Project: Ghana Emergency Medicine Collaborative
Document Title: Introduction to Nursing Research
Author(s): Sue Anne Bell ...
Attribution Key
for more information see: http://open.umich.edu/wiki/AttributionPolicy

Use + Share + Adapt
{ Content the ...
What would you do?
A Philanthropist puts a notice on the
bulletin board in the A&E. She wrote
that she is willing to fund ...
Importance of Nursing Research
Nursing research empowers every nurse s clinical
practice.
¨  Nurses can ask questions aim...
Importance of Nursing Research
¨ 

Accountability for care-related decisions

¨ 

Research expands nursing practice

¨ ...
How Does this Affect Our Work in the
A&E?
¨ 

How can nurses improve their credibility in the health
sciences?
¤  By

sh...
History of Nursing Research
¨ 

Began with Nightingale and the Crimean War- mid

1800s
¨ 

Early 1900s – problems in nur...
Research- fun and exciting?
¨ 

The essence of all
research originates in
curiosity - a desire to
find out how and why
th...
Scientific Inquiry
¨ 

Observable, verifiable data is collected in
order to:
¤ Describe
¤ Explain
¤ Predict

events

9
Scientific Method
¤ Select/define
¤ Formulate

a problem

a research question/

hypothesis
¤ Collect

data

¤ Analyze
...
Scientific Method

¤ Objectivity

– distance research from
personal beliefs, values, attitudes
Why???

¤ Empirical

Data...
Research Questions
¨ 

¨ 

Cannot be answered by Yes or No.
Should ask:
¤ What happens when…..?
¤ What is going on her...
Nursing Research
¨ 

¨ 

Application of scientific method to areas of
interest to nursing
Primarily involves studying pe...
Evidence-Based Nursing Practice
¨ 

¨ 

EBNP is the process by which nurses make clinical
decisions based on the best av...
The Research Idea:
Where does it come from?
Professional experience
¨ Burning questions
¤ Yours
¤ Others
¨ Literature
...
Research Topics
Observations
¨ Behaviors
¨ Concepts
¨ Theories
¨ Testing of assessment and intervention
strategies
¨ ...
A Research Question Must Identify

1. 
2. 
3. 

The variables under study
The population being studied
The testability of ...
Criteria for developing a good research
question: FINER
Feasibility
¨  Interesting
¨  Novel
¨  Ethical
¨  Relevant
¨ ...
FINER
Feasible
¤  Subjects
¤  Resources
¤  Manageable
¤  Data

Available
Interesting
Novel
q New

idea, untested idea...
Research Design: the basics
Qualitative
¨  Quantitative
¨  Descriptive
¨  Correlational
¨  Quasi-Experimental
¨  True...
Quantitative Research
¨ 

¨ 

Formal, objective, systematic process using
¤  measurement
¤  hypothesis testing
¤  dat...
Quantitative Process
1. 
2. 
3. 
4. 
5. 
6. 
7. 

Identify the research problem.
Review related literature.
Frame the prob...
Quantitative Process (Continued)
9. 
10. 

10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 

Protect human rights.
Review and finalize the researc...
Qualitative Research
¨ 

Evaluate subjective life experiences and give
meaning to them

¨ 

Focuses on understanding phe...
Qualitative Process
1. 
2. 
3. 

4. 

Identify a research problem.
Do a literature review.
Select and gain entrée into res...
Qualitative Process (Continued)
Address ethical issues.
6.  Collect the data.
7.  Analyze the data.
8.  Interpret the find...
The Research Language - Some Terminology
Variable
¨  Data
¨  Rigor
¨  Control
¨  Sampling
¨  Setting
¨ 

juliobahar,...
Concept of a Variable
Measurable characteristic that varies among
subjects
¨  Research is conducted because this variance...
Variables
n 

Have 2 or more properties or qualities
¨  Age,

n 

sex, weight, height

Is one variable related to anoth...
Data
¨ 

Pieces of information obtained in a study

¨ 

Are the actual values of the study variables
¤ Quantitative
¤ ...
Concept of RIGOR
¨ 

Striving for excellence in research. Involves:
¤ Discipline
¤ Adherence

to detail

¤ Strict

acc...
Concept of CONTROL
¨ 

¨ 

¨ 

¨ 

Using rules to decrease error and increase probability
that study findings are an a...
Concept of SAMPLING
¨ 

¨ 

¨ 

Who/what do you want to study?
Choosing subjects who are representative
of the study po...
Concept of SETTING
Location of the study - can affect results
¨  Natural Setting: Uncontrolled, real life situation
¨  P...
Some Myths About Research
¨ 

¨ 

¨ 

The purpose of research is to prove or confirm
a theory.
Research findings are pr...
Intro to the Research Process
¨ 

Involves decision making
¤ What

methods will help to answer a research
question/test ...
The Research Process
¨ 

What do I want to know?

¨ 

Does anyone else know anything about this?

¨ 

I’ll make an educ...
The Research Process
¨ 

I’ll try to make sense out of all this info I’ve
collected.

¨ 

What did I find? Was my hunch ...
Major Phases in the Research Process
¨ 

1. Selecting and defining the problem in need of
investigation

¨ 

2. Selectin...
Background
¨ 

¨ 

Selecting and defining the problem (area of research)
Identify a question or area where knowledge can...
Design, Variables and Sample
Choose study or research design
¨  Identify a Study Population
¨  Design Sampling Plan
¨  ...
Gathering the Data
¨ 

Data Collection - according to pre-established plan (implements
the plans designed in Phase I & II...
Analyze and Interpret
¨ 

Data Analysis

¨ 

Interpret findings
¤  Draw

conclusions

¤  Hypothesis

¤  How

is suppo...
Dissemination
¨ 

Disseminate findings - Share findings with colleagues

¤ May

report findings in journal articles, ora...
Types of Research:
Basic Vs. Applied
¨ 

Basic or Pure Research:
¤ Pursuit

of knowledge or finding truth

¤ Generates,...
Basic Vs. Applied
¨ 

Applied or Practical Research
¤ Knowledge intended to directly influence clinical
practice
¤ Cond...
Experimental vs. non-experimental
¨ 

Experimental: Researcher
manipulates or controls
variable(s) and observes
effect in...
Descriptive Research
¨ 

Uses questionnaires, surveys, interviews or observations to
collect data

48
Correlation Research
Relationships between and among variables
¨  Collection of data on at least 2 variables for the same...
Time dimension:
Retrospective vs. Prospective
¨ 

¨ 

Retrospective: Examines
data already collected in
the past
Ex: Rev...
Time Dimension:
Cross-Sectional vs. Longitudinal
¨ 

¨ 

Cross-sectional: Collects
data at one point in
time
What exists...
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GEMC - Nursing Research

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This is a lecture by Sue Anne Bell from the Ghana Emergency Medicine Collaborative. To download the editable version (in PPT), to access additional learning modules, or to learn more about the project, see http://openmi.ch/em-gemc. Unless otherwise noted, this material is made available under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike-3.0 License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/.

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GEMC - Nursing Research

  1. 1. Project: Ghana Emergency Medicine Collaborative Document Title: Introduction to Nursing Research Author(s): Sue Anne Bell (University of Michigan), RN 2012 License: Unless otherwise noted, this material is made available under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike-3.0 License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ We have reviewed this material in accordance with U.S. Copyright Law and have tried to maximize your ability to use, share, and adapt it. These lectures have been modified in the process of making a publicly shareable version. The citation key on the following slide provides information about how you may share and adapt this material. Copyright holders of content included in this material should contact open.michigan@umich.edu with any questions, corrections, or clarification regarding the use of content. For more information about how to cite these materials visit http://open.umich.edu/privacy-and-terms-use. Any medical information in this material is intended to inform and educate and is not a tool for self-diagnosis or a replacement for medical evaluation, advice, diagnosis or treatment by a healthcare professional. Please speak to your physician if you have questions about your medical condition. Viewer discretion is advised: Some medical content is graphic and may not be suitable for all viewers. 1
  2. 2. Attribution Key for more information see: http://open.umich.edu/wiki/AttributionPolicy Use + Share + Adapt { Content the copyright holder, author, or law permits you to use, share and adapt. } Public Domain – Government: Works that are produced by the U.S. Government. (17 USC § 105) Public Domain – Expired: Works that are no longer protected due to an expired copyright term. Public Domain – Self Dedicated: Works that a copyright holder has dedicated to the public domain. Creative Commons – Zero Waiver Creative Commons – Attribution License Creative Commons – Attribution Share Alike License Creative Commons – Attribution Noncommercial License Creative Commons – Attribution Noncommercial Share Alike License GNU – Free Documentation License Make Your Own Assessment { Content Open.Michigan believes can be used, shared, and adapted because it is ineligible for copyright. } Public Domain – Ineligible: Works that are ineligible for copyright protection in the U.S. (17 USC § 102(b)) *laws in your jurisdiction may differ { Content Open.Michigan has used under a Fair Use determination. } Fair Use: Use of works that is determined to be Fair consistent with the U.S. Copyright Act. (17 USC § 107) *laws in your jurisdiction may differ Our determination DOES NOT mean that all uses of this 3rd-party content are Fair Uses and we DO NOT guarantee that your use of the content is Fair. To use this content you should do your own independent analysis to determine whether or not your use will be Fair. 2
  3. 3. What would you do? A Philanthropist puts a notice on the bulletin board in the A&E. She wrote that she is willing to fund a GHC200,000 nursing study in honor of her mother who was an A&E nurse. ¨ She is asking for suggestions. What study would you suggest? ¨  3
  4. 4. Importance of Nursing Research Nursing research empowers every nurse s clinical practice. ¨  Nurses can ask questions aimed at gaining new knowledge to improve patient care, the nursing profession and health care overall. ¨  ¨  Research-based (evidence based) practice = integrating research findings into clinical decision making 4
  5. 5. Importance of Nursing Research ¨  Accountability for care-related decisions ¨  Research expands nursing practice ¨  Reinforce the identity of nursing as a profession – knowing/ understanding our patients and the health care experience 5
  6. 6. How Does this Affect Our Work in the A&E? ¨  How can nurses improve their credibility in the health sciences? ¤  By showing credible findings that demonstrate their impact on health. ¨  Do you know certain aspects of patient care in the A&E that aren’t working? Or certain ways that work better than others? ¤  Research on these topics can help to change problems or reinforce positive solutions. 6
  7. 7. History of Nursing Research ¨  Began with Nightingale and the Crimean War- mid 1800s ¨  Early 1900s – problems in nursing: education, staffing issues ¨  1960s Practice oriented research; first nursing research journals ¨  1983 - ANA Center for Research for Nursing Biswajyotim, OCAL 7
  8. 8. Research- fun and exciting? ¨  The essence of all research originates in curiosity - a desire to find out how and why things happen ¨  How can…? ¨  Why is…? ¨  ¨  ¨  I wonder... What is the best way to…? What causes…? What are the effects of…? 8
  9. 9. Scientific Inquiry ¨  Observable, verifiable data is collected in order to: ¤ Describe ¤ Explain ¤ Predict events 9
  10. 10. Scientific Method ¤ Select/define ¤ Formulate a problem a research question/ hypothesis ¤ Collect data ¤ Analyze ¤ Report data results 10
  11. 11. Scientific Method ¤ Objectivity – distance research from personal beliefs, values, attitudes Why??? ¤ Empirical Data – documenting objective data through direct observation = reality 11
  12. 12. Research Questions ¨  ¨  Cannot be answered by Yes or No. Should ask: ¤ What happens when…..? ¤ What is going on here? ¤ How does this happen? ¤ Why does on thing work better than another? 12
  13. 13. Nursing Research ¨  ¨  Application of scientific method to areas of interest to nursing Primarily involves studying people – People do not behave consistently as do objects/ chemicals in a laboratory! This poses special challenges! 13
  14. 14. Evidence-Based Nursing Practice ¨  ¨  EBNP is the process by which nurses make clinical decisions based on the best available research evidence, their clinical practice and patient preferences, in the context of available resources. Practice based on evidence from nursing research is an approach that enables clinicians to provide the highest quality of care in meeting the multifaceted needs of Budin, 2008 patients and families. 14
  15. 15. The Research Idea: Where does it come from? Professional experience ¨ Burning questions ¤ Yours ¤ Others ¨ Literature ¨ Professional meetings ¨ Discussions ¨  15
  16. 16. Research Topics Observations ¨ Behaviors ¨ Concepts ¨ Theories ¨ Testing of assessment and intervention strategies ¨  16
  17. 17. A Research Question Must Identify 1.  2.  3.  The variables under study The population being studied The testability of the question 17
  18. 18. Criteria for developing a good research question: FINER Feasibility ¨  Interesting ¨  Novel ¨  Ethical ¨  Relevant ¨  n  Cummings et al. 2001 18
  19. 19. FINER Feasible ¤  Subjects ¤  Resources ¤  Manageable ¤  Data Available Interesting Novel q New idea, untested idea Ethical q Social or Scientific Value q Safe Relevant q Advance scientific knowledge q Influence clinical practice 19
  20. 20. Research Design: the basics Qualitative ¨  Quantitative ¨  Descriptive ¨  Correlational ¨  Quasi-Experimental ¨  True Experimental – Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) ¨  Meta-Analyses and Systematic Reviews ¨  20
  21. 21. Quantitative Research ¨  ¨  Formal, objective, systematic process using ¤  measurement ¤  hypothesis testing ¤  data analysis Traditional approaches such as experiments, questionnaires, surveys jean_victor_balin, OCAL 21
  22. 22. Quantitative Process 1.  2.  3.  4.  5.  6.  7.  Identify the research problem. Review related literature. Frame the problem conceptually. Formulate hypotheses. Select a design. Identify population, sampling plan. Select and test methods to measure variables. 22
  23. 23. Quantitative Process (Continued) 9.  10.  10.  11.  12.  13.  14.  Protect human rights. Review and finalize the research plan. Collect the data. Analyze the data. Interpret the findings. Communicate the findings. Participate in the process of disseminating the findings. 23
  24. 24. Qualitative Research ¨  Evaluate subjective life experiences and give meaning to them ¨  Focuses on understanding phenomena from an individual s perspective ¨  Approaches: observation, in-depth interviews, case studies, narrative analyses 24
  25. 25. Qualitative Process 1.  2.  3.  4.  Identify a research problem. Do a literature review. Select and gain entrée into research sites. Utilize a design that emerges as data is collected. May be ethnographic, phenomenological, grounded theory, historical. 25
  26. 26. Qualitative Process (Continued) Address ethical issues. 6.  Collect the data. 7.  Analyze the data. 8.  Interpret the findings. 9.  Communicate the findings. 10.  Participate in the process of disseminating the findings. 5.  26
  27. 27. The Research Language - Some Terminology Variable ¨  Data ¨  Rigor ¨  Control ¨  Sampling ¨  Setting ¨  juliobahar, OCAL 27
  28. 28. Concept of a Variable Measurable characteristic that varies among subjects ¨  Research is conducted because this variance occurs! ¨  Types: ¤ Independent – presumed cause ¨  n Example: ¤ Dependent n Example: Salt intake – presumed effect Blood pressure reading 28
  29. 29. Variables n  Have 2 or more properties or qualities ¨  Age, n  sex, weight, height Is one variable related to another? ¨  Is X related to Y? What is the effect of X on Y? etc. 29
  30. 30. Data ¨  Pieces of information obtained in a study ¨  Are the actual values of the study variables ¤ Quantitative ¤ Qualitative - numeric values - narrative descriptions 30
  31. 31. Concept of RIGOR ¨  Striving for excellence in research. Involves: ¤ Discipline ¤ Adherence to detail ¤ Strict accuracy! ¤ Uses precise measurement tools sarxos, OCAL 31
  32. 32. Concept of CONTROL ¨  ¨  ¨  ¨  Using rules to decrease error and increase probability that study findings are an accurate reflection of reality Ensure results that reflect true relationship among variables Reduction of the influence of unwanted extraneous variables Example: A control group of test subjects left untreated or unexposed to some procedure in order to provide a standard of comparison to the experimental group. 32
  33. 33. Concept of SAMPLING ¨  ¨  ¨  Who/what do you want to study? Choosing subjects who are representative of the study population Random & Non-Random Sampling- when to use? josephluis, OCAL 33
  34. 34. Concept of SETTING Location of the study - can affect results ¨  Natural Setting: Uncontrolled, real life situation ¨  Partially Controlled: Manipulated or modified in some way ¨  Highly Controlled: Artificial environment for sole purpose of doing research. Decreases effects of outside influences. ¨  34
  35. 35. Some Myths About Research ¨  ¨  ¨  The purpose of research is to prove or confirm a theory. Research findings are presented as complete and conclusive answers. There is a hierarchy of research methodology that places true experimental research at the top. 35
  36. 36. Intro to the Research Process ¨  Involves decision making ¤ What methods will help to answer a research question/test a hypothesis? ¨  ¨  Is flexible - multiple possibilities, each with its own strengths/weaknesses Is a circular process JoBrad, OCAL 36
  37. 37. The Research Process ¨  What do I want to know? ¨  Does anyone else know anything about this? ¨  I’ll make an educated guess about what I think the answer to my question will be. ¨  Here’s what I’m going to do to try to answer my question. 37
  38. 38. The Research Process ¨  I’ll try to make sense out of all this info I’ve collected. ¨  What did I find? Was my hunch supported? ¨  What do I want to know now??? 38
  39. 39. Major Phases in the Research Process ¨  1. Selecting and defining the problem in need of investigation ¨  2. Selecting a research design ¨  3. Collecting data ¨  4. Analyzing data ¨  5. Utilizing the Findings 39
  40. 40. Background ¨  ¨  Selecting and defining the problem (area of research) Identify a question or area where knowledge can be advanced ¨  Review related literature for rationale to do study ¨  Identify a theoretical framework to guide the study. ¨  Propose a research question and/or hypothesis 40
  41. 41. Design, Variables and Sample Choose study or research design ¨  Identify a Study Population ¨  Design Sampling Plan ¨  Define how will variables be measured ¤ Setting ¤ How data will be collected - tools ¨  Pilot Study - Revisions ¨  41
  42. 42. Gathering the Data ¨  Data Collection - according to pre-established plan (implements the plans designed in Phase I & II) ¤  recruiting ¤  obtaining consent ¤  training staff ¤  collecting data ¨  Organization of the data ¤  How do you analyze the data? ¤  (must be appropriate form) ¨  May be the longest phase of the research process Anonymous, OCAL 42
  43. 43. Analyze and Interpret ¨  Data Analysis ¨  Interpret findings ¤  Draw conclusions ¤  Hypothesis ¤  How is supported or rejected (chap 10) best to utilize findings? ¤  New question formulated? (can lead to new questions that can stimulate further study) 43
  44. 44. Dissemination ¨  Disseminate findings - Share findings with colleagues ¤ May report findings in journal articles, oral presentations, poster presentations ¨  Utilize findings - use in nursing practice 44
  45. 45. Types of Research: Basic Vs. Applied ¨  Basic or Pure Research: ¤ Pursuit of knowledge or finding truth ¤ Generates, ¤ Often refines or tests theory uses laboratory setting ¤ Findings may not be directly useful in practice ¤ May be used later in development of treatment/drug/theory johnny_automatic, OCAL 45
  46. 46. Basic Vs. Applied ¨  Applied or Practical Research ¤ Knowledge intended to directly influence clinical practice ¤ Conducted in actual practice conditions ¤ Solve problems, make decisions, predict/control outcomes ¤ Evaluate interventions ¤ Test/validate theories ¤ Evaluate Basic research knowledge for usefulness 46
  47. 47. Experimental vs. non-experimental ¨  Experimental: Researcher manipulates or controls variable(s) and observes effect in other variable(s) ¨  ¨  ¨  Evaluates cause and effect relationship ¨  ¨  Ex: Does a pre-op intervention program to ↑ self efficacy affect self care measures post-op? Non-experimental: Describes or looks at relationships(s) or correlation between variables. Variables are not manipulated by the researcher Ex: Correlation between HRT use and breast CA 47
  48. 48. Descriptive Research ¨  Uses questionnaires, surveys, interviews or observations to collect data 48
  49. 49. Correlation Research Relationships between and among variables ¨  Collection of data on at least 2 variables for the same group of individuals ¨  Calculator-the correlation between the measurer ¨  Highest number of research studies in nursing are classified as description correlation design ¨  49
  50. 50. Time dimension: Retrospective vs. Prospective ¨  ¨  Retrospective: Examines data already collected in the past Ex: Review of medical records to examine previous history in of cholesterol levels in s/p MI patients nicubunu, OCAL ¨  ¨  Prospective: examines data being collected in the present Ex: Study describing social support and coping mechanisms of women with ovarian CA 50
  51. 51. Time Dimension: Cross-Sectional vs. Longitudinal ¨  ¨  Cross-sectional: Collects data at one point in time What exists today? Longitudinal: Studies examines variables of interest over a period of time ¨  Advantages –ability to collect data on the same individual over time ¨  51
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