The Development of Skills Structured Standard for IT Industry
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The Development of Skills Structured Standard for IT Industry

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Kenji HIRATA and Shigeyuki OHARA on the embedded technology skills standard for education and employment.

Kenji HIRATA and Shigeyuki OHARA on the embedded technology skills standard for education and employment.

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The Development of Skills Structured Standard for IT Industry The Development of Skills Structured Standard for IT Industry Presentation Transcript

  • The Development of Skills Structured Standard for IT Industry - For IT Solution and Embedded Technology - Kenji HIRATA, Ph.D. Associate Professor Toyo University Shigeyuki OHARA, Ph.D. Professor, Research Fellow Software Engineering Center in IPA † † (National Institute) Information-technology Promotion Agency
  • The Embedded Technology Skills Standard for Education and Employment
  • For this new development project!! We needs some engineers who have ability of “LAN” ?????? OK! How about me? I can “run” very fast!! You are kidding? Sorry(^_^). I know my friends. How about these engineers?
  • LAN technologies are very various types and consisted to various elements; for example domain targets, device, communication technology and so on. We need to identify the concepts of skill which organization needs or engineers have.
  •  
  • Personal? “Monster” Profile Illustrated book of Nintendo Pocket Monster Diamond Perl by Syogakukan 6 Competencies rating Skill title Skill type 3 Skill levels Skill attri. Effective target Competency description Competency description
  • Monster profile Parameters when it will level up Parameters when it will learn Proficiency level
  • Skill Dictionary Skill title Skill type 3 Skill levels Skill attri. Effective target Skill explanation
  • Training and skill Mature Training title Term for mature Skill Effectiveness Term to get it
    • Defined by Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI)
    • Promote by Information-technology Promotion Agency (IPA)
    The Skill Standards for IT Industry, ITSS, ETSS, and UISS
    • ITSS ver.1 Announced 2002
      • Current ver.3
    • ETSS ver.1 Announced 2004
      • Current ver.2
    • UISS ver.1 Announced 2006
    • Skill Standards for IT Professionals (ITSS)
      • Primary Target Area: IT Service companies (and those have similar job roles)
      • Short term needs: Development of higher level professionals as well as promotion of specialization
      • Primary Focus: Career development
    •  
    • Embedded Technology Skill Standard (ETSS)
      • Primary Target Area: Embedded System development companies (in house and vendor)
      • Short term needs: Development of mass quality software development engineers, who can share the common skill level.
      • Primary Focus : Skills development
    ITSS and ETSS
  • Structure of Skills Standards Reference Curriculum Career Criteria Skill Criteria Career Framework Framework of training courses Field of related expertise Skills required for a particular job Personal skills as defined in the ITSS,* etc. Personal skills as defined in the ITSS,* etc. Skill Framework Categorized : Elements of technical skills ITSS: Information technology Skill Standard by SEC/IPA, Japan : : : Unexperienced Business /industry Personal Management Technology Development technology Technology Elements :
  • Background of the ETSS (1)
    • Increasing importance of ET for “Made in Japan”
      • Importance for products ; almost products implemented ET
        • ET is indispensable for various types of products
        • Key technologies for Information society in now & future
      • Core competence : Pillar of Japanese Global Competitiveness
        • Core technology for realizing quality functions of main export manufactures
        • Keeping advantage in ET comparing with other information technologies area
      • Key methods : Realizing multifunction and sophisticated function of products
        • ET is key tool and means to improve product of multifunction, operationability, and advanced function
  • Examples of Japanese Products Using Embedded Technology (Software) Medical Appliance 9.7% AV Appliance 8.5% Communication Terminal Unit 8.5% Transport/Construction Machinery 7.1% Communications Equipment 6.3% Equipment Machinery 6.1% Home Electronics 5.3% PDA 5.1% Educational Aid. Amusement Device 4.3% Others 8.2% Industrial / OA Machine / Industry FA 20.5% Computer / Peripheral /OA 10.4% METI , 2004 Computer / Peripheral /OA
  • Background of the ETSS (2)
    • Changing Software Industry
      • High level requirements
        • In Automobile, Home electronics, Medical appliance, & Industry machine, product quality is directly connected to “Loss of Human Life” & “Capital Decreasing”
        • Defect or Failure in ET products leads products recall and then results to vast amounts of costs and damage for company image.
      • Large-Sizing and Complex Software ; almost products implemented ET
        • About 310,000 steps (average) for each new software or module for a product
        • About 990,000 steps (average) for a product
  • Background of the ETSS (3)
      • Short term development cycle
        • Over 80%: almost development term is less than for 1 year
      • Long working hours of ET engineers
        • Over 60%: ET engineers work more than 180 hours in a month
      • Chronic lack of human resources : Both engineer’s quantity and quality are shortages
        • Ministry Research Report
        • Q: What is issues you faces or recognizes in development of products?
        • A: Top response is “Lack of human resources”
        • Second top response is “Lack of skills of engineers”
  • ETSS is:
    • Formulated for use in engineers employments & education as a criteria to improve embedded system developments
    • Consists of three key elements:
    Skill Criteria Categorize technologies as skills in embedded system; Technological Elements, Development, and Management Tech. Career Criteria Defines job categories and specialties for the embedded system engineers required skills for each level Reference Curriculum Reference curriculum for the embedded system engineers education
  • Objectives of the Skills Standards Reference Curriculum Skill Criteria Career Criteria Categorize skills required Provide criteria for skills Buildup development skills by visualization Define careers and jobs Provide criteria for careers Define and Specialize expertise from professional point of view Provide courseware to improve skills and careers Provide a prototype for education curriculum Empower embedded system development by LET Human resources
  • Instantiation of ETSS from Skill Standards Reference Curriculum (draft) Career Criteria (draft) Skill Criteria (Version1.0 ) communication information : Req. analysis Process Design : Project Management Process Management Technological Elements Develpmnt Technology Mgement Technology Career Framework Framework of training courses Field of related expertise Skills required for a particular job Personal skills as defined in the ITSS,* etc. Personal skills as defined in the ITSS,* etc. Skill Framework categorize Embedded system development technologies Leadership Technological Elements Development Technology Mgement Technology : Unexperienced Business /industry Personal Management Technology Development technology Technology Elements Technological Elements Develpmnt Technology Mgement Technology Leadership :
  • Skill Criteria: Definition of the Skill levels
    • Definition
    Level 1 (Primary): can do jobs with guidance of the seniors Level 2 (Intermediate) : can do by themselves Level 3 (Advanced) : supervise the process Level 4 (Superior): organize experiences and find/develop original methods
  • Skill Criteria: Skill Categories
    • Skill Criteria comprise of 3 key sets of skill categories
    Technological Elements Skill To be integrated to implement specific functions. Include hardware, algorism, logic, components, related standards. Development Technology Skill To be used in the embedded systems development such as programming, debugging, and testing. Management Technology Skill To specify and categorize Management Technologies to process embedded software development and maintenance Skill Category
  • Architecture of the Skill Framework Skill Node First Layer Second Layer Third Layer Forth Layer Extend Extend Extend Extend
  • Skills Must be Separated from Technologies Result Technology: a process to ensure the required result economically and can be transferred as a knowledge Sub-process Sub-process Sub-process Sub-process Req. Skill: personal ability to carry out jobs assuming the responsibility of the sub-processes using rules and tools that comprise these processes Process: implement functions of a product or a product itself Development Ability: the scale and speed to manage PDCA cycles for technologies and skills PDCA: plan-do-check-act cycle
  • Embedded Technology Revolution: Changing Development Process and Quality Management Strategy Evalua-tion by Market distribution production Product deign 開発 Develop-ment Require-ments impact Embedded software is expected to enable in product development - less components - higher function and quality Decrease relative impor-tance of production process and that means a shift in the manufac-turing to the upstream process
  • Skill Criteria: Skill Framework (1) (2) (3) Layer 1 Layer 2 Layer 3 Primary Intermediate Advanced Superior 要素技術 Technological Elements Development Technology Mgmt. Technology Skill Categories Skill Granularity
    • Skill Categories: categorize skills
    • Skill Granularity: defines depth of skill categories
    • Skill Levels: represent level of skills
    Skill Level
  • Skill Requirements
    • Requisites to certify the possession of a specific skill when being tested is called “Skill Requirements”
    • Can make something: make functions aaa by analyzing requirements, constraints, examples, etc.
      • -> aaa : Technological Elements
    • Can use something: implement functions that use aaa by analyzing requirements, constraints, examples, etc.
    • -> aaa : Technological Elements
    • Can do xxx using yyy
        • -> xxx: jobs, management items
        • yyy: Development/Management Technology (methods, tools, etc.)
    Technological Element Skill Category Development / Management Skill Category
  • Relation of the Technological Elements and Development Technology △ : Primary ○ : Intermediate ◎ : Advanced ● : Superior Test Implement ○ Design ◎ ◎ ○ △ ○ ◎ ● ● Analyze Platform Sensing and Control Multimedia Infor.processing Communication Technological Elements Development Technology
  • Skill Criteria: Skill Categories (2) Product Development Technology Elements used in product developments Communication Information processing Multimedia User interface Storage Sensing and Control Platform Develop components with Development Technology Analyze Design Implement Test Manage product development process with Management Technology Project Management Process Management ・・・・・・ Technological Elements Dev. Technology Mgmt. Technology Embedded System
  • Technological Elements Skill Category See also Skill Criteria V.1.0 for details. 音声・画像などの統合処理技術 統合 4 Data compression and decompression Video 3 Data compression and decompression Still Image 2 Data compression and decompression Audio 1 Multimedia 3 Markup language, document viewer, etc. Output 4 Compression, database, etc. Data Processing 3 Encryption, copyright, etc. Security 2 data, voice, etc. Input 1 Information Processing 2 for transparent data transmission and applications Internet 4 Digital and analog broadcasting technology Broadcasting 3 For public and private use Wireless communications 2 WAN 、 LAN, etc. Wired communication 1 Communication 1 description Layer 2 Layer 1
  • Development Technology Skill Category See Embedded Systems Skill Criteria V 1.0 for details. Methods of review and inspection, etc. Evaluation and review of required items 2 Modeling methods, analysis methods, requirements definition, etc. Definition of requirements for software 1 Software Requirements Analysis 3 Methods of review and inspection, etc. Feasibility evaluation and design review 2 Performance estimation, FMEA, FTA, software cost estimates, IPR, etc. Allocation of functions and performance between hardware and software 1 Process Design 2 Methods of review and inspection, etc. Review of Requirements 3 Modeling, analysis, and requirements development Systems Analysis and Requirements Definition 2 Interviews, marketing survey, etc. Capturing Requirements 1 Systems Requirements Analysis 1 description Layer 2 Layer 1
  • Management Technology Skill Category See Skill Criteria v.1.0 for details. Planning, assignment, contract, management, etc. Procurement Management 9 Mgmt of Dev. Environment 3 Regulation, management procedures IPR Management 2 Define development process, review process, etc. Process Planning 1 Software Process Management 2 Risk analysis, decision tree analysis, risk categorization, etc. Risk Management 8 Methods of information sharing, etc. Communications Management 7 Team building, OBS, etc. Team Management 6 Inspection, error analysis, statistics, trends analysis, etc. Quality Management 5 ROI 、 ROE, estimates, EVM, etc. Cost Management 4 PART, Gant Chart, Estimation methods, etc. Time Management 3 WBS, change management, etc. Scope Management 2 WBS, EVM, conferencing, review methodology, etc. Integrated Management 1 Project Management 1 description Layer 2 Layer 1
  • Career Framework (1) Technology Elements, products, standards, etc. of ETSS Embedded Systems Development Testing Engineer Level 1 Level 2 Entry Level 3 Level 4 Mid. Level 5 Level 6 Level 7 High Embedded Software Development Development Process Embedded Systems Development Environment Embedded Systems Development Embedded Platform Embedded Applications Embedded Platform Embedded Applications Embedded Software Technologies (1) Embedded Software Development Embedded Systems Specialties QA Specialist Support Engineer Bridge Engineer Software Engineer Systems Architect Domain Specialist Project Manager Product Manager Career
  • Definition of Career Levels Perform Required Jobs (role) Can do with Guidance. Can do some jobs by themselves. Can do every job by themselves. Organize experiences into knowledge to be applicable in the projects and staff education. Lead a company. Recognized in the market. Lead the market Lead a company and/or an industry by developing technologies & standards Lead technologies, methodologies, and business Find problems and solutions in the projects Find problems and solutions with the guidance of the seniors. Level 7 Level 6 Level 5 Level 4 Level 3 Level 2 Level 1 High Level Mid Level Entry Level Contribute to create value
  • Career/Specialties and Activities principally Partly include Management of project with remote development sites Remote Project Management Planning Changed Functions Testing Software Installation Testing Systems Testing Integrated Testing Integrated Testing Planning Systems Testing Design Embedded Systems Development Testing Engineer Systems Testing Integrated Testing Code Inspection Design Quality Inspection Quality Assurance Programs Planning Embedded Software Development Q&A Specialist Design, tailoring, and operations support of the development process and project monitoring Development Process Maintenance of Systems Development Environment Maintenance and operation of systems development environment Systems Development Environment Planning Embedded Systems Development Environment Support Engineer Implementation of Change Testing Evaluation and support of deliverables Communications management between development sites Communication Planning Embedded Systems Development Bridge Engineer Implementation of Change Module Testing Systems Testing Integrated Testing Coding/ Module Testing Software Detailed Design Software Process Design Software Requirements Definition Embedded Platform Implementation of Change Module Testing Systems Testing Integrated Testing Coding/ Module Testing Software Detailed Design Software Process Design Software Requirements Definition Embedded Application Software Engineer Design of Change Reviewer Reviewer Reviewer Reviewer Reviewer Software Requirements Analysis System Process Design Requirements Specification Embedded Platform Design of Change Reviewer Reviewer Reviewer Reviewer Reviewer Software Requirements Analysis System Process Design Requirements Specification Embedded Application Systems Architect Design of Change Reviewer Reviewer Reviewer Reviewer Reviewer System Process Design Requirements Specification Embedded Technologies including ETSS Technology Elements, Products, and Standards, etc. Domain Specialist Project Management Project Planning Embedded Software Development Project manager Change Definition Examinations and decision on the changes of required specifications Requirements Analysis & Specification Products Survey, Analysis, and Systems Strategy Planning Embedded System Product Manager Maintenance Software Installation System Testing Software Integration Coding and Testing Software Detailed Design Software Process Design Software Requirements Analysis System Process Design Systems Requirements Analysis Planning Specialties Career
  • Upgrading Career Management Oriented Testing Oriented Career Shift Career Upgrade Legend Technology Oriented Required skills are defined to upgrade or shift skills Level 1 Level 2 Entry Level 3 Level 4 Mid Level 5 Level 6 Level 7 High 職種G Career F Career E 職種D Career C Career B Career A 職種
  • Curriculum and Training Courses IT Skill Standard Roadmap for the Beginners ETSS Reference Curriculum for the Primers Embedded Systems Technology Embedded Programming Course Embedded Software Development Project Course Beginners ・・・・・ ・・・・・ ・・・・・ ・・・・・ Business/ Industry Personal Management Technology Development Technology Technological Elements Level Skill Category Basic of IT(1) Basic of IT(2)
  • Understand Technical Strength and Weakness Primary Intermediate Advanced Superior Low Skill Area High Skill Area Communication Multimedia Information Technological Elements Systems Analysis Software Design Systems Design Development Technology
  • Evaluate Skills of a Development Team
    • Team Skills Analysis
    Make skill profiles of a development team. Aggregate skill profiles of the team members. Make a quantitative analysis of the dev. team Product Manager Q&A Specialist Software Engineer Project Leader System Architect Domain Specialist Test Engineer Software Engineer System Architect communication multimedia information Technological Elements Systems analysis & requirements definition ソフトウェア 設計 システム設計 開発技術
  • Allocate Human Resources Optimized for the Process Employment of human resources A Systems Req. Analysis PM SD SP A TEST A SP PM PM PM PM PM PM SP A A A A SP A SD SD SD SD TEST SD SD SD TEST TEST TEST TEST TEST SD SD TEST TEST TEST TEST TEST SD TEST Project Management Architect Software Development X Specialist Test Engineer SD SD Systems Design Software Req. Analysis Software Design Coding/ Unit testing Software Testing Systems Testing
  • Technological Elements of Cellular Phones
  • Technological Elements of DVD Recorders
  • Technological Elements of Cellular Phones (Software)
  • Technological Elements of DVD Recorders (Software)
  • Technological Elements of Cellular Phones (Skill Frame) Maintenance functions GUI UI LCD Sound Sound output Vibrator Vibration Font Image data output Barcode Still Image SD Card Removable media Media Storage NAND/NOR Flash Memory Memory storage Kernel OS Software Platform Software revision BREW Virtual Machine Interpreter JAVA Logging Trace GUI Library H264 MP4 Video recording/playback ADPCM (G726) Sound compression/decompression Sound Processing CELP Echo canceller filtering Amplifier/speaker Audio device Microphone 3G-324M Mobile AV integration Button Button Input Input Device User Interface Keyboard Joystick Plotting Input LED Display output Output Device MPEG 1 2 4 7 Video compression/decompression PNG GIF JPEG/JPEG 2000 Image data format Image Processing Kana/Kanji conversion Character data processing/conversion Data Processing Predictable input support Supplementary input functions OCR Barcode Imaged pattern recognition Input Assist Functions Web browser Markup language Microphone Voice input Camera Image input Information input Multimedia http Applied Processing tcp Ip ppp Transparent Data Transfer Internet Communication Infrared data communication Short Distance Communication CDMA PDC Mobile Communication Wireless Communication RS232C USB PAN Wired Communication Communication Can make Can use Skill Item Layer 3 Layer 2 Layer 1
  • Technological Elements of DVD Recorders (Skill Frame) Multimedia User Interface Storage Sensing/Control Platform Supplementary input device Data processiong Image processing Input device Sound processing Video data viewer Video recording/playback/editing Graphic Sound format Plot input Removable Media Interface Memory-type storage Permanent connection interface Large volume storage Control Power management Disc control GUI Supporting Functions Device Drivers Kernel Software updates System boot Operating system RGB Sound Sound Alarm CD-ROM/R/RW DVD-ROM /R/RW/RAM Flash memory HDD Media ATA ISO9660 Information Security Applied Processing UI PCM Sound control Audio Device Muting Remote controller Button Button Joystick LED/LCD Display Output Device OSD UDF File System ext2fs DVD Drive control Power management GUI library Logging Memory dump RDB Character/code conversion Character data conversion Kana/Kanji conversion Zip code conversion web browser support Image data format MPEG 2 MPEG (customized) DVD-Video Video compression/decompression DVD-VR 2D Graphic MPEG Enc/Dec Graphic device Image engine SQL Database Hard disk drive DVD player Web browser Markup language Information viewer Code input for reserved recording TV Program table Supplementary input functions CPRM CSS Intellectual property protection/management Encryption technology Encryption ftp dhcp dns http UDP TCP/IP Transparent Data Transfer Internet Infrared data communication (remote) Short Distance Communication CDMA PDC PAN Wireless Communication IEEE1394 CSMA-CD LAN/MAN Wired Communication Communication Can make Can use Skill Item Layer 3 Layer 2 Layer 1
  • Project for Skills Standards Modeling
        • 2006-2007
        • ITSS Skill Structure Model
        • ETSS Skill Structure Model
        • Survey and Mapping Skill/Competency related Standards
        • Skill Meta Model
        • Skill/Competency-Level Meta Model
        • Skill/Competency Management Architecture
        • 2008-2009
        • Detailed Skill/Competency Management Architecture
        • ETSS Domain Knowledge Content Model
        • Skills Standards Database Structure
        • Skill/Competency Ontological Dictionary
  • (5) Evidence info. (2) Skill/compet. info. (1) e-profile Learning activity /Learning log design instance (4) Level delivery system HRIS (3) Skill/compet. semantic info. Leaning course MLR/LOM (6) Assessment method/metric (7) Meta model refer trace trace record detail add elaborate identify submit accept detail design trace trace provide trace link ensure link LMS trace design trace link trace ensure link refer link refer
  • Operation/job Scenario Restrict Processing ( action ) Outcome Context Skill/Comp. Responsibility Under condition Relation with other KSAOs Function content: technology Prerequisite knowledge Function Specified knowledge Tool Object Taxonomy Placement Position value Specified Skill Function Condition Performance condition Metrics type Relation to sub factors Process 1st attri. (Mandatory) 2nd attri. (Recommend) 3rd attri. (Optional) role Essential Goal
  • s/c_level grade attribution metrics: s/c_grade data_type element data type value_character value character s/c_metrics: attribution grade_value grade value execution outcome regulation characteristics element s/c_metrics: criteria attribution
  • Thanks for your attention!