The definitive guide to measuring lead nurturing 8-2013

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The definitive guide to measuring lead nurturing 8-2013

  1. 1. August 2013 Deep Dive The Definitive Guide to Measuring Lead Nurturing About the Pie Chart The data presented in the pie chart is derived from the Q2 2013 Marketing Automation survey (n=220). The data serves as the basis for this Gleansight Deep Dive, which provides analyst commentary related to a particular aspect of the topic. The objective is to provide additional perspective and illuminate certain key considerations regarding the implementation of the related technology-enabled business initiative. Additional survey data utilized: »» Q2 2013 Gleanster Survey on Inbound Marketing (n=305) »» Q1 2013 Gleanster Survey on Nurture Marketing (n=268) To learn more about Gleanster’s research methodology, please click here or email research@gleanster.com. From tangible justification to ongoing measurement; essential metrics for nurture marketing success Lead nurturing is a popular subject these days, particularly among Top Performers. According to Gleanster research, 95% of Top Performers report that they currently leverage lead nurturing, versus 57% of Everyone Else. The thing is, lead nurturing can be defined in many different ways, so it’s difficult to ascertain real trends from stated use of lead nurturing in our surveys. Everyone seems to be sending newsletters or periodic campaigns, which are technically a form of lead nurturing. But a closer look at the data reveals that Top Performers are not only more likely to leverage advanced capabilities such as lead scoring and trigger marketing, they are also much more likely to physically measure the success of lead nurturing. But there’s the rub. Measurement is perhaps the most troubling of lead nurturing challenges, although it ranks the third most common challenge according to Top Performers. How do you actually measure lead nurturing? This Deep Dive will explore tangible ways to justify lead nurturing and the metrics that are essential to Top Performer success. 65% 68% centage of Top Performers that regard “Generate Insights” as a top reason to monitor Social Media Note: This document is intended for individual use. Electronic distribution via email or by posting on a personal website is in violation of the terms of use. Percentage of respondents that rank “measuring return on investment” as one of the three most challenging aspects of lead nurturing. Lead nurturing can be loosely defined as a series of tactics and processes designed to build relationships with prospects and customers, even when Entire content © 2013 Gleanster, LLC. All rights reserved. Unauthorized use or reproduction prohibited. they aren’t actively looking to buy. It therefore comes as no surprise that the two biggest challenges with lead nurturing are developing content to use
  2. 2. The Definitive Guide to Measuring Lead Nurturing 2 Figure 1: Challenges with Implementing Lead Nurturing Top Performers Defined Gleanster uses 2-3 key performance indicators (KPIs) to distinguish “Top Performers” from all other companies (“Everyone Else”) within a given data set, thereby establishing a basis for benchmarking best practices. By definition, Top Performers are comprised of the top quartile of qualified survey respondents (QSRs). The KPIs used for distinguishing Top Performers focus on performance metrics that speak to year-overyear improvement in relevant, measurable areas. Not all KPIs are weighted equally. The KPIs used for this Deep Dive are: • 12-month change in revenue • Growth in new customer acquisition • Average lead-to-sales conversion rate Note: This document is intended for individual use. Electronic distribution via email or by posting on a personal website is in violation of the terms of use. Top 3 Challenges with Lead Nurturing Currently using Lead Nurturing 92% Developing nurture marketing content 95% Top Performers 57% 95% 81% Quality of customer data 61% 56% Measuring return on investment Everyone Else 73% 0% Top Performers 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Everyone Else Nurture Marketing Survey 2013, n=268, Qualified Survey Respondents n=219 (Top Performers n= 43, Everyone Else n=176) in campaigns (92%) and data quality (81%). (See Figure 1.) Nurture marketing is about using value-added content to build relationships and earn a reputation for your brand as a trusted advisor in the purchase cycle. Content can be used to educate, qualify, and sell to individuals. But as most markets are all too aware, the explosion of content and emerging marketing channels has shifted the power into the hands of the buyer, and informed buyers can make for hyper-competitive environments. On top of that, not all content is created equal; it must be relevant and timely. That means extracting value from lead nurturing requires alignment with the buyer’s purchase cycle. Marketers have to expose relevant and personalized content at just the right time in the purchase cycle across any channel a prospect or customer prefers. Unfortunately, all of these forces complicate lead nurturing efforts, which is why even Top Performers sometimes struggle to measure the success of lead nurturing. Nurturing in a Nutshell Over the last 3-4 years, research has Entire content © 2013 Gleanster, LLC. All rights reserved. Unauthorized use or reproduction prohibited. consistently shown that marketers are seeing diminishing returns from traditional marketing tactics like mass email campaigns. For B2B marketers, it’s all about relationships, not broadcasting marketing communications. Prospects don’t just disregard generic communications, they are frustrated by them. That’s why Top Performers who embrace emerging B2B marketing tactics like lead nurturing excel in market-share growth, revenue growth, and customer satisfaction. Before jumping into the ways to measure lead nurturing, it’s a good idea to get on the same page about what it means to use lead nurturing. Technically, a periodic newsletter is a form of lead nurturing, which is why survey results constantly suggest that eight out of ten organizations engage in some form of lead nurturing. But in the context of maximizing a return on investment, lead nurturing should be defined by the tactics that Top Performers are more likely to leverage. These include things like trigger marketing, lead scoring, content marketing, multi-channel engagement, and the use of multiple lead nurturing campaign types (discussed in the
  3. 3. The Definitive Guide to Measuring Lead Nurturing section: Aligning Lead Nurturing Campaigns to the Lead Lifecycle). Top Performing Use of Lead Nurturing Consists Of... Lead nurturing typically involves one, or ideally all, of the following: • Value-added content. Lead nurturing is about engaging prospects with relevant content along the entire spectrum of the lead lifecycle: from lead to prospect to customer. For this reason, it demands a variety of different content strategies. Some content will be informational, some content will be technical, some content will be “salesy,” and some will be a combination of all of the above. • Multi-channel communications. Know your target audience. What are the channels through which are they likely to be receptive to receiving valueadded communications – email, direct mail, social media, blogging, webinars, etc. • Drip-marketing & triggermarketing tactics. With drip marketing, marketers pre-configure the time intervals between communications with prospects. But this is a static form of communication that doesn’t necessarily engage prospects at just the right time. Top Performers are 7x more likely than Everyone Else to use trigger marketing techniques that initiate communications based on prospect behavior – a click of a link, a form fill, a download, etc. • Lead scoring. Lead scoring is an automated way of aggregating prospect behavior to qualify and determine the propensity to buy. Top Performers are 9x more likely than Everyone Else to use marketing automation tools, which provide lead scoring and integration with CRM for automated escalation of the hottest leads. Note: This document is intended for individual use. Electronic distribution via email or by posting on a personal website is in violation of the terms of use. Justifying Investments in Lead Nurturing Over the last 3-4 years, research ha It’s a mistake to think that lead nurturing is “just for marketing,” and it’s not just about nurturing leads; it’s about acquiring and engaging customers. For this reason, the success of lead nurturing is largely measured by revenue, and that’s the goal for marketing and sales. As a business tactic, lead nurturing primarily falls on marketers to execute, but without alignment with sales and a holistic approach to fostering relationships across the entire lead-to-close sales cycle, lead nurturing cannot deliver a positive return on investment. While technologies like marketing automation play a critical role, Top Performers invest heavily in exposing the buying and sales cycle to optimization and improvement. That means both marketing and sales will have metrics that impact success, and both functions will likely need to contribute to process improvement and ongoing commitment to collaboration. In fact, justifying lead nurturing investments isn’t possible without some level of understanding about sales performance. After all, what you do after you source a qualified lead is every bit as important as the process of qualifying and nurturing the lead. Plus, new customer acquisition with lead nurturing represents just one-third of the ways organizations can apply lead nurturing to capture revenue. Lead nurturing can be used to plug the holes in the pipeline when, for whatever reason, a deal falls through but may close at a later time. It can also be used to engage existing customers in up-selling and cross-selling campaigns. Entire content © 2013 Gleanster, LLC. All rights reserved. Unauthorized use or reproduction prohibited. 3 Figure 2 provides a basic structure for defining the benefits of lead nurturing in a tangible and numeric way. This should be a useful framework for demonstrating to a CFO or CEO the expected benefits of lead nurturing relative to what your organization is doing today. If your sales reps continue to perform at the same level and you invest the same money in marketing, what impact would lead nurturing have on your revenue? Let’s take a closer look at how to fill in the model. Average Deal Size (a). This is a dollar value, and it should be the same amount with and without lead nurturing. While this may increase over time with lead nurturing, it should be defined as a static and consistent amount when justifying the investment. You should be able to find this metric from your CRM or sales dashboard. Average Opportunity-to-Close (b). This is a measure of how successful sales is at closing deals after a qualified lead has been added to CRM as a potential opportunity. What percentage of leads move from opportunity to close on average? It should be the same for both boxes. Quarterly Leads Generated (c). Assume the same number of leads is generated. If you aren’t sure, use a simple number like 1,000. The model still works if the deal size and close ratio are directionally accurate On average, research suggests that Top Performers qualify about 50% of the leads they source, and about 25% are considered sales ready leads. If your organization has different levels of success for (d) and (e), use your own percentages here.
  4. 4. The Definitive Guide to Measuring Lead Nurturing 4 Figure 2: Interactive Framework for Justifying Lead Nurturing WITH LEAD NURTURING WITHOUT LEAD NURTURING Dollar Amount Dollar Amount % % # of Leads # of Leads 50% are Qualified (d) c x 50% c x 50% 25% are Sales Acceptable (e) c x 25% c x 25% exb exb d x 20%* d x 8% Average Deal Size (a) Average Opportunity-to-Close Ratio (b) Quarterly Leads Generated (c) # of Closed Deals (f) # of Qualified Leads that buy later (g) Tangible Revenue fxa fxa + + gxa Estimated opportunity cost of not using lead nurturing. Total gxa - Total = *279 survey respondents to Q3 2010 “Capitalizing on Lead Nurturing” indicated average close ratio on nurtured leads is 25%. *279 survey respondents to Q3 2010 “Capitalizing on Lead Nurturing” indicated average close ratio on nurtured leads is 25%. Row (g) is where the benefits of lead nurturing are easy to point out. According to Top Performers in a 2010 survey from Gleanster research, approximately 8% of the leads that were deemed qualified but not sales ready come back and purchase at a later time without any intervention from marketing. With lead nurturing, this number can be increased fourfold to as much as 20-25%. We will use 20% to be conservative, and this assumes your organization is truly developing quality content that is personalized by stage in the buying cycle. Note: This document is intended for individual use. Electronic distribution via email or by posting on a personal website is in violation of the terms of use. Aligning Lead Nurturing Campaigns to the Lead Lifecycle Each stage in the buying journey is unique. In fact, the traditional concept of Entire content © 2013 Gleanster, LLC. All rights reserved. Unauthorized use or reproduction prohibited. a sales funnel is increasingly becoming obsolete because purchase decisions are rarely linear. Nurture marketing allows your organization to embrace each prospect’s uniqueness in the buying process and educate them at a customized pace. Depending on your organization’s objectives, different nurture marketing tactics can be configured to address different stages of the buying cycle. In some respects it’s like capturing different types of revenue with lead nurturing. • Revenue from new unknown prospects (Leads) • Revenue from known prospects who chose not to buy in the past (Prospects) • Revenue from customers through cross-selling and up-selling (Customers)
  5. 5. The Definitive Guide to Measuring Lead Nurturing 5 Figure 3: The Seven Types of Lead Nurturing Campaigns ? LEADS LEAD LIFECYCLE ! PROSPECTS * CUSTOMERS Qualification Campaign Call-to-Action Campaign Post-Purchase • Route prospects to sales or nurturing campaigns. • Drive prospects to sales engagement. • Up-selling, cross-selling, customer support. Awareness Campaign Re-Engagement Campaign • Generic ongoing communications. • Stay in communication with leads that engaged sales but did not buy. Accelerator Campaign • Use prospect behavior to trigger engagement. Acquisition Campaign • Encourage leads to talk with sales. Goals: Conversion, ClickThroughs, Multi-Channel Interaction, Form Fill, Downloads Goals: Sales Acceptance, Engagement, Opportunity Creation, Contact with decision maker(s) & influencers Goals: Conversion, ClickThroughs, Sales or Service Engagement Most organizations that leverage lead nurturing are heavily invested in campaigns and tactics for the front end of the funnel (finding and qualifying new leads), and rightfully so. Figure 2 shows the different types of lead nurturing campaigns relative to the lead lifecycle and the goals of each stage. Note: This document is intended for individual use. Electronic distribution via email or by posting on a personal website is in violation of the terms of use. Top Performers are 9x more likely than Everyone Else to automate lead nurturing campaigns for sales engaged leads that don’t buy in the short term. These fall under the Prospect category, and they typically plug holes in the pipeline that are hemorrhaging revenue opportunity. Lead nurturing is a powerful tool for pulling opportunities into the pipeline. Content is used like bait to attract prospects, educate them, and qualify them based on their engagement across one or more channels. Generally, about 80% of nurture marketing efforts will target the lead stage of the lead lifecycle. At this stage the goal is to educate and build a relationship as a trusted advisor to a purchase decision. Prospects may not even know they have a challenge your products and services can solve. But exclusive focus on new customer acquisition and lead nurturing is also where most organizations fall short of realizing the full potential from lead nurturing. Research shows that A Guide to Essential Lead Nurturing Metrics Entire content © 2013 Gleanster, LLC. All rights reserved. Unauthorized use or reproduction prohibited. To effectively measure lead nurturing, organizations actually have to track about a dozen different metrics. That’s because, while the goal is definitely to measure an impact on revenue, a nurtured lead enters a variety of different stages in the lead lifecycle before becoming a paying customer. Figure 3 shows the different goals of each stage. Naturally, the metrics used to measure success are also unique to the stage in the lead lifecycle. As such, measuring lead nurturing is about tracking metrics that can provide insight into optimization of marketing and sales processes.
  6. 6. The Definitive Guide to Measuring Lead Nurturing Marketing Metrics for Lead Nurturing Click-through Rate What does it tell us? Click-through rates are a measure of engagement in digital media on the website, email campaigns, landing pages, etc. This is a great way to ascertain how effective different lead nurturing messages are at engaging the right target audience. What data is required? Click-through rates can be calculated within email marketing and marketing automation tools. Theis required? What data nice thing about marketing automation tools is that click-through rates can calculation? What is the be captured across multiple channels in one centralized platform. What is the calculation? The click-through rate is calculated by dividing the number of clicks by the total number of impressions. Conversion Rate What does it tell us? Conversion can be measured in tangible revenue or as a measure of engagement. In lead nurturing, many times the goal of a campaign isn’t a sale. Sometimes, lead nurturing campaigns are exclusively focused on education, and therefore conversion would be a measure of the number of times an asset was downloaded, or possibly visit duration on a critical webpage. What data is required? Note: This document is intended for individual use. Electronic distribution via email or by posting on a personal website is in violation of the terms of use. There are many different types of conversion rates, and generally it’s best Entire content © 2013 Gleanster, LLC. All rights reserved. Unauthorized use or reproduction prohibited. What is the calculation? 6 to configure them in web analytics or marketing automation and allow the tools to track things like number of pages visited, visit duration, asset downloads, etc. Lead Score What does it tell us? Lead scoring is a marketing automation specific feature and the only way B2B marketers can qualify prospects in a structured way. Lead scoring assigns numeric scores to prospects based on behavior, activity, and profile attributes. The aggregate lead score tells marketers which prospects are qualified and have a higher propensity to purchase. Thresholds can be set to route high scoring leads directly to CRM from within marketing automation. What data is required? Lead scoring methodologies can be as complicated as marketers desire. In general, each time a score is assigned to a lead, it should contribute toward qualifying the propensity to purchased What is the accepted based on the internally calculation? definition of a qualified lead. Seventy What data is required? percent (70%) of Top Performers report that they start with pre-configured scoring methodologies from vendors and then tweak them over time to meet the unique needs of the business. What is the calculation? Lead scores can be assigned based on a variety of criteria, and typically the calculation would happen within a marketing automation tool. Consider using detractor scores to reduce the lead score for prospects that don’t engage for long periods of time or display undesirable characteristics (such as a student or job seeker).
  7. 7. The Definitive Guide to Measuring Lead Nurturing Marketing Qualified Lead (MQL) Tracking the Lead-to-Sale: A Note on Attribution One of the most difficult aspects of measuring lead nurturing is attribution. Frankly, that’s one of the most difficult parts of measuring anything in marketing. How do you associate different marketing interactions with the ultimate metric of success, revenue? The value of lead nurturing programs is often understated because the most popular way of attributing credit to marketing engagement is “first-touch” or “last-touch” methodologies. With this approach the campaign that generated the lead, or the most recent campaign to touch the lead before it became an opportunity, is assigned full credit for the revenue associated with the opportunity. But, as Top Performers can attest, lead nurturing is about engaging prospects across the entire lead lifecycle, so these methodologies fail to capture aggregate interactions. It’s therefore critical for marketers to embrace a “multi-touch” campaign attribution approach that recognizes and gives weight to multiple nurture campaign responses. This can be accomplished in one of two ways. The first model assigns an even weight across all campaign interactions. As such, partial credit is assigned evenly to each campaign or engagement. The second approach assigns a heavier weight to the first and last touch, but still gives credit to other nurture campaigns. What does it tell us? The term Marketing Qualified Lead (MQL) became popular among B2B marketers about 5 years ago, thanks in large part to the work of the analyst firm Sirius Decisions. MQL classifications are typically defined by a lead score, and therefore this metric is a measure of a prospect’s propensity to purchase. The definition of a qualified lead should be defined in collaboration with marketing and sales. Some organizations will use the term MQL and sales-qualified lead interchangeably, and for all intents and purposes they are the same thing. It’s generally good practice not to have salespeople spending time qualifying opportunities, and the MQL classification ensures that marketers are educating and qualifying leads before they are passed to sales. As such, the Marketing Qualified Lead should really be defined by sales. Some Top Performers will add a subsequent classification called “Sales Accepted Lead (SAL).” The Sales Accepted Lead is merely a classification in CRM that forces sales to take ownership of the MQL prospect. This allows organizations to track the conversion from MQL to SAL and therefore determine if there are bottlenecks in the lead handoff from marketing to sales. Campaign Attribution What does it tell us? Campaign attribution tells marketers which campaigns are sourcing qualified leads and the number of leads generated. With campaign attribution, marketers are assigning a partial value to each interaction that drives a desired outcome. Note: This document is intended for individual use. Electronic distribution via email or by posting on a personal website is in violation of the terms of use. What data is required? In order to track campaign attribution, marketers need to be capable of tagging campaigns and assigning weights to each touch. (See Entire content © 2013 Gleanster, LLC. All rights reserved. Unauthorized use or reproduction prohibited. 7 sidebar “Tracking the Lead-to-Sale: A Note on Attribution.”) Sales Metrics for Lead Nurturing Average Deal Size What does it tell us? Average deal size helps marketers determine the impact that lead nurturing can have on the sales pipeline. This is especially powerful when applied to middle stage opportunities that don’t purchase. Lead nurturing plugs the holes in the pipeline and ensures that money spent identifying leads isn’t lost to competitors just because the prospect chooses not to take action in the short term. What data is required? What data is required? Total revenue and total number of opportunities, both available from within CRM. What is the calculation? What is the calculation? Total sales in dollars divided by the number of opportunities for a given period of time. Sales Cycle Time What does it tell us? Sales cycle time is a measure of how long the average opportunity takes to move from qualified to a closed sale in days. Monitoring the sales cycle over time after implementing lead nurturing can tell marketers if content is contributing to shorter sales cycles. Theoretically, a more educated and qualified lead should lead to shorter sales cycles. Likewise, longer sales cycles might be an indication that buyers needs aren’t being addressed, or lead nurturing content isn’t targeting the right buyer or buyers within a target audience.
  8. 8. The Definitive Guide to Measuring Lead Nurturing 8 What data is required? What data is required? The accuracy of the sales cycle time is 100% contingent on how diligent salespeople are at updating opportunity status in CRM. What is the calculation? What is the calculation? Average number of days an opportunity in CRM takes to move from sales qualified to closed won. Sales Qualified-to-Close Ratio What does it tell us? The Sales Qualified-to-Close ratio is the percentage of qualified leads that convert to paying customers over a given period. This metric should be measured before and after lead nurturing to determine if lead nurturing has an impact on sales success. Eighty-two percent (82%) of Top Performers indicate this is a top three metric for measuring the impact of lead nurturing on the sales pipeline. What data is required? The quantity of closed deals over a given time period. What is the calculation? Total number of closed opportunities divided by the total number of opportunities for a given period of time. Ongoing Reporting The aforementioned metrics and methodologies will help give visibility into the success of lead nurturing efforts. But marketers must also use the data to extract qualitative insights. Figure 4 shows how marketers can use lead nurturing performance to replicate current success in future strategy. Recommendations Establish priorities and stick to low-hanging fruit. For marketers that are new to lead nurturing, the biggest mistake you can make is to over-engineer nurture marketing programs. In fact, Top Performers consistently demonstrate that less complex campaigns generate the highest return. Naturally, the success of lead nurturing is largely contingent on the availability of content and the personalized nature of this content. But the easier it is to back into the attributes that contributed to a score, the more likely it is that sales will embrace the Figure 4: Reporting Requirements for Top Performers What is the calculation? By Closed Won By Lead Volume Note: This document is intended for individual use. Electronic distribution via email or by posting on a personal website is in violation of the terms of use. By Content •- Number of interactions •- Number of nurture campaign interactions •- Top content assets by closed won • - Number of leads by first touch • - Number of leads by channel • - Number of leads by last touch • - Most compelling first touch content • - Most compelling last touch content • - Most popular content by lead stage Entire content © 2013 Gleanster, LLC. All rights reserved. Unauthorized use or reproduction prohibited.
  9. 9. The Definitive Guide to Measuring Lead Nurturing qualification rankings inside of CRM. Complex scores lead to questions from sales that marketing can’t answer; that’s bad news for a new lead nurturing initiative. Establish a baseline for benchmarking. Marketers need to benchmark and track performance over time. This is especially important during the initial launch of a lead nurturing program. Make sure you have documented baseline metrics for sales success, average leads generated, the volume of qualified leads, and average deal size. This is the only way you will be capable of measuring a delta between life before and after lead nurturing. In addition, it’s critical to start with a common understanding of what defines a qualified lead. This is the baseline for which initial programs will be configured. This definition can change over time, but only if both sales and marketing are in alignment on the changes. A comprehensive approach. You don’t have a marketing problem and you don’t have a sales problem. You have a revenue problem, and solving it demands equally important contributions from marketing and sales. 9 As such, it’s not just about tracking how many leads marketing generated, it’s about taking that measurement all the way to the closed sale. You should know exactly how much revenue can be attributed to marketing and how much marketing spend it took to generate it. Top Performers measure success based on marketing and sales performance. For this reason, marketers have to understand the average deal size, lead conversion, and the sales cycle time to really measure lead nurturing effectively. Standardize metrics. If possible, rely on technology to provide standardized measurement for key metrics. The only way to establish a benchmark is to consistently measure metrics in the same way over time. Before developing custom metrics, think long and hard about the business case for supporting these outside of a core system of record. Generally, changes in metric performance will alert marketing or sales of potential issues in the pipeline. So don’t complicate the process by calculating customized metrics in spreadsheets. This also makes it extremely difficult to maintain consistency if there are changes to the organizational structure. Deep Dive Talking Points • There are seven types of lead nurturing campaigns. There are three stages in the lead lifecycle: lead, prospect, and customer. • Consider a multi-touch attribution model instead of a first-touch or last-touch approach. First and last touch undervalue lead nurturing interactions. Note: This document is intended for individual use. Electronic distribution via email or by posting on a personal website is in violation of the terms of use. • According to Gleanster, lead nurturing delivers 4x higher engagement with prospects who are not ready to buy in the short term but still represent viable prospects. That means with the same spend and the same lead volume, your organization could quadruple revenue by plugging the holes in the pipeline with lead nurturing. Entire content © 2013 Gleanster, LLC. All rights reserved. Unauthorized use or reproduction prohibited.
  10. 10. The Definitive Guide to Measuring Lead Nurturing 10 Lead Author Ian Michiels, Principal Analyst Related Research Recently published research that may be of interest to senior industry practitioners include: Gleansight: Marketing Automation Deep Dive: Targeting B2B Buyers on Social Media Deep Dive: The New Rules of Digital Engagement Gleansight: Revenue Performance Management Headquarters Gleanster, LLC 825 Chicago Avenue - Suite C Evanston, Illinois 60202 Deep Dive: Linking Inbound Marketing to Sales Results Deep Dive: 5 Marketing Automation Capabilities Top Performers Can’t Live Without The Gleanster website also features carefully vetted white papers on these and For customer support, please contact support@gleanster.com or +1 877.762.9727 other topics as well as Success Stories that bring the research to life with real- For sales information, please contact sales@gleanster.com or +1 877.762.9726 About Gleanster world case studies. To download Gleanster content, or to view the future research agenda, please visit www.gleanster.com. Gleanster benchmarks best practices in technology-enabled business initiatives, delivering actionable insights that allow companies to make smart business decisions and match their needs with vendor solutions. Gleanster research can be downloaded for free. All of it. Note: This document is intended for individual use. Electronic distribution via email or by posting on a personal website is in violation of the terms of use. For more information, please visit www.gleanster.com. Entire content © 2013 Gleanster, LLC. All rights reserved. Unauthorized use or reproduction prohibited.

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