© 2010 IBM Corporation
Smart City is a System of Systems
Ville Peltola, Innovation Director, Senior Technologist IBM Innov...
© 2010 IBM Corporation2
Smarter cities – Facilitating the global discussion
Berlin
New York
Shanghai
June 2009
250 leaders...
© 2010 IBM Corporation3
What is a system?
“A group of interacting, interrelated, or interdependent
elements forming a comp...
© 2010 IBM Corporation4
Systems of our world and the $4 trillion opportunity
© 2010 IBM Corporation5
Cities are a complex collection of systems
PEOPLE
ENERGY
WATER
ICT COMMERCE
TRAFFIC FACILITIES
… a...
© 2010 IBM Corporation6
Cities have systemic challenges
In a small business district in
Los Angeles, driving around for
pa...
© 2010 IBM Corporation7
And not just cities…
In the U.S., a typical
carrot has traveled
1,600 miles, a potato
1,200 miles,...
© 2010 IBM Corporation8
Urbanization makes all the challenges even harder
In 2007, for the first time in history, the majo...
© 2010 IBM Corporation9
Aging infrastructure in existing cities
Water
In the U.S., a significant
water line bursts on aver...
© 2010 IBM Corporation10
The need to build totally new cities
Example: Masdar in UAE close to Abu Dhabi
© 2010 IBM Corporation11
All this complexity is typically dealt by applying reductionism*
Intelligence cameras
Automatic t...
© 2010 IBM Corporation12
We argue that we will not understand cities through reductionism
Source: Sterman, John, “Business...
© 2010 IBM Corporation13
Not an easy task…
“When the burdens of the presidency seem unusually
heavy, I always remind mysel...
© 2010 IBM Corporation14
Smarter cities are finding solutions today
Social Services: In California, Smarter Services
Agenc...
© 2010 IBM Corporation15
Technology can make these solutions possible
Turning Information
into Insight
Optimizing systems
...
© 2010 IBM Corporation16
We can measure, sense and monitor almost everything
Camera phones in
existence able to
document a...
© 2010 IBM Corporation17
People and systems can communicate freely
Instrumented Interconnected Intelligent
Mobile phone
su...
© 2010 IBM Corporation18
We can predict and respond to changes quickly
Instrumented Interconnected Intelligent
Or one quad...
© 2010 IBM Corporation19
Smarter Planet – IBM’s current global agenda
Instrumented Interconnected Intelligent
An opportuni...
© 2010 IBM Corporation20
“Smarter Cities” is a way to approach the complexity of the real
world in terms of the flows of i...
© 2010 IBM Corporation21
A Smarter City is considered to be a single system with many
interconnecting and interdependent s...
© 2010 IBM Corporation22
Example: Holistic and integrated approach to city operation
Smarter City Operations Center and Ci...
© 2010 IBM Corporation23
Water scenario video (3 minutes)
© 2010 IBM Corporation24
Manage

Data1
Analyze

Patterns2
Optimize
Outcomes3
Uniquevaluerealized
Use of Smarter Planet cap...
© 2010 IBM Corporation25
Can you operate a smart city – why not try?
© 2010 IBM Corporation26
Smarter Cities Challenge - $50M to 100 cities
© 2010 IBM Corporation27
Thank you
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25 Smart Cities Ville Peltola

  1. 1. © 2010 IBM Corporation Smart City is a System of Systems Ville Peltola, Innovation Director, Senior Technologist IBM Innovation Network
  2. 2. © 2010 IBM Corporation2 Smarter cities – Facilitating the global discussion Berlin New York Shanghai June 2009 250 leaders October 2009 500 leaders June 2010 800 leaders … plus 100+ local leader events … and 3,000+ city engagements
  3. 3. © 2010 IBM Corporation3 What is a system? “A group of interacting, interrelated, or interdependent elements forming a complex whole”
  4. 4. © 2010 IBM Corporation4 Systems of our world and the $4 trillion opportunity
  5. 5. © 2010 IBM Corporation5 Cities are a complex collection of systems PEOPLE ENERGY WATER ICT COMMERCE TRAFFIC FACILITIES … and silos
  6. 6. © 2010 IBM Corporation6 Cities have systemic challenges In a small business district in Los Angeles, driving around for parking in one year generated the equivalent of 38 trips around the world, burned 47,000 gallons of gas, emitted 730 tons of carbon dioxide. Congested roadways cost $78 billion annually in the form of 4.2 billion lost hours and 2.9 billion gallons of wasted gas.
  7. 7. © 2010 IBM Corporation7 And not just cities… In the U.S., a typical carrot has traveled 1,600 miles, a potato 1,200 miles, a chuck roast 600 miles… …grocers and consumers throw away $48 billion worth of food every year.
  8. 8. © 2010 IBM Corporation8 Urbanization makes all the challenges even harder In 2007, for the first time in history, the majority of the world’s population - 3.3 billion people - lived in cities. By 2050, city dwellers are expected to make up 70% of Earth’s total population, or 6.4 billion people.
  9. 9. © 2010 IBM Corporation9 Aging infrastructure in existing cities Water In the U.S., a significant water line bursts on average every 2 minutes Projections show energy consumption increasing by 50% in the next 25 years. Transport Energy 33% of U.S. Roads in poor, mediocre or fair condition & 27% of bridges deficient
  10. 10. © 2010 IBM Corporation10 The need to build totally new cities Example: Masdar in UAE close to Abu Dhabi
  11. 11. © 2010 IBM Corporation11 All this complexity is typically dealt by applying reductionism* Intelligence cameras Automatic ticketing Access control Identification systems Intrusion alarms Video surveillance Fire detection and alarms ….. Alternative energy sources Energy management Building management Energy distribution Street lighting Water distribution Water treatment Sewers …… Traffic management Radar cameras Traffic signaling Tolling Pedestrian crossings Subways Trains Buses Roads Parking …… Fire engines Ambulances Emergency room Healthcare Public Health K-12 Universities Continuing education Economic development Social care …… *a philosophical position that a complex system is nothing but the sum of its parts, and that an account of it can be reduced to accounts of individual constituents
  12. 12. © 2010 IBM Corporation12 We argue that we will not understand cities through reductionism Source: Sterman, John, “Business Dynamics: Systems Thinking and Modeling for a Complex World,” 2000, p. 187
  13. 13. © 2010 IBM Corporation13 Not an easy task… “When the burdens of the presidency seem unusually heavy, I always remind myself it could be worse. I could be a mayor.”
  14. 14. © 2010 IBM Corporation14 Smarter cities are finding solutions today Social Services: In California, Smarter Services Agencies are improving case management for over 158,000 clients while saving nearly $70M Water: In Texas, Smarter Water Management agencies have eliminated 1/3 of their service calls by predicting maintenance needs Public Safety: In New York, Smarter Fire Departments are improving responsiveness and saving lives by integrating city information
  15. 15. © 2010 IBM Corporation15 Technology can make these solutions possible Turning Information into Insight Optimizing systems to deliver outcomes
  16. 16. © 2010 IBM Corporation16 We can measure, sense and monitor almost everything Camera phones in existence able to document accidents, damage, and crimes 1 billion RFID tags embedded into our world and across entire ecosystems 30 billion Of new automobiles will contain event data recorders collecting travel information 85% Instrumented Interconnected Intelligent
  17. 17. © 2010 IBM Corporation17 People and systems can communicate freely Instrumented Interconnected Intelligent Mobile phone subscribers globally 4 billion People on the internet by 2011 2 billion Connected devices in the “internet of things” 1 trillion
  18. 18. © 2010 IBM Corporation18 We can predict and respond to changes quickly Instrumented Interconnected Intelligent Or one quadrillion operations per second can be calculated 1 petaflop Of new information generated every day and can now be managed 15 petabytes Of granularity for weather prediction can be modeled and measured 1 kilometer²
  19. 19. © 2010 IBM Corporation19 Smarter Planet – IBM’s current global agenda Instrumented Interconnected Intelligent An opportunity to think and act in new ways - economically, socially and technically. + + =
  20. 20. © 2010 IBM Corporation20 “Smarter Cities” is a way to approach the complexity of the real world in terms of the flows of information by integration across multiple government agencies Atlantic Council Awards Dinner, Washington, D.C., April 29, 2009 “And a city is a system—indeed, a city is a complex system of systems. All the ways in which the world works—from transportation, to energy, to healthcare, to commerce, to education, to security, to food and water and beyond—come together in our cities.” Sources • Meters • Traffic loops • Toll sensors • Surveillance cameras • Environmental sensors • Water flow, depth,….sensors • Energy flow sensors • Vehicle telematics (bus, taxi…) • Mobile telephone (anonymous) • People as sensors (environmental…) • People as data collectors (text, image, video…) • ….and many more Uses • “Understanding the city” • Multi-agency alarms and emergency response • Multi-factor predictive models (congestion prediction…) • Multi-factor risk analysis (impact of storms…) • Input to government processes (“Fix that hole”) • Polling (planning preferences…) • Billing (resource consumption, transit, parking…) • Visualizations (many kinds) • ….and many more
  21. 21. © 2010 IBM Corporation21 A Smarter City is considered to be a single system with many interconnecting and interdependent sub systems. The ability to instrument, interconnect and gain intelligence is a fundamental requirement for a Smarter City. City Water Energy Transportation Security Waste COEmissions ICT Buildings Smarter City is a system of systems
  22. 22. © 2010 IBM Corporation22 Example: Holistic and integrated approach to city operation Smarter City Operations Center and City Operators as new professions, who can coordinate city operations intelligently and automatically between city agencies
  23. 23. © 2010 IBM Corporation23 Water scenario video (3 minutes)
  24. 24. © 2010 IBM Corporation24 Manage
 Data1 Analyze
 Patterns2 Optimize Outcomes3 Uniquevaluerealized Use of Smarter Planet capabilities Sensors Data Integration Analytics Asset Management Collaboration Process Automation The path to smarter cities
  25. 25. © 2010 IBM Corporation25 Can you operate a smart city – why not try?
  26. 26. © 2010 IBM Corporation26 Smarter Cities Challenge - $50M to 100 cities
  27. 27. © 2010 IBM Corporation27 Thank you

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