Digital Fabrication Studio.01 _Fabbing @ Aalto Media Factory
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Digital Fabrication Studio.01 _Fabbing @ Aalto Media Factory

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DIGITAL FABRICATION STUDIO (25438)...

DIGITAL FABRICATION STUDIO (25438)

The course provides a general understanding on how to design and manufacture products and prototypes in a Fab Lab, using digital fabrication technologies and understanding their features and limits.

Students will learn how information shapes design, manufacturing and collaboration processes and artifacts in a Fab Lab. They will learn how to digitally fabricate a project or how to digitally modify an existing project; students will also learn how to manage, embed and retrieve information about a project. Projects and prototypes developed and manufactured in this course will not be interactive.

The course consists of lectures and a group project to be digitally fabricated, be it a project already designed but not yet realized or be it the modification of an existing project. Every lecture (3 hours) includes time for testing the technologies covered (1 hour) and for developing part of the group project and for receiving feedback about it (1 hour).

http://mlab.taik.fi/studies/courses/course?id=1963

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Digital Fabrication Studio.01 _Fabbing @ Aalto Media Factory Digital Fabrication Studio.01 _Fabbing @ Aalto Media Factory Presentation Transcript

  • Digital_Fabrication_Studio.01Fabbing and Fab Labs - history, concepts, felds ofapplicationMassimo Menichinellimassimo.menichinelli@aalto.f 02.05.2012@openp2pdesign Aalto Media Factoryhttp://www.slideshare.net/openp2pdesign Helsinki
  • 25438 Digital Fabrication Studio (Media Lab)May 2nd 2012, 17:00-20:00: Lecture: Fabbing and Fab Labs: history, concepts, felds of application andbusiness models for the projects. Project: brainstorming for the development of a concept and businessmodel for the group projects.May 3rd 2012, 17:00-20:00: Lecture: Projects and information: how to manage, embed and retrieveinformation about projects from databases, websites and the object itself. Project: further development ofthe concept using some of the information management software covered.May 7th 2012, 17:00-20:00: Lecture: Software: how to design a project for digital fabrication with 2D and3D software. Project: development of the frst blueprints from the sketches using the software covered inthe lecture.May 8th 2012, 17:00-20:00: Lecture: Laser Cutting: materials, fnishes and features of 2D digital fabrication.Practice: exercise with laser cutting and further development of the group projects.* Media Lab website: http://mlab.taik.f/studies/courses/course?id=1963* Oodi: link* Noppa: https://noppa.aalto.f/noppa/kurssi/25438/etusivu* Slideshare: http://www.slideshare.net/openp2pdesign* Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/AaltoFablab* Twitter: https://www.facebook.com/AaltoFablab
  • 25438 Digital Fabrication Studio (Media Lab)May 14th 2012, 17:00-20:00: Lecture: CNC Milling: materials, fnishes and features of sculpting 3D objectswith subtractive manufacturing. Practice: exercise with cnc milling and further development of the projects.May 15th 2012, 17:00-20:00: Lecture: 3D Printing / 3D scanning: from atoms to bits and back. Practice:exercise with 3D scanning, 3D printing and further development of the group projects.May 21st 2012, 17:00-20:00: Lecture: Molding and Casting: materials, fnishes and processes for makingsmall series of digitally fabricated objects. Practice: exercise with molding and casting and furtherdevelopment of the group projects.May 22nd 2012, 17:00-20:00: Final presentation: Presentation of the group projects (physical object,blueprints and documentation of the manufacturing process). Collaborative discussion: feedback about theprojects and the course from everybody.* Media Lab website: http://mlab.taik.f/studies/courses/course?id=1963* Oodi: link* Noppa: https://noppa.aalto.f/noppa/kurssi/25438/etusivu* Slideshare: http://www.slideshare.net/openp2pdesign* Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/AaltoFablab* Twitter: https://www.facebook.com/AaltoFablab
  • Today:* Digital Fabrication* FabLabs* Other spaces and services* The business of Digital Fabrication* Our projects
  • 01.Digital Fabrication:interactions between bits and atoms
  • A craft project“This exact material (atoms) and my perception and experience (bits)”Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/kellycdb/6168020183/ http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Wood
  • An industrial project“A standardized material (atoms) described only by numerical values (bits)” Source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:KUKA http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Polyethylene
  • A digital fabrication (fabbing) project “My experience, perception and digital information (bits) shape this exact material and its values (atoms)” Source: http://web.media.mit.edu/~amitz/Amit_Zoran_home_page/the_freeD.html
  • A digital fabrication (fabbing) project “... and I will probably design and make my own tools” [metadesign] Source: http://web.media.mit.edu/~amitz/Amit_Zoran_home_page/the_freeD.html
  • A digital fabrication (fabbing) project “... and I will probably design and make my own tools” [metadesign] Source: http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=TxHiTjapTqg
  • Bits + atoms = information + materials Developing projects at the intersections between bits and atoms Source: http://fablab.waag.org/node/3847
  • Bits and atoms – two directions { { From atoms to bits From bits to atoms (getting data - (build the data - representation) representation)
  • Digital Fabrication and bits+atoms: CBA @ MIT … not the center for rapid prototyping: “investigating the interface between computer science and physical science” Source: http://cba.mit.edu/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neil_Gershenfeld
  • Fab.01: Machines attached to a computer 1950s: frst computer numerical control (CNC) machines, attached to computers Source: http://www.google.com/patents?id=rRpqAAAAEBAJ&printsec=drawing&zoom=4#v=onepage&q&f=false
  • Fab.02: Machines that make machines 2005: RepRapa (open source) 3D printer that replicates itself (and that generated an ecosystem of 3D printers) Source: http://www.reprap.org/
  • Fab.03: Materials with embedded code Materials with an embedded code that help shaping them. Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lego
  • Fab.03: Materials with embedded codeNorth Carolina State University: a simple way to convert two-dimensional patterns into three-dimensional (3-D) objects using only light. Source: http://news.ncsu.edu/releases/wmsdickeyfolding/ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NKRWZG67dtQ
  • Fab.04: Materials with embedded program Materials that have code, data and programs for self-manufacturing / auto-assembly. Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ribosome
  • Fab.04: Materials with embedded program Materials that have code, data and programs for self-manufacturing / auto-assembly. Source: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jml8CFBWcDs http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1PSwhTGFMxs
  • Fab.04: Materials with embedded program Materials that have code, data and programs for self-manufacturing / auto-assembly. Source: http://www.ted.com/talks/skylar_tibbits_can_we_make_things_that_make_themselves.html http://youtu.be/emW1TQ290ec?t=2m10s http://www.sjet.us/SJET-MIT.html
  • Fab.04: coming to the Design world, soonEven IDEO is already researching how to manufacture products starting from bacteria that create shapes through self-organization. Source: http://www.fastcompany.com/biomimicry/training-bacteria-to-grow-consumer-goods
  • Fab.04: coming to the Design world, soon[…] spreading a pattern on a responsive material to control how it deforms when exposed to a stimulus [...] Source: http://www.newscientist.com/blogs/nstv/2012/03/plant-mimicking-gel-could-morph-into-any-3d-shape.html http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J7MyjOTynK0
  • But coming back to Fab 1.0 / 2.0 in 2012Laser cutting CNC milling Vinyl cutter 3D Scanner Digital sewing / 3D printing embroidery CNC milling Electronics machine This is what you usually can fnd in a FabLab, at the moment. Source: adapted from http://fablab.waag.org/machines
  • Democratization of Digital Fabrication “Hello, I am Origo. I am a 3D printer for ten year olds.” Source: http://www.origo3dprinting.com/
  • … and Digital Fabrication became famous Digital Fabrication / distributed manufacturing as a viable tool / strategy for business. Source: http://www.wired.com/magazine/2010/01/ff_newrevolution/ http://econ.st/tnr97E
  • And build your own machine... Not only cutting and printing, also weaving...Source: http://www.fastcodesign.com/1669627/holy-crap-this-mit-robot-might-one-day-weave-a-building http://youtu.be/JgeFLGfvrEM
  • 02.FabLabs:spaces for collaborative use ofdigital fabrication technologies
  • A space that democratizes digital fabrication Exploring collaboratively the interactions between bits and atoms, rather than making (almost) anything... Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/protospace/5199454304/
  • Conditions for being a FabLabConditions:* public access to the fab lab* support and subscribe to the fab lab charter* share a common set of tools and processes* participate in the global fab lab network (no isolation)The Fab Lab conformity rating is a code that describes howclosely a lab meets the conditions for use of the Fab Lab label. Itis a quick summary of the lab "now", can change over time. Theconformity rating is self-assessed or community-assessed. Source: http://wiki.fablab.is/wiki/ConditionsForFabLabLabel
  • Fab Charter* Mission: fab labs are a global network of local labs, enabling invention by providing access for individuals to tools for digital fabrication.* Access: you can use the fab lab to make almost anything (that doesnt hurt anyone); you must learn to do it yourself, and you must share use of the lab with other uses and users* Education: training in the fab lab is based on doing projects and learning from peers; youre expected to contribute to documentation and instruction* Responsibility: youre responsible for: * safety: knowing how to work without hurting people or machines * cleaning up: leaving the lab cleaner than you found it * operations: assisting with maintaining, repairing, and reporting on tools, supplies, and incidents* Secrecy: designs and processes developed in fab labs must remain available for individual use although intellectual property can be protected however you choose* Business: commercial activities can be incubated in fab labs but they must not confict with open access, they should grow beyond rather than within the lab, and they are expected to beneft the inventors, labs, and networks that contribute to their success.August 30, 2007 Source: http://fab.cba.mit.edu/about/charter/
  • Fab Charter (Amsterdam, Netherlands) The Fab Charter is always visible in a FabLab Source: http://fablab.waag.org/archive/fabcharter
  • FabN : the yearly meetingEvery year in August in a different country: this year New Zealand, next year Japan. Source: http://www.fab8nz.com/
  • Fab AcademyThe Fab Academy began as an outreach project from theCBA, and has since spread to Fab Labs around the world. Source: http://fabacademy.org/
  • The International Fab Lab AssociationOn the 4th of July 2011, the International Fab Lab Association was established. It is an association with members, a Board and an Academic Council, etc. Source: http://fablabinternational.org/ http://fablabinternational.blogspot.com/
  • Fab Lab Amsterdam (Netherlands)Fablab Amsterdam is hosted by Waag Society, a non proft organisation active in the feld of social innovation through creative technology. Source: http://fablab.waag.org/ http://www.flickr.com/photos/37873897@N06/4973326149/
  • Mini Fab Lab (Utrecht, Netherlands) A FabLab in your room for 3500 €. Source: http://www.minifablab.nl/
  • Mobile Fab Lab In USA, Europe, South Africa...Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mobile_fab_lab
  • Fab Lab Afghanistan (Jalalabad, Afghanistan) Not only in USA or Europe ... Source: http://www.fablab.af/
  • Fab Lab Afghanistan: FabFi, a projectAn open-source, FabLab-grown system using common building materials and off- the-shelf electronics to transmit wireless ethernet signals. Source: http://fabfi.fabfolk.com/
  • FabLab Barcelona (Spain)From the Institute for Advanced Architecture of Catalonia (IAAC). Source: http://fablabbcn.org/
  • FabLab Barcelona: FabLab House, a project The Fab Lab House is a self-suffcient dwelling produced to take part in the Solar Decathlon Europe 2010. Source: http://www.fablabhouse.com/
  • A FabLab and its local context A city with a long tradition of organic / generativearchitecture and experimental building technologies. Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Casa_Batlló
  • Green FabLab Barcelona A fablab that researches sustainabletechnologies with and for digital fabrication. Source: http://greenfablab.org/
  • The future: Barcelona FabCity “Toni Vives [...], Head of the Department the Urban Habitat in the Offce of the Mayor ofBarcelona and member of the IAAC Board of Directors, presented the city’s plan to become a “Fab City” with multiple Fab Labs in neighborhoods around Barcelona.” Source: http://www.iaacblog.com/blog/2011/iaac-at-fab-7-in-lima-peru/
  • Fab Lab Brand: no trademarkSo far, and except some countries (Netherlands) where is managed by the local association. Source: http://fab.cba.mit.edu/about/logos/index.html
  • Fab Lab and Brand: a possible strategy? Do you recognize this brand? It tried to open a FabLab in Madrid to show how it cares about creativity. Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/journal-du-design/3895643669/
  • Absolut Lab (Madrid, Spain)A huge FabLab sponsored by Absolut Vodka, that was closed few months after its opening... Source:http://www.franciscosegarra.com/absolut-lab-proyecto-interiorismo/
  • 03.Other spaces and services:making digital fabrication evenmore accessible
  • Ponoko (New Zealand)Online service and marketplace (open your own shop) with laser cutting, cnc routing, 3D printing, electronic components through local hubs. Source: http://www.ponoko.com
  • Shapeways (Netherlands)Online service and marketplace (open your own shop) with 3D printing. Source: http://www.shapeways.com
  • i.materialise (Belgium)Online service and marketplace (open your own shop) with 3D printing. Source: http://i.materialise.com/
  • Sculpteo (France)Online service and marketplace (open your own shop) with 3D printing. Source: http://www.sculpteo.com/en/
  • Hackerspaces / MakerspacesHackerspaces are open community labs with machine shops, workshops and/or studios where hackers can share resources and knowledge. Source: http://hackerspaces.org/wiki/List_of_Hacker_Spaces
  • Helsinki HacklabThe local hackerspace... Source: http://helsinki.hacklab.fi/
  • Sewing Café A coworking space with sewing andembroidery machine (usually pay per hour) Source: http://www.thesewingcafe.co.uk/
  • Techshop (USA)A network of commercial spaces with many tools andtechnologies and paid support services (only in USA). Source: http://techshop.ws/
  • 100k Garages (USA)100kGarages is a place for people who have designs (or just ideas) to connect with digital fabricators ("Fabbers") who can help make these ideas. Source: http://100kgarages.com/
  • Maker FactoryThe same service as 100kgarages, but open source … Source: http://makerfactory.com/
  • Seoul (South Korea)No FabLabs or similar places, but many small manufacturers that will produce you small-scale series very quickly.
  • Living Labs (USA, Europa)Spaces for co-designing products and services with users... not necessarily with digital fabrication. Source: http://www.openlivinglabs.eu/
  • 04.The business of Digital Fabrication:interactions between bits and atoms
  • A space for DIY projectsThe frst value offer is a space for people to develop (and learn) their own projects. Source: Scott Beale / Laughing Squid http://laughingsquid.com http://www.flickr.com/photos/laughingsquid/133324021/
  • Generative DesignGenerative Design projects need digital fabrication technologies for being manufactured. Source: http://www.n-e-r-v-o-u-s.com/
  • Mass Customization Mass customization can be enabled in an easier way with digitalfabrication technologies (and places for interacting with customers). Source: http://nikeid.nike.com/nikeid/
  • (Open) Design competitionsDigital fabrication and FabLabs open new possibilities for Design competitions and Open Design. Source: http://unlimiteddesigncontest.org/
  • (Open) Design competitionsDigital fabrication and FabLabs open new possibilities for Design competitions and Open Design.Source: http://www.domusweb.it/en/upcoming-event/call-for-ideas-autoprogettazione-20--/ http://www.domusweb.it/en/news/autoprogettazione-20-on-display/
  • Develop (open) products and services OpenMoko was the frst product to be completely open: open hardware, open source software, open design. Source: http://wiki.openmoko.org/wiki/Main_Page
  • Open: Hardware, Software, Design BugLabs has been much more successful in offering completely open products. Source: http://www.buglabs.net/
  • BugLabs + FordSo successful that they just announced a partnership with Ford Car. Source: http://www.buglabs.net/ford-buglabs
  • Open Design: (almost) already successful When you have a sci-f novel from a popular autor about open design and makers, they are not underground any longer. Source: http://craphound.com/makers/download/
  • Open Design: (almost) already successful And when probably the biggest CAD design software house buys an open design community, there must be money ahead! Source: http://www.instructables.com/community/Instructables-Joins-Autodesk/ http://techcrunch.com/2011/08/01/autodesk-acquires-diy-community-instructables/
  • Open Design: (almost) already successfulAnd when probably the biggest CAD design software house offers freeware software for makers, there must be money ahead! Source: http://www.123dapp.com/
  • And designers can be entrepreneurs New platforms for crowdsourcing allow you to fund your projects, anddigital fabrication and FabLabs could be useful for manufacturing them. Source: http://www.kickstarter.com/projects/1104350651/tiktok-lunatik-multi-touch-watch-kits
  • Shorter and more sustainable supply chains Visualizing and redesigning supply chains, through open source and open data software. Source: http://www.sourcemap.com
  • A typical closed innovation system This is the typical evolution of a closed company... Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_Microsoft_Windows
  • An open innovation systemAnd newer pictures are too big for a slide :-) Source: http://futurist.se/gldt/
  • But “Open” alone is not enoughOpen Source is a good strategy, but your project needs to be meaningful for enough people! Source: http://www.kickstarter.com/projects/1833785894/100k-stray-toasthed-pull-toys
  • You need to interact with the market … and this is exactly what new services and platforms enable! Source: http://www.threadless.com/
  • Open Hardware: a rising market $11,000,000 $10,000,000 $9,000,000 $8,000,000 $7,000,000 $6,000,000Revenues $5,000,000 $4,000,000 $3,000,000 $2,000,000 $1,000,000 $0 Arduino Liquidware Chumby Adafruit BugLabs Sparkfun Makerbot MakerShed DIY Droneseeed Studios S 2009: 13 companies above $ 1 m. (totale: $ 50 m.). $ 1 billion by 2015. Source: http://blog.makezine.com/archive/2010/05/million-dollar-baby-businesses-de.html
  • SparkFun“In 2010, SparkFun had revenues of about $18.4MM. As of April of 2011, wehave around 120 employees, up from 87 a year ago.”“We hope to grow by 50% this year (2011) to around $28MM in sales. Weexpect to be in the 30-50MM range in the next 3-5.” Source: http://www.sparkfun.com/news/599
  • And Etsy for DIY / CraftsAnother big player, a marketplace for your DIY /Crafts projects (exploiting the long tail effect). Source: http://www.etsy.com/
  • A long tail of users / projects...Number of items sold Top hits Long tail Number of projects Another big player, a marketplace for your DIY / Crafts projects (exploiting the long tail effect). Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Power_law
  • $350,000,000 Etsy: exploiting the long tail $300,000,000 $250,000,000Total $ sold (Gross Merchandise Sales) $200,000,000 $150,000,000 $100,000,000 $50,000,000 $0 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 (March) Users: +8 milioni / Active shops: +800,000 Products: 8.5 milions. Source: http://www.etsy.com/press/kit/
  • Makers can create a startup: Makerbot Started from an hackerspace (and from RepRap, even fnancially). Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/kellycdb/6168020183/ http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Wood
  • The market of 3D printing 3D printing market has grown by 24.1% in 2011.Forecasts: $3.1 billions (2016) $5.2 billions (2020). (Wohlers Associates, 2011) Sustainable business Not yet sustainable--> $10 Milions from VC --> $5 Milions from VC Source: http://wohlersassociates.com/press54.htm
  • Big corporations: 3D Systems Not only hackers or startups are in this feld, but even big and old companies. Source: http://www.3dsystems.com/
  • Digital Fabrication: not just machines28% 41% Stampanti 3D Materiali 31% Servizi There are many ways for making money with digital fabrication... Source: http://investor.3dsystems.com/
  • Fabbing + designers = $$$ + Open Design Big corporations love shopping Design companies for selling their content with 3D printers. Source: http://www.freedomofcreation.com/home/3d-systems-acquires-freedom-of-creation
  • But even makers may be giving content away... The same strategy of giving content to the users of the 3D printers has been adopted by Makerbot. Source: http://www.thingiverse.com/
  • Fabbing + designers = $$$ + Open Design But even anybody could become a user, so lets buy a design software and offer it to them. Source: http://blog.3dsystems.com/2011/05/3d-systems-partners-with-alibre.html http://www.alibre.com/
  • And users innovate (even in non open way) Not developed by a company... Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skateboard
  • Users innovate – a lot!“We fnd this previously unmeasured type of household sectorinnovation to be quite large: 6.2% of UK consumers - 2.9 millionindividuals - have engaged in consumer product innovation duringthe prior 3 years. In aggregate, consumers’ annual productdevelopment expenditures are 2.3 times larger than the annualconsumer product R&D expenditures of all frms in the UKcombined. “Eric A. Von Hippel, Jeroen De Jong, Steven FlowersComparing Business and Household Sector Innovation in ConsumerProducts: Findings from a Representative Study in the UKhttp://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1683503
  • Business models for FabLabs* Enabler: launch new Labs and support services* Education: a global distributed model of education through Fab Labs (Fab Academy + peer-to-peer learning)* Incubator: provide infrastructure for entrepreneurs to turn their Fab Lab creations into sustainable local businesses.* Replicated / Network: provide a product, service or curriculum that operates by utilizing the infrastructure, staff and expertise of a local Fab Lab Source: http://www.openp2pdesign.org/2011/fabbing/business-models-for-fab-labs/ http://www.fablab.is/w/index.php/Proposal#Overall_Goals_within_the_Fab_ecosystem
  • 06.Our projects:lets start developing them and theirbusiness model!
  • Assignment for this courseThe course consists of lectures and a group project to bedigitally fabricated, be it a project already designed but not yetrealized or be it the modifcation of an existing project. Everylecture (3 hours) includes time for testing the technologiescovered (1 hour) and for developing part of the group projectand for receiving feedback about it (1 hour).* form groups* learn the process, tools and context* also develop a business model for your project* prototype, test, explore, share, collaborate
  • Suggestions for this course* Think about a simple project: it doesnt have to save the world, just make you learn digital fabrication and it has to be completed on time* fail early, fail often: we are all prototyping (your projects, this course, this lab...)* explore: a 100% original project is not required (does it exist?), learn from others and just dont reinvent the wheel* you can use the lab even outside of the course hours* you decide how much time to spend for testing and how much time for developing the project; I will help you, dont worry!
  • Business Model Design (democratized) Not a business plan, no numbers, dont worry: prototype ideas! Source: http://www.businessmodelgeneration.com/book
  • Business Model Canvas: prototype Not a business plan, no numbers, dont worry: prototype ideas! Source: http://www.businessmodelgeneration.com/canvas http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Business_Model_Canvas
  • Business Model Canvas: prototype Not a business plan, no numbers, dont worry: prototype ideas! Source: http://www.businessmodelgeneration.com/canvas http://youtu.be/QoAOzMTLP5s http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Business_Model_Canvas
  • No idea for a project? Hack one! IKEA products are cheap enough, there are many options and components that can be reused. Source: http://www.ikeahackers.net/
  • Thank you!!Massimo MenichinelliAalto Media Factorymassimo.menichinelli@aalto.f 02.05.2012@openp2pdesign Aalto Media Factoryhttp://www.slideshare.net/openp2pdesign Helsinki