer(Collaborative Networks.Design for an Open Peer-to-Peerself-organization)Tutor: Ezio ManziniPolitecnico di Milano, Faculty of DesignYou can download it here:http://www.openp2pdesign.org/source April 2006, Master Degree Thesis
  • 43. Theres also a short (and updated) versionin English (and Spanish and Italian) too!openp2pdesign.org_1.1http://www.issuu.com/openp2pdesignhttp://www.scribd.com/openp2pdesignhttp://stores.lulu.com/openp2pdesign September 2008, a shorter book Source: http://www.coroflot.com/heo/FOOTWEAR-RUNNING/1
  • 44. * for community-centered projects* for community-based services / businesses* for projects that are distributed in a territory / locality* for complex projects* for participatory processes* for open processes and projectsIn Open Design, Open Innovation, Open Business, OpenGovernment... Where should we use Open P2P Design?
  • 45. * mass-collaboration/crowdsourcing --> change in the role of designers* being subjected to mass collaboration --> designing it* communities generate innovations --> more opportunities for designers--> designers can be enablers / facilitators of distributed creativity--> designers still have more knowledge and expertise, just now they are part of collaborative networks--> designers could even adopt open strategies Why Open P2P Design?
  • 46. Design by author -->Design by marketing -->User-centred Design -->User-experience Design -->Activity-centred Design -->Co-Design --> …* Researching how to design better projects for the people that use them And the Design research and practice is changing
  • 47. }Activity Theory +Service Design (+ Activity Theory) + ActivityAction Planning (Urbanism) +Social Network Analysis +...--> Open Source Software development process + P2P dynamicsSelf-reflexive (metadesign): activity self-analysis + design -->* analyse and design the design activity itself* easier to participate and to suggest changes* shared understanding of the collaborative process What does Open P2P Design design?
  • 48. Activity Theory: analysis of structure/process of activity
  • 49. }Analysis + Design process:Concept design + A systemic activityPrototyping + comprising set ofManufacturing + actions (sub-Distribution + activities), withSupport + their own tools,End of life + roles, rules... Metadesign with Open P2P Design?
  • 50. Participation matrix + } Process DesignActivity analysis +Social Network Analysis + } Community analysis }Storyboard +System map +Service blueprint + Activity DesignMotivation matrix +Activity description +…Design project + } Open Design What about the source code for Open P2P Design?
  • 51. Open P2P Design Process (Participation Matrix)
  • 52. Download it here:http://www.issuu.com/openp2pdesignhttp://www.scribd.com/openp2pdesignhttp://www.openp2pdesign.org/source A toolkit for the Open P2P Design methodology
  • 53. 05.The Open P2P Design process
  • 54. 01. The context of the project01.01 Choose a community, and choose one of its activities that may haveproblems we want to solve with our Open Design project, that is acollaborative design activity:.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Open P2P Design: a toolkit for the process
  • 55. 02. Define the project02.01 Which is the local context in which our project is being developed andthen realized?......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................02.02 Which is the community we design with and for this project?...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Open P2P Design: a toolkit for the process
  • 56. 02. Define the project02.03 Which is the problem / opportunity we may find within this communitywe want to design with/for?......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................02.04 Which is the reason, our motivations, our mission, that move us todesign this project with open and p2p dynamics?...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Open P2P Design: a toolkit for the process
  • 57. 02. Define the project02.05 How do we see the future of this community? Which is the vision wehave that our collaborative process will achieve in the community and for us?...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 02.06 What do we want to change and communicate with this collaborativeprocess? Which are our values and the values of the project?...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Open P2P Design: a toolkit for the process
  • 58. 03. Process: Activities and participationOpen P2P Design: a toolkit for the process
  • 59. 04. Activity Analysis01. Which is the activity we are analysing here?...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................02. Who is the subject of this activity? Who does carry out this activity?..................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................03. Through the activity, the subject is working actively on an object. What isthis object?........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Open P2P Design: a toolkit for the process
  • 60. 04. Activity Analysis04. Which are the rules that this subject has to follow within the activity?...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................05. How is the activity organized among the people? How is the workdivided? Which are the roles?...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................06. Which are the artifacts (materials, tools, communications, knowledge)that are needed in order to run the activity?........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Open P2P Design: a toolkit for the process
  • 61. 04. Activity Analysis07. Which is the bigger context (the bigger community where thiscollaborative community takes place) where this activity runs?..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................07.01 Which are the reputation levels that are present in this activity? Howdo people structure reputation?..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................07.02 Which kind of participation is available to the participants? Top-down / emergent bottom-up / a marketplace service that let people establishp2p connections?.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Open P2P Design: a toolkit for the process
  • 62. 04. Activity Analysis08. What does the activity gets in the end? Which are the results, objectives,outcomes the activity looks for?..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................09. Are there any contradictions (that is, sources of possible changes) withinone of the previous elements? [Primary contradictions]..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................10. Are there any contradictions (that is, sources of possible changes)between two (or more) of the previous elements? [Secondary contradictions].................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Open P2P Design: a toolkit for the process
  • 63. 04. Activity Analysis11. Are there any contradictions (sources of possible changes) between theexisting results, objectives, outcomes and probably new ones, coming fromoutside? [Tertiary contradictions]..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................12. Are there any contradictions (sources of possible changes) between thisactivity and its neighbor activities? [Quaternary contradictions]..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................13. Which are the possible changes that these contradictions can bring?.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Open P2P Design: a toolkit for the process Source: http://www.coroflot.com/heo/FOOTWEAR-RUNNING/1
  • 64. 05. Activity Design: Open Design Activity01. Which is the activity we are analysing here?...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................02. Who is the subject of this activity? Who does carry out this activity?..................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................03. Through the activity, the subject is working actively on an object. What isthis object?........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Open P2P Design: a toolkit for the process
  • 65. 05. Activity Design: Open Design Activity04. Which are the rules that this subject has to follow within the activity?...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................05. How is the activity organized among the people? How is the workdivided? Which are the roles?...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................06. Which are the artifacts (materials, tools, communications, knowledge)that are needed in order to run the activity?........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Open P2P Design: a toolkit for the process
  • 66. 05. Activity Design: Open Design Activity07. Which is the bigger context (the bigger community where thiscollaborative community takes place) where this activity runs?..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................07.01 Which are the reputation levels that are present in this activity? Howdo people structure reputation?..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................07.02 Which kind of participation is available to the participants? Top-down / emergent bottom-up / a marketplace service that let people establishp2p connections?.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Open P2P Design: a toolkit for the process
  • 67. 05. Activity Design: Open Design Activity08. What does the activity gets in the end? Which are the results, objectives,outcomes the activity looks for?...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................--> We (obviously) dont design contradictions but we should look for them continuously, in order to understand when and where the collaborative Open Design activity could be changed and improved. Open P2P Design: a toolkit for the process
  • 68. 06. System MapThe System Map is very useful to visualize and design interactions as flowsbetween people. Its elements are:* material flows* information flows* financial flows+ roles+ border of the system Open P2P Design: a toolkit for the process Source: http://www.mepss.nl/index.php?p=tool&l4=W21
  • 69. 06. System MapOpen P2P Design: a toolkit for the process
  • 70. 07. Motivation MatrixThe Motivation Matrix is useful for analysing, designing, visualizinginteractions as motivations between the roles of the Open Design activity. Open P2P Design: a toolkit for the process Source: http://www.servicedesigntools.org/tools/20 http://servicedesign.wikispaces.com/Motivation+Matrix
  • 71. 08. BlueprintService Blueprints are used in torder to design and visualize processes andspecifications of the Activity when it happens inside an organization(Enterprise, Public Administration, Party ...) or there is a place where it meetspeople from outside. Open P2P Design: a toolkit for the process Source: http://www.servicedesigntools.org/tools/35
  • 72. 08. BlueprintOpen P2P Design: a toolkit for the process Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/brandonschauer/3363169836/
  • 73. 09. StoryboardStoryboards are graphic organizers such as a series of illustrations or imagesdisplayed in sequence for the purpose of pre-visualizing a motion picture,animation. They enable analysing, designing, visualizing interactionsthrough time as a story. Open P2P Design: a toolkit for the process Source: http://www.servicedesigntools.org/tools/13 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Storyboard http://www.flickr.com/photos/ninga/473316247/
  • 74. 10. Lets design the Reputation LevelsExplicit and tacit knowledge is what shapes the Collaborative Activity andthe Community: an open and p2p horizontal structure, as the result of theinteractions, reputation and their history:information --> knowledge --> action --> reputation --> organization Open P2P Design: a toolkit for the process Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Legitimate_peripheral_participation
  • 75. 11. LicenseIn order to be able to design or to modify the project in a collaborative way,we need a legal License that let us:* share and distribute the project* modify the project* create a new project from another oneThe License is* a legal tool and a social contract that manage the results and the goals Open P2P Design: a toolkit for the process Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Creative_commons http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Public_domain
  • 76. 11. License: 01 – Review conditions Attribution: Licensees may copy, distribute, display and perform the work and make derivative works based on it only if they give the author or licensor the credits in the manner specified by these. Non commercial: Licensees may copy, distribute, display, and perform the work and make derivative works based on it only for noncommercial purposes. No Derivate Works: Licensees may copy, distribute, display and perform only verbatim copies of the work, not derivative works based on it. Share alike: Licensees may distribute derivative works only under a license identical to the license that governs the original work.Open P2P Design: a toolkit for the process Source: http://creativecommons.org/
  • 77. 11. License: 02 – Select licenseOpen P2P Design: a toolkit for the process Source: http://creativecommons.org/
  • 78. 12. Business model: Business Model Generation Open P2P Design: a toolkit for the process Source: http://www.businessmodelgeneration.com/
  • 79. 12. Business model: a well designed canvasOpen P2P Design: a toolkit for the process Source: http://www.businessmodelgeneration.com/
  • 80. 12. Business model: Open Source (Red Hat)Open P2P Design: a toolkit for the process Source: http://issuu.com/business.model.innovation/docs/business_model_generation_book_preview_embed
  • 81. 06.Open P2P Design: An example
  • 82. Open P2P Design Workshop, Singapore, NTU (2009) Source: http://www.openp2pdesign.org/projects/past-projects/open-p2p-design-workshop-seoul-singapore-2009/
  • 83. 01. Community Analysis
  • 84. “First version of the Participation Matrix, we do everything by ourselves” “Second version, now the students manufacture and manage the product, we just help them distributing it”02. Participation Matrix
  • 85. 03. Open Design Activity
  • 86. “Feedback from students and survey results from customers, now available to read by concept designers.”04. System Map rev. 20
  • 87. “everyone gets paid now!”04. System Map rev.21
  • 88. 05. Open Design Activity Poster
  • 89. Last workshop, Helsinki September 2011 Source: http://workshop.openp2pdesign.org/03helsinki11-trac/
  • 90. Thank you!info@openp2pdesign.org openp2pdesign.org @openp2pdesign