Project: Ghana Emergency Medicine Collaborative
Document Title: Advanced Cardiac Life Support
Author(s): Rocky Oteng (Univ...
Attribution Key
for more information see: http://open.umich.edu/wiki/AttributionPolicy

Use + Share + Adapt
{ Content the ...
ACLS
• Systematic approach to assessment and
management of cardiopulmonary emergencies
• Continuation of Basic Life Suppor...
The AAA’s
• Assess the patient
– Establish unresponsiveness
– Check pulse, respirations

• Activate EMS
– Call for help

•...
Primary Survey (BLS)
•
•
•
•

Airway
Breathing
Circulation
Defibrillation

Always assess and manage before
moving on to th...
Airway

Wellcome Photo Library, Wellcome Photos

• Open the airway
– Head tilt-chin lift
– Jaw thrust

Wellcome Photo Libr...
Breathing
• Look, Listen and Feel

• Give 2 rescue breaths

• Watch for appropriate chest rise and fall
7
U.S. Navy photo ...
Circulation
• Check for a pulse
• Start CPR
– 30 compressions/
2 respirations

• Compressions more
important than
respirat...
Defibrillation
•

Know your AED

•

Universal steps:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Power ON
Attach electrode pads
Analyze the rhythm
Shock ...
Defibrillation
• Most frequent initial rhythm in witnessed sudden
cardiac arrest is ventricular fibrillation (VF) or pulse...
Early Defibrillation = Increased Survival

Source unknown

11
Outcomes of Rapid Defibrillation by
Security Officers after Cardiac Arrest in
Casinos
• NEJM Vol 343 (17) October 26, 2000...
Public-Access Defibrillation and Survival after
Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest
• NEJM 2004
• Community based trial of AED ...
Secondary Survey (ACLS)
•
•
•
•

Airway
Breathing
Circulation
Differential Diagnosis

• Assess and manage at each step bef...
Airway
• Maintain airway patency
– Head tilt-chin lift/jaw thrust
– Oro- or nasopharyngeal airway

• Advanced airway manag...
Breathing
•
•
•
•

Assess adequacy of oxygenation and ventilation
Provide supplemental oxygen
Confirm proper airway placem...
Circulation
• Assess/monitor cardiac rhythm
• Establish IV access
• Give medications as appropriate for rhythm and
BP
• Fl...
Differential Diagnosis
• Look for and treat any reversible cause of arrest

18
Basic Rhythm Analysis

19
Basic Rhythm Analysis
• Rate – too fast or too slow?
• Rhythm – regular or irregular?
• Is there a normal looking QRS? Is ...
Rhythm Analysis
Lethal vs non-lethal?

Shockable vs. non-shockable?

Too fast vs too slow?

Symptomatic vs. asymptomatic?
...
Lethal Rhythms
• Shockable (Defibrillation)
– Ventricular fibrillation
– Pulseless ventricular tachycardia

• Non-shockabl...
Non-Lethal Rhythms
• Too fast (tachycardias)
– Sinus
– Supraventricular (including a-fib/flutter)
– Ventricular

• Too slo...
What is a Symptomatic Dysrhythmia?
• Any abnormal rhythm that produces signs or
symptoms of hypoperfusion
– Chest Pain/isc...
Name that rhythm…

25
63 yo man with a witnessed collapse while
mowing the lawn

What is the rhythm?
What is the management?

Chikumaya, Wikimed...
Ventricular Fibrillation

• Rapid and irregular
• No normal P waves or QRS complexes

Jer5150, Wikimedia Commons

27
VF / Pulseless VT
Secondary Survey - ABC

Source unknown

Primary Survey - ABC

28
ACLS Algorithm
•
•
•
•
•
•

Primary Survey
Shock – 360 J
Secondary Survey
Vasopressor - Epi or Vasopressin IV
Shock 360J
A...
79yo man s/p NSTEMI

What is the rhythm?
What is the management?

Glenlarson, Wikimedia Commons

30
Ventricular Tachycardia

• Rapid and regular
• No P waves
• Wide QRS complexes
Ksheka, Wikimedia Commons

31
Ventricular Tachycardia
• Monomorphic VT

Ksheka, Wikimedia Commons

• Polymorphic VT

Displaced, Wikimedia Commons

32
Ventricular Tachycardia
• Assume any wide complex tachycardia is VT
until proven otherwise
– SVT with aberrant conduction ...
Treatment of VT
• If pulseless - follow VF algorithm
• If stable try anti-arrhythmics
– Amiodarone
– Lidocaine
– Procainam...
Treatment of VT
• Anti-arrhythmics are also pro-arrhythmic
• One antiarrhythmic may help, more than one
may harm
• Anti-ar...
60yo diabetic man with chest pain

What is the rhythm?
What is the management?

Knutux, Wikimedia Commons

36
Normal Sinus Rhythm

• Regular rate and rhythm
• Normal P waves and QRS
• Evaluate for cause of chest pain and monitor for...
40 yo woman found down, pulseless and
apneic

What is the rhythm?
What is the management?

Masur, Wikimedia Commons

38
Pulseless Electrical Activity
• Any organized (or semi-organized) electrical
activity in a patient without a detectable pu...
PEA and Asystole
Secondary Survey - ABCD

Primary Survey - ABC
Source unknown

40
PEA
P r im a r y S u r v e y
S e c o n d a ry S u rv e y
S e a r c h fo r a n d T r e a t C a u s e s
E p in e p h r in e ...
Find and Treat the Cause
• Non-shockable rhythm
• The most effective treatment is to find and fix
the underlying problem

...
So what causes PEA?
• #1 cause of PEA in adults is hypovolemia
• #1 cause in children is hypoxia/respiratory
arrest
• Othe...
The H’s and T’s
•
•
•
•
•
•

Hypovolemia
Hypoxia
Hydrogen ion (acidosis)
Hyper-/hypokalemia
Hypothermia
Hypoglycemia (rare...
Treat the H’s and T’s
•
•
•
•

•
•

Hypovolemia

•

– Volume – IVF, PRBC’s

Hypoxia

– Oxygenate/Ventilate

Hydrogen ion (...
19yo man with palpitations

What is the rhythm?
What is the management?

Displaced, Wikimedia Commons

46
Supraventricular Tachycardia

• Rapid (usually 150-250 bpm) and regular
• P waves cannot be positively identified
• QRS na...
Treatment of Stable SVT
• Consider vagal maneuvers
– Carotid sinus massage
– Valsalva
– Eyeball massage
– Ice water to fac...
Treatment of Unstable SVT
• Electrical Cardioversion
• Cardioversion is not defibrillation
• Use defibrillator in “sync” m...
Electrical Cardioversion
• Energy level – somewhat controversial
• 100 J→200J→300J→360J
• Atrial flutter may convert with ...
Electrical Cardioversion
• Be prepared
– Patient on monitor, IV, Oxygen
– Suction ready and working
– Airway supplies read...
Tachycardia
E v a lu a te P a tie n t
S ta b le ?

U n s ta b le ?

L o ts o f o p tio n s
b a s e d o n r h y th m

S hoc...
Stable Tachycardias
• Narrow complex?
– Regular rhythm
• Sinus tachycardia
• SVT
• AV nodal reentry

– Irregular rhythm
• ...
56 yo woman with shortness of breath and
chest pain

What is the rhythm?
What is the management?

J. Heuser, Wikimedia Com...
Atrial fibrillation/flutter
J. Heuser, Wikimedia Commons

James Heilman, MD, Wikimedia Commons

• May be rapid
• Irregular...
Atrial fibrillation/flutter
• Treatment based on patient’s clinical picture
– Unstable = Immediate electrical cardioversio...
78yo man found down, pulseless and
apneic, unknown duration

What is the rhythm?
What is the management?

D Dinneen, Wikim...
Asystole

•
•
•
•
•

Is it really asystole?
Check lead and cable connections.
Is everything turned on?
Verify asystole in ...
68 yo woman with h/o hypertension
presents with dizziness

What is the rhythm?
What is the treatment?

Mysid, Wikimedia Co...
Sinus Bradycardia

• Slow and regular
• Normal P waves and QRS complexes

Mysid, Wikimedia Commons

60
Bradycardias
• Many possible causes
– Enhanced parasympathetic tone
– Increased ICP.
– Hypothyroidism
– Hypothermia
– Hype...
Bradycardias
• Treat only symptomatic bradycardias
– Ask if the bradycardia causing the symptoms

• Recognize the red flag...
Source unknown

63
Transcutaneous pacing
•
•
•
•

Class I for all symptomatic bradycardias
Always appropriate
Doesn’t always work
Technique
–...
Transvenous Pacing
•
•
•
•
•

Invasive
Time-consuming to establish
Skilled procedure
Better long-term than transcutaneous
...
Bradycardia Treatment
• Medications
– Vagolytic
• Atropine

– Adrenergic
• Epinephrine
• Dopamine

66
What if the same patient had this rhythm?

What is the rhythm?
What is the treatment?

Jer5150, Wikimedia Commons

67
Junctional Escape

•
•
•
•

Slow and relatively regular
No P waves
Narrow QRS
Arises from site near the junction of the at...
29 yo asymptomatic female

What is the rhythm?
What is the management?

Steven Fruitsmaak, Wikimedia Commons

69
1° AV block

• Regular rate and rhythm
• Normal P wave with long PR interval (>0.2msec/1 big
box)
• Normal QRS

Steven Fru...
58yo asymptomatic woman

What is the rhythm?
What is the management?

Jer5150, Wikimedia Commons

71
2° AV Block - Type I

•
•
•
•

aka Wenckebach
Regular rate and rhythm
Normal P waves and QRS complexes
Increasing PR inter...
80 yo man with syncope

What is the rhythm?
What is the management?

Jer5150, Wikimedia Commons

73
2° AV Block – Mobitz Type II

• Regular atrial rate with normal P wave
• Consistent PR interval
• Random QRS dropped
Jer51...
Another 80 yo man with syncope

What is the rhythm?
What is the management?

MoodyGroove, Wikimedia Commons

75
3° AV Block

•
•
•
•

Normal P waves
Normal QRS
No relationship between P and QRS
aka complete heart block

MoodyGroove, W...
Know When To Stop
• With return of spontaneous circulation
• No ROSC during or after 20 minutes of
resuscitative efforts
–...
Take Home Points
• Assess and manage at every step before moving
on to the next step
• Rapid defibrillation is the ONLY ef...
Special thanks to:
Steve Kronick, MD and
Suzanne Dooley-Hash, MD
for contributing slides and content for
this lecture.

79
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GEMC- Advanced Cardiac Life Support- for Residents

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This is a lecture by Rockefeller Oteng from the Ghana Emergency Medicine Collaborative. To download the editable version (in PPT), to access additional learning modules, or to learn more about the project, see http://openmi.ch/em-gemc. Unless otherwise noted, this material is made available under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike-3.0 License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/.

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GEMC- Advanced Cardiac Life Support- for Residents

  1. 1. Project: Ghana Emergency Medicine Collaborative Document Title: Advanced Cardiac Life Support Author(s): Rocky Oteng (University of Michigan), MD 2012 License: Unless otherwise noted, this material is made available under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike-3.0 License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ We have reviewed this material in accordance with U.S. Copyright Law and have tried to maximize your ability to use, share, and adapt it. These lectures have been modified in the process of making a publicly shareable version. The citation key on the following slide provides information about how you may share and adapt this material. Copyright holders of content included in this material should contact open.michigan@umich.edu with any questions, corrections, or clarification regarding the use of content. For more information about how to cite these materials visit http://open.umich.edu/privacy-and-terms-use. Any medical information in this material is intended to inform and educate and is not a tool for self-diagnosis or a replacement for medical evaluation, advice, diagnosis or treatment by a healthcare professional. Please speak to your physician if you have questions about your medical condition. Viewer discretion is advised: Some medical content is graphic and may not be suitable for all viewers. 1
  2. 2. Attribution Key for more information see: http://open.umich.edu/wiki/AttributionPolicy Use + Share + Adapt { Content the copyright holder, author, or law permits you to use, share and adapt. } Public Domain – Government: Works that are produced by the U.S. Government. (17 USC § 105) Public Domain – Expired: Works that are no longer protected due to an expired copyright term. Public Domain – Self Dedicated: Works that a copyright holder has dedicated to the public domain. Creative Commons – Zero Waiver Creative Commons – Attribution License Creative Commons – Attribution Share Alike License Creative Commons – Attribution Noncommercial License Creative Commons – Attribution Noncommercial Share Alike License GNU – Free Documentation License Make Your Own Assessment { Content Open.Michigan believes can be used, shared, and adapted because it is ineligible for copyright. } Public Domain – Ineligible: Works that are ineligible for copyright protection in the U.S. (17 USC § 102(b)) *laws in your jurisdiction may differ { Content Open.Michigan has used under a Fair Use determination. } Fair Use: Use of works that is determined to be Fair consistent with the U.S. Copyright Act. (17 USC § 107) *laws in your jurisdiction may differ Our determination DOES NOT mean that all uses of this 3rd-party content are Fair Uses and we DO NOT guarantee that your use of the content is Fair. To use this content you should do your own independent analysis to determine whether or not your use will be Fair. 2
  3. 3. ACLS • Systematic approach to assessment and management of cardiopulmonary emergencies • Continuation of Basic Life Support • Resuscitation efforts aimed at restoring spontaneous circulation and retaining intact neurologic function ABCD 3
  4. 4. The AAA’s • Assess the patient – Establish unresponsiveness – Check pulse, respirations • Activate EMS – Call for help • AED – Get an AED (automated external defibrillator) 4
  5. 5. Primary Survey (BLS) • • • • Airway Breathing Circulation Defibrillation Always assess and manage before moving on to the next step! 5
  6. 6. Airway Wellcome Photo Library, Wellcome Photos • Open the airway – Head tilt-chin lift – Jaw thrust Wellcome Photo Library, Wellcome Photos 6
  7. 7. Breathing • Look, Listen and Feel • Give 2 rescue breaths • Watch for appropriate chest rise and fall 7 U.S. Navy photo by Photographer's Mate 3rd Class Jesse Praino, Wikimedia Commons
  8. 8. Circulation • Check for a pulse • Start CPR – 30 compressions/ 2 respirations • Compressions more important than respirations! 8 U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist Seaman Gabriel S. Weber, Wikimedia Commons
  9. 9. Defibrillation • Know your AED • Universal steps: 1. 2. 3. 4. Power ON Attach electrode pads Analyze the rhythm Shock (if advised) Ernstl, Wikimedia Commons 9
  10. 10. Defibrillation • Most frequent initial rhythm in witnessed sudden cardiac arrest is ventricular fibrillation (VF) or pulseless ventricular tachycardia (VT) which rapidly deteriorates into VF • The only effective treatment for VF is electrical defibrillation • Probability of successful defibrillation diminishes rapidly over time • VF rapidly converts to asystole if not treated 10
  11. 11. Early Defibrillation = Increased Survival Source unknown 11
  12. 12. Outcomes of Rapid Defibrillation by Security Officers after Cardiac Arrest in Casinos • NEJM Vol 343 (17) October 26, 2000 • Used AEDs on 105 patients with Ventricular Fibrillation • 53% survived to discharge (back to casino) • Previously, less than 5% survive 12
  13. 13. Public-Access Defibrillation and Survival after Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest • NEJM 2004 • Community based trial of AED deployment and layperson training. • 30 in AED group versus 15 survivors in CPR only group to hospital discharge • Average age of survivor - 69.8 years • Study cost - $9.5 million 13
  14. 14. Secondary Survey (ACLS) • • • • Airway Breathing Circulation Differential Diagnosis • Assess and manage at each step before moving on! 14
  15. 15. Airway • Maintain airway patency – Head tilt-chin lift/jaw thrust – Oro- or nasopharyngeal airway • Advanced airway management – ETT – Combitube – LMA Ignis, Wikimedia Commons 15
  16. 16. Breathing • • • • Assess adequacy of oxygenation and ventilation Provide supplemental oxygen Confirm proper airway placement Secure tube 16
  17. 17. Circulation • Assess/monitor cardiac rhythm • Establish IV access • Give medications as appropriate for rhythm and BP • Fluid resuscitation • Minimize interruption of compressions to maximize survival. 17
  18. 18. Differential Diagnosis • Look for and treat any reversible cause of arrest 18
  19. 19. Basic Rhythm Analysis 19
  20. 20. Basic Rhythm Analysis • Rate – too fast or too slow? • Rhythm – regular or irregular? • Is there a normal looking QRS? Is it wide or narrow? • Are P waves present? • What is the relationship of the P waves to the QRS complex? 20
  21. 21. Rhythm Analysis Lethal vs non-lethal? Shockable vs. non-shockable? Too fast vs too slow? Symptomatic vs. asymptomatic? 21
  22. 22. Lethal Rhythms • Shockable (Defibrillation) – Ventricular fibrillation – Pulseless ventricular tachycardia • Non-shockable – Asystole – Pulseless electrical activity 22
  23. 23. Non-Lethal Rhythms • Too fast (tachycardias) – Sinus – Supraventricular (including a-fib/flutter) – Ventricular • Too slow (bradycardias) – Sinus – Heart block (1°, 2°, 3° AV block) 23
  24. 24. What is a Symptomatic Dysrhythmia? • Any abnormal rhythm that produces signs or symptoms of hypoperfusion – Chest Pain/ischemic EKG changes – Shortness of Breath – Decreased level of consciousness – Syncope/pre-syncope – Hypotension – Shock - decreased Uop, cool extremities, etc. – Pulmonary Congestion/CHF 24
  25. 25. Name that rhythm… 25
  26. 26. 63 yo man with a witnessed collapse while mowing the lawn What is the rhythm? What is the management? Chikumaya, Wikimedia Commons 26
  27. 27. Ventricular Fibrillation • Rapid and irregular • No normal P waves or QRS complexes Jer5150, Wikimedia Commons 27
  28. 28. VF / Pulseless VT Secondary Survey - ABC Source unknown Primary Survey - ABC 28
  29. 29. ACLS Algorithm • • • • • • Primary Survey Shock – 360 J Secondary Survey Vasopressor - Epi or Vasopressin IV Shock 360J Antiarrhythmic – Amiodarone, Lidocaine or Magnesium Sulfate IV • Shock 360J 29
  30. 30. 79yo man s/p NSTEMI What is the rhythm? What is the management? Glenlarson, Wikimedia Commons 30
  31. 31. Ventricular Tachycardia • Rapid and regular • No P waves • Wide QRS complexes Ksheka, Wikimedia Commons 31
  32. 32. Ventricular Tachycardia • Monomorphic VT Ksheka, Wikimedia Commons • Polymorphic VT Displaced, Wikimedia Commons 32
  33. 33. Ventricular Tachycardia • Assume any wide complex tachycardia is VT until proven otherwise – SVT with aberrant conduction may also have wide QRS complexes • Attempt to establish the diagnosis – Ischemia risk and VT go together 33
  34. 34. Treatment of VT • If pulseless - follow VF algorithm • If stable try anti-arrhythmics – Amiodarone – Lidocaine – Procainamide? • If patient has a pulse, but is unstable or not responding to meds - shock 34
  35. 35. Treatment of VT • Anti-arrhythmics are also pro-arrhythmic • One antiarrhythmic may help, more than one may harm • Anti-arrhythmics can impair an already impaired heart • Electrical cardioversion should be the second intervention of choice 35
  36. 36. 60yo diabetic man with chest pain What is the rhythm? What is the management? Knutux, Wikimedia Commons 36
  37. 37. Normal Sinus Rhythm • Regular rate and rhythm • Normal P waves and QRS • Evaluate for cause of chest pain and monitor for change in rhythm Knutux, Wikimedia Commons 37
  38. 38. 40 yo woman found down, pulseless and apneic What is the rhythm? What is the management? Masur, Wikimedia Commons 38
  39. 39. Pulseless Electrical Activity • Any organized (or semi-organized) electrical activity in a patient without a detectable pulse • Non-perfusing • Treat the patient NOT the monitor • Find and treat the cause!!!!! 39
  40. 40. PEA and Asystole Secondary Survey - ABCD Primary Survey - ABC Source unknown 40
  41. 41. PEA P r im a r y S u r v e y S e c o n d a ry S u rv e y S e a r c h fo r a n d T r e a t C a u s e s E p in e p h r in e 1 m g I V P r e p e a t e v e r y 3 - 5 m in u t e s A t r o p in e 1 m g I V P if P E A is s lo w 41
  42. 42. Find and Treat the Cause • Non-shockable rhythm • The most effective treatment is to find and fix the underlying problem Rama, Wikimedia Commons 42
  43. 43. So what causes PEA? • #1 cause of PEA in adults is hypovolemia • #1 cause in children is hypoxia/respiratory arrest • Other causes? 43
  44. 44. The H’s and T’s • • • • • • Hypovolemia Hypoxia Hydrogen ion (acidosis) Hyper-/hypokalemia Hypothermia Hypoglycemia (rare) • • • • Toxins Tamponade Tension pneumothorax Thrombosis (coronary or pulmonary) • Trauma 44
  45. 45. Treat the H’s and T’s • • • • • • Hypovolemia • – Volume – IVF, PRBC’s Hypoxia – Oxygenate/Ventilate Hydrogen ion (acidosis) – Sodium bicarbonate – Hyperventilation • • Hyper-/hypokalemia – Sodium bicarbonate – Insulin/glucose – Calcium • Hypothermia – Warm -- invasive Hypoglycemia • Toxins – Check levels – Charcoal – Antidotes Tamponade – pericardiocentesis Tension pneumothorax – Needle decompression – Tube thoracostomy Thrombosis (coronary or pulmonary) – Thrombolytics – OR/cath lab Trauma – Dextrose 45
  46. 46. 19yo man with palpitations What is the rhythm? What is the management? Displaced, Wikimedia Commons 46
  47. 47. Supraventricular Tachycardia • Rapid (usually 150-250 bpm) and regular • P waves cannot be positively identified • QRS narrow Displaced, Wikimedia Commons 47
  48. 48. Treatment of Stable SVT • Consider vagal maneuvers – Carotid sinus massage – Valsalva – Eyeball massage – Ice water to face – Digital rectal exam • Adenosine – 6 mg, 12 mg, 12 mg 48
  49. 49. Treatment of Unstable SVT • Electrical Cardioversion • Cardioversion is not defibrillation • Use defibrillator in “sync” mode – prevents delivering energy in the wrong part of the cardiac cycle (R on T phenomenon) 49
  50. 50. Electrical Cardioversion • Energy level – somewhat controversial • 100 J→200J→300J→360J • Atrial flutter may convert with lower energy – 50J • For polymorphic VT – start with 200J • The EP guys tend to start with 360J 50
  51. 51. Electrical Cardioversion • Be prepared – Patient on monitor, IV, Oxygen – Suction ready and working – Airway supplies ready • Pre-medicate whenever possible – Conscious sedation – Electrical shocks are painful! 51
  52. 52. Tachycardia E v a lu a te P a tie n t S ta b le ? U n s ta b le ? L o ts o f o p tio n s b a s e d o n r h y th m S hock • Treat the patient NOT the monitor!!! 52
  53. 53. Stable Tachycardias • Narrow complex? – Regular rhythm • Sinus tachycardia • SVT • AV nodal reentry – Irregular rhythm • Atrial fibrillation • Atrial flutter • Wide complex? – Uncertain rhythm – assume VT – Narrow complex tachycardia with aberrancy – Ventricular tachycardia • Monomorphic or polymorphic 53
  54. 54. 56 yo woman with shortness of breath and chest pain What is the rhythm? What is the management? J. Heuser, Wikimedia Commons 54
  55. 55. Atrial fibrillation/flutter J. Heuser, Wikimedia Commons James Heilman, MD, Wikimedia Commons • May be rapid • Irregular (fib) or more regular (flutter) • No P waves, narrow QRS 55
  56. 56. Atrial fibrillation/flutter • Treatment based on patient’s clinical picture – Unstable = Immediate electrical cardioversion – Stable • Control the rate – Diltiazem – Esmolol (not if EF < 40%) – Digoxin • Provide anticoagulation • Treat the patient NOT the monitor!!! 56
  57. 57. 78yo man found down, pulseless and apneic, unknown duration What is the rhythm? What is the management? D Dinneen, Wikimedia Commons 57
  58. 58. Asystole • • • • • Is it really asystole? Check lead and cable connections. Is everything turned on? Verify asystole in another lead. Maybe it is really fine v-fib? D Dinneen, Wikimedia Commons 58
  59. 59. 68 yo woman with h/o hypertension presents with dizziness What is the rhythm? What is the treatment? Mysid, Wikimedia Commons 59
  60. 60. Sinus Bradycardia • Slow and regular • Normal P waves and QRS complexes Mysid, Wikimedia Commons 60
  61. 61. Bradycardias • Many possible causes – Enhanced parasympathetic tone – Increased ICP. – Hypothyroidism – Hypothermia – Hyperkalemia – Hypoglycemia – Drug therapy 61
  62. 62. Bradycardias • Treat only symptomatic bradycardias – Ask if the bradycardia causing the symptoms • Recognize the red flag bradycardias – Second degree type II block – Third degree block 62
  63. 63. Source unknown 63
  64. 64. Transcutaneous pacing • • • • Class I for all symptomatic bradycardias Always appropriate Doesn’t always work Technique – Attach pacer pads – Set a rate to 80 bpm – Turn up the juice (amps) until you get capture • Painful – may need sedation / analgesia 64
  65. 65. Transvenous Pacing • • • • • Invasive Time-consuming to establish Skilled procedure Better long-term than transcutaneous May have better capture than transcutaneous pacing 65
  66. 66. Bradycardia Treatment • Medications – Vagolytic • Atropine – Adrenergic • Epinephrine • Dopamine 66
  67. 67. What if the same patient had this rhythm? What is the rhythm? What is the treatment? Jer5150, Wikimedia Commons 67
  68. 68. Junctional Escape • • • • Slow and relatively regular No P waves Narrow QRS Arises from site near the junction of the atria and ventricles Jer5150, Wikimedia Commons 68
  69. 69. 29 yo asymptomatic female What is the rhythm? What is the management? Steven Fruitsmaak, Wikimedia Commons 69
  70. 70. 1° AV block • Regular rate and rhythm • Normal P wave with long PR interval (>0.2msec/1 big box) • Normal QRS Steven Fruitsmaak, Wikimedia Commons 70
  71. 71. 58yo asymptomatic woman What is the rhythm? What is the management? Jer5150, Wikimedia Commons 71
  72. 72. 2° AV Block - Type I • • • • aka Wenckebach Regular rate and rhythm Normal P waves and QRS complexes Increasing PR interval until QRS dropped Jer5150, Wikimedia Commons 72
  73. 73. 80 yo man with syncope What is the rhythm? What is the management? Jer5150, Wikimedia Commons 73
  74. 74. 2° AV Block – Mobitz Type II • Regular atrial rate with normal P wave • Consistent PR interval • Random QRS dropped Jer5150, Wikimedia Commons 74
  75. 75. Another 80 yo man with syncope What is the rhythm? What is the management? MoodyGroove, Wikimedia Commons 75
  76. 76. 3° AV Block • • • • Normal P waves Normal QRS No relationship between P and QRS aka complete heart block MoodyGroove, Wikimedia Commons 76
  77. 77. Know When To Stop • With return of spontaneous circulation • No ROSC during or after 20 minutes of resuscitative efforts – Possible exceptions include near-drowning, severe hypothermia, known reversible cause, some overdoses • DNR orders presented • Obvious signs of irreversible death 77
  78. 78. Take Home Points • Assess and manage at every step before moving on to the next step • Rapid defibrillation is the ONLY effective treatment for VF/VT • Search for and treat the cause • Treat the patient not the monitor • Reassess frequently • Minimize interruptions to chest compressions 78
  79. 79. Special thanks to: Steve Kronick, MD and Suzanne Dooley-Hash, MD for contributing slides and content for this lecture. 79
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