Digital Fabrication Studio 0.3 CNC Milling

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  • 1. Digital_Fabrication_Studio.06CNC milling –materials,finishes,processMassimo Menichinellimassimo.menichinelli@aalto.f@openp2pdesignhttp://www.slideshare.net/openp2pdesign
  • 2. Today:* CNC Milling* CNC,but not only Milling* Examples* Design techniques
  • 3. 01.CNC Milling:computer controlled sculptures
  • 4. Source: http://youtu.be/j4akxGjTbOsCNC millingSculpting (subtracting) from a block of(almost) any material.
  • 5. Source: http://youtu.be/C5tOYWfhuyM?t=50sCNC routingRouting = different technology, different speed andresistance (more suitable for wood than metal).
  • 6. Source: http://www.shopbottools.com/mProducts/3-d_work_v2.htmCNC milling: 2D, 2.5D or 3D ?2D or 2-axis (only X and Y), 2.5D or 2-axis (X,Y,and up/down position), 3D or 3-axis (X,Y,Z).
  • 7. Source: http://youtu.be/ZuXF_Y97j2Mhttp://www.rolanddga.com/products/milling/mdx540/CNC milling: 4-axisAn example: Roland MDX-540 (but theres alsoa desktop version, the MDX-40A).
  • 8. Source: http://youtu.be/vark2IBMGr0 http://www.mdaprecision.com/http://www.fiveaxismachining.com/index.php/why-5-axis/ http://www.shopbottools.com/mProducts/5axis.htmCNC milling: 5-axisAn example: TN5, a 5-Axis Milling Machine.
  • 9. Source: http://www.wired.com/design/2012/06/cnc-mill-that-will-build-a-house/CNC milling: big size!Meet HSM-Modal. This modular and customizable milling machine canexpand into a 12.5m wide, 4m tall, and 150m long giant.
  • 10. Source: http://icreate.rolanddg.com/iModela/Global/English/about/index.html/Roland iModela: small, low-cost CNC millingThe iModela is a low-cost, easy-to-use desktop device that mills wax, foam,balsa wood and plastic materials. Max operation area: 86 x 55 x 26 mm
  • 11. Source: http://www.repairablemachines.com/MiniCNC: Open Source CNC millingA desktop-size, open-source milling machine in kitform, built from lasercutparts: a computer-controlled Dremel with a 20 by 20 cm work surface.
  • 12. Source: http://www.repairablemachines.com/MiniCNC: Open Source CNC millingA desktop-size, open-source milling machine in kitform, built from lasercutparts: a computer-controlled Dremel with a 20 by 20 cm work surface.
  • 13. Source: http://diylilcnc.org/DIYLILCNC: Open Source CNCA free & open-source set of plans for an inexpensive, fully functional 3-axisCNC mill that can be built with basic shop skills and tool access.
  • 14. Source: http://www.shapeoko.com/Shapeoko: Open Source CNCAn open source CNC milling machine that was over 700% funded onKickstarter and that it is now also available on Inventables.com.
  • 15. Source: http://blog.ponoko.com/2011/08/21/3-axis-cnc-router-built-from-lego/http://youtu.be/pX1cO2XhMrg3 Axis CNC router built from LegoArthur Sacek has created a 3D CNC router built entirelyfrom Lego Mindstorm robotics components.
  • 16. Source: http://youtu.be/quN37YskoaM?t=1m18shttp://blog.ponoko.com/2008/11/11/articulated-cnc-robots-are-kinda-scary/Hexapod Robot CNC RouterA walking CNC router built using B.F.Hexapod with an additional foating penattachment, and a utility to convert DXF fles into commands.
  • 17. Source: http://www.rolanddga.com/products/scanners/mdx15/And in our lab: Roland Modela MDX-20 (3 axis)Max operation area:203.2 mm (X) x 152.4 mm (Y) x 60.5 mm (Z)
  • 18. 02.CNC,but not only Milling:other computer controlled tools
  • 19. Source:http://www.creativeapplications.net/processing/valse-automatique-symbiosis-between-humans-and-technology-processing-rhino/CNC milling the musicValse Automatique is a design performance made by translatingmusic to form over the use of a kuka industrial robot.
  • 20. Source: https://vimeo.com/39951217http://www.designboom.com/weblog/cat/10/view/20427/cnc-historical-drawing-machine.htmlCNC milling drawingIn which twelve drawings of historical drawing machines aredrawn by a computer numerical controlled machine.
  • 21. Source: http://evilmadscience.com/productsmenu/tinykitlist/171-egg-bothttp://egg-bot.com/Egg-bot“My experience, perception and digital information(bits) shape this exact material and its values (atoms)”
  • 22. Source: http://diatom.cc/piccolohttps://vimeo.com/36869769Piccolo“My experience, perception and digital information(bits) shape this exact material and its values (atoms)”
  • 23. Source: http://44rn.com/post/7774864814/numericallycontrolledseriesMWM graphics/aarn: CNC drawing series3-axis CNC machine retroftted with a special fxture - which holds amarker and mimics typical hand pressure during the act of drawing.
  • 24. Source: http://blog.makezine.com/2011/09/27/polargraph-drawing-machine/https://vimeo.com/24647023 http://www.instructables.com/id/Polargraph-Drawing-Machine/Polargraph Drawing MachineSandy Nobel‘s Polargraph uses a dual-polar coordinatesystem instead of the standard cartesian.
  • 25. Source: http://tinkerlog.com/2011/09/02/der-kritzler/https://vimeo.com/28003302Der Kritzler Drawing Machine2D scribbling machine, drawing directly on a window.
  • 26. Source: https://vimeo.com/30506602http://www.robotsinarchitecture.org/Robot MasterclassUsing an Arduino board, the KUKA robot interfaced with thespraygun, allowing designs that consist of multiple strokes.
  • 27. Source: http://www.robotsinarchitecture.org/kuka-prchttps://vimeo.com/37480161And a plugin for GrasshopperKUKA|prc enables you to program industrial robots directly out of the parametricmodelling environment, including a full kinematic simulation of the robot.
  • 28. Source: https://vimeo.com/24491037Positioning systems I - falling objectsA custom made machine that adds drops of water onto a special textured surface.Each drop forms into an almost perfect sphere through the surface tension.
  • 29. 03.Examples:what you can do with a CNC millingmachine
  • 30. Source: http://jasondorie.com/page_cnc.htmlCreate halftones images with CNC MillingJason Dorie has created a couple of Windows applications that allow peopleto create halftones images for CNC routing from ordinary image fles.
  • 31. Source: http://youtu.be/xoJDTPRqI6oCreate halftones images with CNC MillingJason Dorie has created a couple of Windows applications that allow peopleto create halftones images for CNC routing from ordinary image fles.
  • 32. Source: http://blog.ponoko.com/2011/08/07/halftone-pictures-drawn-by-cnc/http://youtu.be/REu3MBDsNWoCreate halftones images with CNC MillingA similar example, from Finland...
  • 33. Source: http://sebastienwierinck.com/html/SW_WORK_DF.htmlCNC Milled furniture: flat plackPANELS.02&03 - Chair & table by Sebastien Wierinck.
  • 34. Source: http://blog.ponoko.com/2010/01/28/flat-pack-bike/CNC Milled bike: flat plackWinning second prize from the L’Argus Design Competition for his Roll Bike Conceptdesign, Nicolas Belly has taken the children’s balance bike to another level.
  • 35. Source: http://blog.ponoko.com/2011/08/06/tord-boontje-stitched-collection/http://tordboontje.com/CNC Milled and stitched furnitureStitched collection by Tord Boontje
  • 36. Source: http://blog.ponoko.com/2010/02/21/classic-cuts-and-cnc-craftsmanship/CNC Milled furnitureGareth Neal has produced a few exceptional pieces that straddle the dividebetween art and design, furniture and sculpture.
  • 37. Source: http://blog.ponoko.com/2009/06/03/office-da-pump-serious-cnc-assisted-design/CNC Milled furnitureThe design of the Laszlo Files are based on new possibilities afforded by theuse of computer numerically controlled (CNC) technology.
  • 38. Source: http://blog.ponoko.com/2009/12/13/experiments-in-porosity/http://dudye.com/experimenting-with-porosityTextures: experiment with density and porosity“Albefex BL Special” is designed to be lightweight, self-supporting andcapable of taking advantage of CNC driven digital fabrication techniques.
  • 39. Source: http://www.frameweb.com/news/d-chirico-bakeryCNC Milled interior designWorking with natural materials, March Studio has formed a sculptural retailspace for an artisan bakery in Melbourne, Australia.
  • 40. Source: http://blog.ponoko.com/2009/05/25/lake-cabinet-further-cnc-wall-madness/http://blog.ponoko.com/2012/03/12/cnc-milling-waves/CNC Milled interior designThe piece is essentially a storage cabinet lifted 12″ above the foor. The architectstudied the form of water ripples from several photographs of the lake.
  • 41. Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/42746980@N02/6673839607/in/pool-375602@N23/lightbox/http://blog.ponoko.com/2012/01/11/cnc-milled-wooden-shoes/CNC Milled shoesExperimental shoes by designer Cat Potter were shaped from solid blocks ofwood with a 3-axis CNC milling machine.
  • 42. Source: http://lcamtuf.coredump.cx/rstory/CNC Milled molds for mechanical partsxxx
  • 43. Source: http://blog.ponoko.com/2009/05/07/cnc-vases-by-paul-loebach/CNC milled productsBlocks of solid maple are milled in two separate halves and joined togetherwith an accentuated “parting line”, articulating the profle of the shapes.
  • 44. Source: http://www.fablabhouse.com/en/la-forma-sigue-la-energia/FabLab HouseThe Fab Lab House is developed on a network of fablabs using CNCmachines to design and produce houses than can be customizable.
  • 45. 04.Design techniques:how to design for CNC millingmachines
  • 46. Source: http://www.flexiblestream.org/Digital-Wood-Joints-001.phpDigital wood joints ready to useA library of 50 wood joints in digital format availablefor download and use in your project.
  • 47. Source: http://blog.makezine.com/2012/04/13/cnc-panel-joinery-notebook/Digital wood joints ready to useMore information and tutorials..
  • 48. Source: http://blog.ponoko.com/2009/05/31/ontwerpduo%E2%80%94fun-studio/Wood joints: they dont have to be boringJoints by Tineke Beunders and Nathan Wierink (ontwerpduo) takes advantageof the precision in digital fabrication for an entire mahoganey desk.
  • 49. Source: http://www.cncsimulator.com/CNC SimulatorThe idea of the new CncSimulator Pro is to provide the machining industrywith a contemporary competent Fanuc inspired CNC ISO simulator.
  • 50. Source: http://support.ponoko.com/entries/20735156-things-you-must-know-for-cnc-routingSome suggestions for CNC RoutingYou cannot avoid the size of the tool this time, so yourdesign has to be drafted according to that.
  • 51. Source: http://support.ponoko.com/entries/20786136-cnc-routing-with-grasshopper-for-rhinoCNC routing with Grasshopper for RhinoThe Grasshopper plugin for Rhino is also useful for much simplier tasks suchas offsetting lines as you might do manually for CNC routing.
  • 52. Source: http://academy.cba.mit.edu/content/tutorials/General_Machine_Tutorials/Milling/ModelaPlayer4_tutorial_v2.htmlhttp://www.intellecta.net/mdx-15_20.html http://www.rolanddg.com/product/3d/3d/mdx-20_15/application.htmlRoland Modela Player 4MODELA Player is a CAM software that allows importing of 3D fles for milling it.Virtual MODELA provides a quick preview of the entire milling operation.
  • 53. Source: http://www.elecprint.ch/downloads/modelaplayer4e.pdfRoland Modela Player 4: adding milling bitsMODELA Player is a CAM software that allows importing of 3D fles for milling it.Virtual MODELA provides a quick preview of the entire milling operation.
  • 54. Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/massimo_menichinelli/6680445609/in/photostreamMany different milling bits ...You may encounter also bigger and very different milling bits...
  • 55. Source: http://youtu.be/7wJBRlcWUxAMany different milling bits: square bitsYou may encounter also bigger and very different milling bits...
  • 56. Source: http://youtu.be/VqNvgYsSQ5EMany different milling bits: round bitsYou may encounter also bigger and very different milling bits...
  • 57. Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/aaltofablab/7194264214/in/photostreamOur milling bitsDiameters = 3 mm, 1/32 inch (0.79375 mm), 1/64 inch (0.396875 mm).
  • 58. Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/aaltofablab/7194268852/in/photostreamOur milling bitsDiameters = 3 mm, 1/32 inch (0.79375 mm), 1/64 inch (0.396875 mm).
  • 59. Limitations for the geometryNo undercuts and features on the back side can bemilled on a 3-axis CNC milling machine.
  • 60. Source: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0qmZMq8bbn4Limitations for the geometryDiameters = 3 mm, 1/32 inch (0.79375 mm), 1/64 inch (0.396875 mm).
  • 61. Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/aaltofablab/6924563776/in/photostreamAlways, set the Zero: X, Y, ZAnd write down the X and Y coordinates! Furthermore, dontmill around it, so you can preserve it for future passes.
  • 62. Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/aaltofablab/7070645517/in/photostreamWhen designing, think about the milling bitLeave enough space for the milling bit to pass, or it will erasepart of your details. Rough fnish should leave a 1.4 mm offset.
  • 63. Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/aaltofablab/7070645517/in/photostreamWhen designing, think about the milling bitLeave enough space also around your object!
  • 64. Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/massimo_menichinelli/6765894657/in/photostreamWhen designing, think about the milling bitYour tiniest detail will be the size of your smallest millingbit, not the resolution of your mesh, think about it!
  • 65. Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/aaltofablab/7070645517/in/photostreamThe milling bit is rounded and rotates, so your corners will berounded, and the radius is the same of your biggest milling bit.Rounded milling bits: rounded corners
  • 66. Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/aaltofablab/7194259202/in/photostreamThe milling bits also determines the depthEven if your modelling block is higher than the milling bit,it is the last one that determines how deep you can mill.
  • 67. Depth: draft angles can helpDraft angles can help in reaching deeper with your milling bit.
  • 68. Depth: draft angles can helpDraft angles can help in reaching deeper with your milling bit.
  • 69. Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/massimo_menichinelli/6680470207/in/photostreamDepth: the layers of the materialIf your material has many different layers, you can playwith its structure to achieve different effects.
  • 70. Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/massimo_menichinelli/6680488643/in/photostream/Depth: the layers of the materialIf your material has many different layers, you can playwith its structure to achieve different effects.
  • 71. Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/massimo_menichinelli/6680483663/in/photostreamDepth: the layers of the materialIf your material has many different layers, you can playwith its structure to achieve different effects.
  • 72. Source: http://www.horm.it/eng/prodotti_di_design/toyo-ito/collezione-toyo-ito-foto.php?id=99http://www.bonluxat.com/a/Toyo_Ito_Ripples_Bench.htmlLayers: Ripples, by Toyo ItoRipples, winner of the 2004 Compasso d’Oro, is made ofa laminated composite of fve different solid woods.
  • 73. Source: http://youtu.be/TbwUMYnPfQMLayers: Ripples, by Toyo ItoThe whole manufacturing process of the table, it is worth watching not only forthe CNC part but also for understanding the complexity behind the object.
  • 74. Source: http://kokompe.cba.mit.edu/dist/index.htmlFab Modules: the FabLab standard softwareA software package to run all the FabLab machines onLinux and Mac (if you manage to install it ;-) ).
  • 75. Fab Modules: milling a 2D PCBThe white part will be milled away: the software generate thepaths (each milling bit have its own function and path structure).
  • 76. Fab Modules: milling a 3D objectThe software will translate the 3D model into a BW gradient: white is the top,black the bottom (and then you can set the whole height).
  • 77. Source: http://youtu.be/iljHoaG6Y5ERoland Modela Player 4: processA tutorial for iModela, but the process is the same for theMDX-200 as the software is the same.
  • 78. Source: http://youtu.be/DVfJIU_wD0cRoland Modela Player 4: finishingIf you have only 3 axis, splitting the model into two halvescan be a good technique for achieving complex shapes.
  • 79. Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/aaltofablab/8070113855/Two passes: frst the rough cut, then the fnish cut.Rough cut and Finish cut
  • 80. Thank you!!Massimo MenichinelliAalto Media Factorymassimo.menichinelli@aalto.f@openp2pdesignhttp://www.slideshare.net/openp2pdesign