Users roles for co-creation of  innovation in living lab networks  Seppo Leminen
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Users roles for co-creation of innovation in living lab networks Seppo Leminen

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Seppo Leminen, D.Sc. (Econ), Adjunct Professor, Laurea University of ...

Seppo Leminen, D.Sc. (Econ), Adjunct Professor, Laurea University of
Applied Sciences, seppo.leminen@laurea.fi
Anna-Greta Nyström, D.Sc. (Econ), Åbo Akademi University, School of
Business and Economics
Mika Westerlund, D.Sc. (Econ), Assistant Professor, Carleton University,
Sprott School of Business, Canada
3rd ENoLL Living Lab Summer School 2012

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Users roles for co-creation of  innovation in living lab networks  Seppo Leminen Users roles for co-creation of innovation in living lab networks Seppo Leminen Presentation Transcript

  • III ENoLL Living labs Summer School Research Day 20th August 2012 Users roles for co-creation ofinnovation in living lab networks Seppo Leminen, D.Sc. (Econ), Adjunct Professor, Laurea University of Applied Sciences, seppo.leminen@laurea.fi Anna-Greta Nyström, D.Sc. (Econ), Åbo Akademi University, School of Business and Economics Mika Westerlund, D.Sc. (Econ), Assistant Professor, Carleton University, Sprott School of Business, Canada
  • Research gaps• Only few studies address co–production of services; instead focus is usually on the co-creation of value. (Chen et al., 2011)• Living Labs provide a promising research area for studying open service innovation. (Pascu & van Lieshout, 2009)• The roles of the actors in Living Labs networks deserve further investigation. (Nyström & Leminen, 2011)• Living Labs not researched from a network perspective and there is lack of rich case descriptions of Living Labs (Leminen & Westerlund, forthcoming)
  • Living Labs (1/2) Experimentation environments, where stakeholders form public- private-people partnerships (4Ps) to create, prototype, validate, and test new products, services, and technologies in real-life contexts. (Ballon et al., 2005) Products, services, and technologies are developed and tested in physical or virtual regions, where users are informants/co- creators. (Kusiak, 2007) Different from: (Ballon et al., 2005; Schaffers et al,. 2007)• test beds for controlled testing in a laboratory environment.• field trials for testing in a limited but still real-life environment.• other forms of open innovation that have no concrete setting.
  • Living Labs (2/2) Participants’ roles: Living Lab is a real-life test and experimentation environment, where users and producers co- create innovations, and which connects them with utilizers and enablers. (Leminen & Westerlund, 2008) Global networks: many Living Labs join regional or global networks of Living Labs: e.g., European Network of Living Labs. (http://www.openlivinglabs.eu/) Different types: i) narrow but sizable communities of expert users; ii) whole bounded populations; iii) Living Labs for technical service development; iv) Living Labs for non-technical research using a service platform. (Stewart, 2007)
  • Users as innovators Customer participation (customer contribution to co-production) and interaction (dialogue between customer and business) vital in service innovations. (von Hippel, 1986)• Today’s organizations need a constant flow of ideas while competing through emergent technologies and fast NPD. (Kao, 1997)• Integrating customers and users to learn from and with them in the innovation process is a key success factor for firms in all industries. (Edvarsson et al., 2010).• Firms involve consumers in the co-production of brands, experiences, design, marketing strategies, and even product or service development. (Jeppesen & Molin, 2003; Zwick et al., 2008)
  • Objectives of the study• Describe Living Labs as open innovation networks• Identify the distinct structures of Living Labs networks• Analyze users’ roles in diverse Living Labs networks
  • Customer involvement: two different approaches (Leminen, Kortelainen & Fred, 2010) 7
  • MethodologyPrimary data • A multiple case study among the staffs of 26 Living Labs in Finland, Sweden, Spain, and South Africa during 2007-2011 (a total of 103 semi-structured interviews).Secondary data • Web sites, bulletins, magazines, and case reports • Data collection aimed at identifying and categorizing roles in Living Labs networks
  • Activity based user roles• Four principal activity based user roles in Living Labs found: • Informant • Tester • Contributor • Co-creator 9
  • Living Labs: The network view Users Innovation ProvidersEnablers development Utilizers A Living Lab network Network of Living Labs 10 (Mod. Leminen & Westerlund, 2008)
  • Different types of Living Labs Enabler• Utilizer-driven Living Labs• Enabler-driven Living Labs Utilizer• Provider-driven Living Labs Developer• User/User community-driven Living Labs User (Kortelainen, Leminen & Fred, 2011) 11
  • User’s roles in Living Labs networks Utilizer User Provider Enabler Living Lab driven driven driven driven actors Co-creator, Co-creator, Co-creator, Co-creator, Contributor Contributor Contributor, Contributor User Informant, TesterActivitybased Contributor 6, Co-creator, Co-creator 18, Contributor, roles Informant, Informant Contributor Informant Tester 15,16,18,19, User Informant 15,16,17,18,19, Tester 15,17,18, Informant Contributor, Contributor Informant Contributor 4, Tester 11,12,13 Tester User Tester 2,4 Informant 13,14, Tester 11,12,14 12
  • Business networks: structure• Business network can be classified according to the firm’s position in the network and the configuration of the network (Doz, 2001).• The company may act as the engine, or hub, in the focal business network, or it is one of the many actors having a minor role as a partner with whom the hub company cooperates.• Networks centralized, decentralized, or distributed. Barbasi (2002, ref. Möller and Svahn, 2003) 13
  • Roles in networks• Heikkinen et al. (2007) • Webber, instigator, gatekeeper, advocate, producer, planner, entrant, auxiliary • Facilitator, compromiser, aspirant, accessory provider 14
  • User’s roles in diverse Living Labs networks Utilizer User Provider Enabler Living Lab driven driven driven driven actors Orchestrator, HUB FacilitatorDistributed Multiplex Co-creator, Co-creator, Co-creator, Co-creator, structure Contributor Contributor Contributor, Contributor User Informant, Tester Webber, HUB Builder, Position (structure) Facilitator based rolesDistributed Contributor 6, Coordinator Co-creator 18, Coordinator structure Informant, (focal net), Contributor (focal net), Tester Co-creator, 15,16,18,19, Contributor, User Informant Informant Informant 15,16,17,18,19, Tester 15,17,18, Facilitator, HUBCentralized Integrator structure Informant Contributor, Contributor Informant Contributor 4, Tester 11,12,13 Tester User Tester 2,4 Informant 13,14, 15 Tester 11,12,14
  • New position (structure) based roles for user found• Builder• Facilitator• Orchestrator• Integrator• Coordinator (focal net) 16
  • User’s roles in diverse Living Labs networks Utilizer User Provider Enabler Living Lab driven driven driven driven actors Orchestrator, HUB Facilitator Distributed Multiplex Co-creator, Co-creator, Co-creator, Co-creator, structure Contributor Contributor Contributor, Contributor UserActivity Informant, Testerbased Webber, Position HUB Builder, roles Facilitator based roles Distributed Contributor 6, Coordinator Co-creator 18, Coordinator structure Informant, (focal net), Contributor (focal net), Tester Co-creator, 15,16,18,19, Contributor, User Informant Informant Informant 15,16,17,18,19, Tester 15,17,18, Facilitator, HUB Centralized Integrator structure Informant Contributor, Contributor Informant Contributor 4, Tester 11,12,13 Tester User Tester 2,4 Informant 13,14, 17 Tester 11,12,14
  • Main conclusionsWe suggest that either actors actively shape the environment they act in or they are restricted by predetermined social structures (e.g. business networks) 18
  • Main arguments• Innovation is the outcome of cooperation between actors in business networks• Roles and positions of users are tools to manage the network
  • Found users roles in Living Lab networkPosition (structure) Activity based user rolesbased roles for users• Builder • Informant• Facilitator • Tester• Orchestrator • Contributor• Integrator • Co-creator• Coordinator• Webber 20
  • … and the journey continuescontinues. 21
  • ...Looking for partners• Scale-up LL (Scale-up innovation mechanisms in Living Labs) project focuses on the role of users and consumers in up‐scaling innovations from local and regional Living Labs experiments to global practices.• Please contact to: Dr. Seppo Leminen 22
  • Are you innovating together with your customers? Perspectives on Living Labs (in Finnish)22.8.2012 23
  • Thank you!seppo.leminen@laurea.fi anna-greta.nystrom@abo.fi mika.westerlund@carleton.ca Questions? Comments?