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Open Access and Search4Dev - Harry Heemskerk - KIT
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Open Access and Search4Dev - Harry Heemskerk - KIT

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  • 1. Open Archives Initiative: A model for development data? Harry Heemskerk, Royal Tropical Institute (KIT)
  • 2. Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl WARNING! This presentation is not about data.
  • 3. Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl In this presentation . . .  What are the issues  Open Archives Initiative (OAI)  Repositories in Africa  Search4Dev: repository for NL development sector  OAI: a model for development data?
  • 4. Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl The issues • Digital resources need to appear at many sites, but: o Storage at multiple locations is inefficient and error- prone o Multiple instances of metadata are inefficient and often inconsistent • Search engines do not use metadata optimally • Digital resources get lost • Identifiers to digital resources are not persistent
  • 5. Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl Open Archives Initiative (OAI) • Initiated by Van de Sompel and others in 2000 • Builds on Open Access initiatives in the 1990’s • Has since conquered Open Access publishing in the academic world
  • 6. Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl The principles of OAI a) Standardize metadata b) Add metadata at the source c) Store once, use many d) Register evolving sets of resources, not individual resources e) Create interoperability
  • 7. Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl a) Standardize metadata Metadata set: the descriptors to identify and describe the resource • Dublin Core Metadata Element Set (DCMES) ≈ minimum standard • 15 elements without refinements • each element optional and repeatable • also known also know as “Simple Dublin Core”
  • 8. Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl a) Standardize metadata Metadata exchange standard: the digital format in which the metadata set is exchanged Is defined as an XML schema • Dublin Core based (simple) o OMF o PBCore • MODS (intermediate) • MARCXML (complex) • METS (object hierarchies) • MPEG-21 DIDL (complex digital objects) • . . .
  • 9. Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl b) Add metadata at the source Metadata should be added close to the creation of the resource. (Possibly by the author him/herself => self-archiving) Why? • Creator knows best • Consistent • Efficient
  • 10. Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl Publication database Research database Website Users Data and services c) Store once, use many
  • 11. Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl Topical website Harvester Institutional repositoryI Institutional repositoryIII Institutional repositoryII Institutional repositoryIV Data layer Users Service layer Publication database Research database Website c) Store once, use many
  • 12. Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl Data layer = Repositories Service layer = Harvesters Repositories and harvesters
  • 13. Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl Various types of repositories • Institutional repository • Multi-institutional repository • Aggregating repository • Governmental repository • Disciplinary repository • Subject repository • . . .
  • 14. Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl Various types of repositories • May be very large or very small • May be rapidly expanding or rather stable • May store different kinds of content • May use varying database systems • May run on all kinds of platforms • . . .
  • 15. Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl Various types of harvesters • General search engine • Subject portal • Electronic sourcebook • Electronic journal • . . .
  • 16. Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl
  • 17. Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl About registries of repositories Register sets of resources, not individual resources. Examples of registries of repositories: • Registry of Open Access Repositories - ROAR • Directory of Open Access Repositories - OpenDOAR • The Open Archives Initiative • The OAI registry at University of Illinois • Openarchives.eu
  • 18. Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl d) Create operability Communication protocol: question-and-answer language between repository and harvester • OAI-PMH Open Archives Initiative - Protocol for Metadata Harvesting
  • 19. Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl d) Create operability Examples of OAI-PMH conversation Q: identify – who are you? A: I am the service www.university.edu and my oldest record is from 2001 Q: listmetadata – what are the metadataformats that you can supply? A: I can supply my metadata in DC and DIDL Q: listsets – which sets of information do you have ? A: I have a set of Humanities and a set of Biology records
  • 20. Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl d) Create operability Examples of OAI-PMH conversation Q: listidentifiers – Give me the headers of the records that were published after 1-1-2010 A: Here are the headers of the records requested Q: listrecords – Give me details of the records of the records that were published after 1-1-2010 A: Here is a list of records Q: getrecords – Give me a specific record A: Here are all the fields of this specific record
  • 21. Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl Volume of OAI-compliant repositories Source: OpenDOAR, May 11, 2011
  • 22. Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl Content of OAI-compliant repositories Source: OpenDOAR, May 11, 2011
  • 23. Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl In this presentation . . .  What are the issues  Open Archives Initiative (OAI)  Repositories in Africa  Search4Dev: repository for NL development sector  OAI: a model for development data? √ √
  • 24. Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl Repositories in Africa Source: OpenDOAR, May 11, 2011
  • 25. Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl Repositories in Africa Source: ROAR, May 11, 2011
  • 26. Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl KIT’s activities 1: supporting IRs
  • 27. Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl KIT’s activities 2: DATAD III Database of African Theses and Dissertations Under the responsibility of the Association of African Universities (AAU) DATAD I: online catalogue of bibliograhic metadata DATAD II: catalogue with partial access to full text DATAD III: harvester in a network of institutional repositories
  • 28. Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl KIT’s activities 3: toolkit Toolkit for implementing institutional repositories in Africa 1. Publication of toolkit in autumn 2011 2. Development of training modules 3. Setting up an online community of practice
  • 29. Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl
  • 30. Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl KIT’s activities Finally: There is more than strictly Open Acess Partnership with Elsevier Publishers to provide free access to some of Elsevier’s commercial databases for 150 academic and research institutions in Africa
  • 31. Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl In this presentation . . .  What are the issues  Open Archives Initiative (OAI)  Repositories in Africa  Search4Dev: repository for NL development sector  OAI: a model for development data? √ √ √
  • 32. Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl Search4Dev • Inspired by Research4Development in the UK • Initiated by Development Policy Review Network (DPRN) • Implemented by KIT • Launched in December 2008
  • 33. Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl Web interface Search4Dev . . . Academic institutions IR 1 IR 2 IR 2 IR x Portal Dutch Development Cooperation Research- ers Research- ers Policy makers Policy makers Practitio- ners Practitio- ners OAI-PMH harvesters Search4Dev repository NGOs., Ministry, etc.
  • 34. Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl
  • 35. Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl Search4Dev: current status • 32 participating NGOs
  • 36. Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl Participants • AWEPA - Association of European Parliamentarians with Africa • Bernard van Leer Foundation • Both ENDS • Cordaid • DCA-VET - Dutch Committee for Afghanistan - Veterinary Programmes • DPRN - Development Policy Review Network • Euroconsult/BMB Mott MacDonald • Hivos – Humanist Institute for Development Cooperation • ICCO - Interchurch Organization for Development Cooperation • IICD - International Institute for Communication and Development • IKV Pax Christi • IUCN National Committee of the Netherlands • KIT - Royal Tropical Institute • Knowledge Centre Religion and Development • MVO Platform • NCDO - National Committee for International Cooperation and Sustainable Development • Oxfam Novib • Partos • PharmAccess Foundation • Plan Nederland • PSO - Capacity Building in Developing Countries • SNV - Netherlands Development Organisation • SOMO - Centre for Research on Multinational Corporations • Spanda Foundation • Stichting Oikos • The Broker • VSO - Voluntary Service Overseas • WECF – Women in Europe for a Common Future • Wemos Foundation • Woord en Daad • Worldconnectors
  • 37. Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl Search4Dev: current status • 32 participating NGOs • 2.300 titles • About 1.000 titles added per year • Full set of metadata added • Storage format standardized
  • 38. Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl Search4Dev: current status • Usage still low . . . but growing • Substantial usage from outside the Netherlands • Growing number of harvesters o BASE – Bielefeld Academic Search Engine o Connecting-Africa o NARCIS o OAIster o OpenDOAR – Directory of Open Access Repositories o ROAR – Registry of Open Access Repositories
  • 39. Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl Search4Dev: lessons learned • Everybody supports the idea • . . . but not everybody puts in the effort • Initial enthusiasm may fade • Acquisition requires persuasion and persistence • Crucial to have dedicated contact persons • Legal agreement must precede publication
  • 40. Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl Search4Dev: lessons learned Without a strong partner in the service layer Search4Dev will not reach its full potential.
  • 41. Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl  What are the issues  Open Archives Initiative (OAI)  Repositories in Africa  Search4Dev: repository for NL development sector  OAI: a model for development data? In this presentation . . . √ √ √ √
  • 42. Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl WARNING! This presentation is not about data. Or is it?
  • 43. Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl Does the Open Archive Initiative provide a model for sharing open development data?
  • 44. Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl Thank youThank you