GEMC - Emergency Management of Ano-Rectal Disorders - Resident Training
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GEMC - Emergency Management of Ano-Rectal Disorders - Resident Training

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This is a lecture by Dr. Joseph Hartmann from the Ghana Emergency Medicine Collaborative. To download the editable version (in PPT), to access additional learning modules, or to learn more about the ...

This is a lecture by Dr. Joseph Hartmann from the Ghana Emergency Medicine Collaborative. To download the editable version (in PPT), to access additional learning modules, or to learn more about the project, see http://openmi.ch/em-gemc. Unless otherwise noted, this material is made available under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike-3.0 License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/.

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GEMC - Emergency Management of Ano-Rectal Disorders - Resident Training Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Project: Ghana Emergency Medicine Collaborative Document Title: Emergency Management of Ano-Rectal Disorders Author(s): Joseph H. Hartmann (University of Michigan), DO 2012 License: Unless otherwise noted, this material is made available under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike-3.0 License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ We have reviewed this material in accordance with U.S. Copyright Law and have tried to maximize your ability to use, share, and adapt it. These lectures have been modified in the process of making a publicly shareable version. The citation key on the following slide provides information about how you may share and adapt this material. Copyright holders of content included in this material should contact open.michigan@umich.edu with any questions, corrections, or clarification regarding the use of content. For more information about how to cite these materials visit http://open.umich.edu/privacy-and-terms-use. Any medical information in this material is intended to inform and educate and is not a tool for self-diagnosis or a replacement for medical evaluation, advice, diagnosis or treatment by a healthcare professional. Please speak to your physician if you have questions about your medical condition. Viewer discretion is advised: Some medical content is graphic and may not be suitable for all viewers. 1
  • 2. Attribution Key for more information see: http://open.umich.edu/wiki/AttributionPolicy Use + Share + Adapt { Content the copyright holder, author, or law permits you to use, share and adapt. } Public Domain – Government: Works that are produced by the U.S. Government. (17 USC § 105) Public Domain – Expired: Works that are no longer protected due to an expired copyright term. Public Domain – Self Dedicated: Works that a copyright holder has dedicated to the public domain. Creative Commons – Zero Waiver Creative Commons – Attribution License Creative Commons – Attribution Share Alike License Creative Commons – Attribution Noncommercial License Creative Commons – Attribution Noncommercial Share Alike License GNU – Free Documentation License Make Your Own Assessment { Content Open.Michigan believes can be used, shared, and adapted because it is ineligible for copyright. } Public Domain – Ineligible: Works that are ineligible for copyright protection in the U.S. (17 USC § 102(b)) *laws in your jurisdiction may differ { Content Open.Michigan has used under a Fair Use determination. } Fair Use: Use of works that is determined to be Fair consistent with the U.S. Copyright Act. (17 USC § 107) *laws in your jurisdiction may differ Our determination DOES NOT mean that all uses of this 3rd-party content are Fair Uses and we DO NOT guarantee that your use of the content is Fair. To use this content you should do your own independent analysis to determine whether or not your use will be Fair. 2
  • 3. 3 WikipedianProlific, Wikimedia Commons
  • 4. Hemorrhoids • Symptoms – itching, pain, bleeding, protrusion • External hemorrhoids – asymptomatic unless thrombosed • Internal hemorrhoids – – Bleeding – typically bright red on stool – but not mixed in stool – Protrusion – soiling / mucus discharge incarcerated/strangulated 4
  • 5. Hemorrhoids • Pathogenesis – Inadequate dietary fiber – Prolonged sitting on comode – Chronic straining – Prolonged sitting (occupational) – Medical conditions causing increased venous pressure • Pregnancy, ascites, pelvic tumor 5
  • 6. Source unknown 6
  • 7. Source unknown 7
  • 8. Thrombosed Hemorrhoids • External – most common – Acute onset anal pain – Palpable perianal mass • Internal – far less common – Pain – Pressure – Bleeding 8
  • 9. Source unknown 9
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  • 11. Source unknown 11
  • 12. Gray’s Anatomy, 20th edition, Wikimedia Commons 12
  • 13. Source unknown 13
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  • 20. Hemorrhoids - treatment • Medical – Sitz baths – Increased dietary fiber – Stool softener – OTC topical agents / suppositories – Prescription topical agents / suppositories • Anusol / Anusol HC 20
  • 21. Hemorrhoids - treatment • Surgical – Sclerotherapy (injection of phenol in oil or hypertonic salt solution causing thrombosis of vessels and sclerosis of connective tissue) – Cryotherapy – Rubber band technique – Bipolar diathermy – Direct-current electrotherapy – Infrared photocoagulation – Surgical excision 21
  • 22. Rectal Prolapse (Procedentia) • Passage (herniation) of a portion or all of rectal mucosa thru external anal sphincter • Type I – false procedentia – Partial / mucosal prolapse less than 2 cm long – Produces radial folds • Type II – true procedentia – Complete / full thickness rectal wall extrusion – Extends 2 – 5 cm – Produces circular / concentric folds 22
  • 23. Dr. K.-H. Günther, Klinikum Main Spessart, Lohr am Main, Wikimedia Commons 23
  • 24. Rectal Prolapse • Increased intra-abdominal pressure – Chronic constipation, protracted coughing, forceful vomiting • • • • Diarrheal disease Cystic fibrosis Malnutrition Pelvic floor weakness 24
  • 25. Source unknown 25
  • 26. Source unknown 26
  • 27. Source unknown 27
  • 28. Source unknown 28
  • 29. Source unknown 29
  • 30. Leonard Portal Mark, St. Bartholomew’s Hospital Archives & Museum, London, UK, Wellcome Images 30
  • 31. Anal Fissure (fissure-in-ano) • Split in squamous epithelium at or just inside the anal verge (efface anal canal) • Sharp cutting anal pain with defecation that is relieved in-between defecations • Sentinel skin tag ( sentinel pile) present • Occurs in midline –posteriorly (90% male and 75% female) • Predominately noted in young adults 31
  • 32. Armin Kübelbeck, Wikimedia Commons 32
  • 33. Jonathanlund, Wikimedia Commons 33
  • 34. Anal Fissure • Treatment – Sitz baths – Topical analgesics – Surgery for chronic lesions or intractable pain – Diminish resting anal sphincter pressure • Nitroglycerin or calcium channel blocking agents 34
  • 35. Cryptitis (Papilitis) • Inflammation of mucosal lining over crypts (? passage of hard stools) • Predisposes to inflamation of anal glands leading to abscess formation and possible eventual fistula formation • Characterized by – Anal pain exacerbated with defecation – +/- bleeding and/or pruritis – Tender swollen crypts on palpation 35
  • 36. Source unknown 36
  • 37. Source unknown 37
  • 38. Cryptitis • Treatment – Sitz baths – Warm rectal irrigation – Bulk laxatives – Proctofoam HC 38
  • 39. Ano-rectal Abscess • Originates from infected anal glands at dentate line • Perianal • Ischiorectal (buttocks) • Intersphincteric (fluctuance in lumen) • Supralevator (CT diagnosis) • Horseshoe / deep posterior anal space – bilateral ischiorectal space abscess 39
  • 40. Source unknown 40
  • 41. Source unknown 41
  • 42. Source unknown 42
  • 43. Ano-rectal Abscess • Symptoms – dull aching, throbbing pain worse before defecation and persists between defecations • Treatment – Incision and drainage – Antibiotics if • • • • Extensive cellulitis Diabetes Valvular heart disease Immunosuppression 43
  • 44. Anal Fistula • Uncommon in general population – Anorectal malignancy – Leukemia – Radiation proctitis – Actinomycosis – Lymphogranuloma venereum – Inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn’s) 44
  • 45. 45 Marc A Levitt, Alberto Peña. Anorectal malformations. Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases. 2, 33. 2007, Wikimedia Commons
  • 46. Source unknown 46
  • 47. Source unknown 47
  • 48. Venereal Proctitis • Characterized by pruritis, discharge, mild – moderate pain or irritation, tenesmus • Usual etiologies – Viral • Herpes simplex type 2 • Human immunodeficiency virus • Papillomavirus (condylomata accuminata) – Bacterial • Neisseria gonorrhea • Chlamydia trachomatis • Treponema pallidum (condylomata lata –secondary syphillis) 48
  • 49. Source unknown 49
  • 50. Source unknown 50
  • 51. Source unknown 51
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  • 56. Source unknown 56