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Why OER?<br />David Wiley<br />Instructional Psychology & Technology<br />Brigham Young University<br />
Why OER?<br />1. Education is Sharing<br />(the technical argument)<br />2. Buy One, Get One<br />(the political argument)...
Why OER?<br />4. The $5 Textbook<br />(the financial argument, part 2)<br />5. Continuous Improvement<br />(the quality ar...
Why OER?<br />7. Do the Right Thing<br />	(the moral argument)<br />
1. Education Is Sharing<br />the technical argument<br />
Teachers Share With Students<br />Knowledge and skills<br />Feedback and criticism <br />Encouragement<br />
Students Share With Teachers<br />Questions<br />Assignments<br />Tests<br />
If There Is No Sharing<br />There is no education<br />
Successful Educators<br />Share most compeltely<br />with the most students<br />
Knowledge is Magical<br />Can be given without being given away<br />
Physical Expressions Are Not<br />To give a book you must give it away<br />
Expressions Are Different<br />To give a book you must give it away<br />
When Expressions Are Digital<br />They also become magical<br />
E.g., Online Book<br />We can all read simultaneously<br />
An Indescribable Advance<br />The first time in human history<br />
Both Knowledge and Expressions<br />Can be given without giving away<br />
Unprecedented Capacity<br />We can share as never before<br />
Unprecedented Capacity<br />We can educate as never before<br />
What Does “Share” Mean?<br />Online it means copy and distribute<br />
Cost of “Copy”<br />For one 250 page book:<br /><ul><li>Copy by hand - $1,000
Copy by print on demand - $4.90
Copy by computer - $0.00084</li></li></ul><li>Cost of “Distribute”<br />For one 250 page book:<br /><ul><li>Distribute by ...
Distribute by internet - $0.00072</li></li></ul><li>Copy and Distribute are “Free”<br />This changes everything<br />
Educational Sharing<br />Also means adapting or editing<br />
Sense-making, Meaning-making<br />Connecting to prior knowledge<br />Relating to past experience<br />(In an appropriate l...
Digital Makes Editing “Free”<br />Editing a printed book or magazine <br />is difficult and expensive<br />
Free Copy, Distribute, Edit<br />We can share as never before<br />
Free Copy, Distribute, Edit<br />We can educate as never before<br />
Except We Can’t<br />© forbids copying, distributing, and editing<br />
© Cancels the Possibilities<br />Of digital media and the internet<br />
InternetEnables<br />CopyrightForbids<br />What to do?<br />
Use copyright to enforce sharing<br />
The 4Rs<br />Reuse – copy verbatim<br />Redistribute – share with others<br />Revise – adapt and edit<br />Remix – combine...
Over 400 Million Items<br />Using CC licenses at end of 2010<br />
The “Open” in OER<br />Free permission to do the 4Rs<br />
InternetEnables<br />OER<br />Allows<br />Sharing and educating at unprecedented scale<br />
2. Buy One, Get One<br />the political argument<br />
“Buy One, Get One”<br />Pizza in Ohio<br />
Who Pays for Research?<br />Understanding relative contributions<br />
Public Investment in Research<br />$105,385 to $119,913 per article<br />(U.S. NIH-funded research)<br />
Publisher Investment in Research<br />$2750 per article, including<br />administrative and all other costs<br />
Does This Make Sense?<br />Publishers make 2% of the investment, <br />then take © and charge you for access<br />
Public (Who Paid) Has No Access<br />I thought I bought a pizza?!?<br />
If You Buy One, You Should Get One<br />All taxpayer-funded educational resources should be OER<br />
U. S. Department of Labor<br />$2 Billion for curriculum for <br />high-demand two year programs<br />
3. The Paradox of Free<br />the financial argument<br />
Do OER Hurt Sales?<br />Won’t people stop paying for the <br />course materials or books if they’re free?<br />
Publications<br />Hilton, J. & Wiley, D. (in press). Free E-Books and Print Sales. Journal of Electronic Publishing.<br />...
Findings<br />Over 2% of people who access open online courses become paying customers<br />Downloads of free online books...
4. The $5 Textbook<br />the financial argument, part 2<br />
Postsecondary Students<br />Pay $35 instead of $150 - $200 per book<br />115,000 students have saved $20M<br />
High School Science Classes<br />Teachers adapted CK12 books <br />for print or digital use<br />
http://opencontent.org/calculator<br />
A Chemistry Book for $4.86<br />Lean, focused textbooks<br />
1200 Students in 2010-2011<br />3500 students in 2011-2012<br />
Pedagogy and OER<br />Highlighting, annotating, taking notes<br />
Impact on Learning?<br />Data coming in two weeks!<br />
5. Continuous Improvement<br />the quality argument<br />
Each and EveryClick and View<br />Recorded and stored for analysis and quality improvement<br />
Analytics<br />Almost every industry (1) gathers and <br />(2) uses data more effectively than we do<br />
If Only We Could Get Data!<br />We could do analyses (aka research) too<br />
What Kind of Data?<br />Assessment data<br />Non-assessment behavioral data<br />
Assessment Data<br />Difficulty estimatesDiscrimination estimatesPer-standard expertise estimatesAnd “grades,” of course<b...
Behavioral Data<br />When they logged in, read, and worked<br />How long they logged in, read, and worked<br />Pathway inf...
What If You Could Know<br />Which students need the most help?<br />Specifically what those students need help on?<br />Th...
Teaching as Science<br />Possible with data, tools, and commitment<br />
Learning Analytics<br />Can tell us who and what needs help<br />
It’s Useless<br />Knowing what needs fixed, <br />when you don’t have permission to fix it<br />
Openness<br />Gives us permission to make <br />changes and improvements<br />
It’s Useless<br />Having permission to fix things,<br />when you don’t know where to start<br />
Openness + Analytics<br />Tells you what to fix and allows you to fix it!<br />Enables Continuous Quality Improvement<br />
TheLoop<br />Curriculum Redesign<br />Data Describing Curriculum Performance<br />Data Supporting Strategic Tutoring<br />...
6. Content is Infrastructure<br />the innovation argument<br />
What is Infrastructure?<br />Electric grid, telecom, roads, airports, water, sewer, etc.<br />
What is Infrastructure?<br />“The physical components of interrelated systems providing commodities and services essential...
To Speed Innovation<br />Increase quality and decrease cost <br />of infrastructure<br />
Content is Critical<br />An important part of every educational<br />institution’s infrastructure<br />
To Speed Education Innovation<br />Increase quality and decrease cost <br />of content infrastructure<br />
University of the People<br />
OER University<br />
Mozilla Badge Lab<br />
Mozilla Badge Lab<br />
7. Do the Right Thing<br />the moral argument<br />
Consider Our Responsibility<br />What kind of ethical or moral <br />responsibility do we have?<br />Who are you accountab...
Our Potential Is Limitless<br />The good we can do is constrained <br />only by our creativity and commitment<br />
Why OER?<br />To be helpful<br />
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Why OER?

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Keynote address given at the 2011 Thailand International eLearning Conference, Bangkok.

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  • Thank you very much to give me a chance to access your presentation. Unfortunately, I must go back to Japan and continuously need to move to China to attend another conference, and could not have another chance to discuss further issues. In fact, it is extremely important for Thai people to know disseminating Free society in cyber space, but they do not know much about conceptual frameworks of categories of Free. They love free because they love one way subsidies and promoting discount. However, Free has other conceptual activities, and the most problem would be Altruism. For instance, statistics of Wikipedia informed the contributed No. of articles by local languages. Thai is ranked as 46 (68,000articles) where neighborhood Malay of half population is ranked as 32 (120,000 articles). Actually, ranking of local languages is not view the size of the population of speakers. It was said at least 500,000 articles were required to use Wikipedia for educational use in tertiary education, but limited altruism would affect not only Wikipedia, but also your introduced OER as well. Consciousness of expression, fun, good karma, satisfaction, and self-interest need to be cultivated in their educational society. On the other side, I introduced them FREEMIUM, because they need to know different concept that could maintain commercial profits even under huge provision of Free service. It does not totally lure them to some profitable products. Unfortunately, I am not keen to motivate Altruism, and then I made a strategy to use Freemium to introduce their activities more into cyberspace and enrich their activities with their archives. This also intended to offer the chance to know meaning of collaboration concretely, and cultivate their mind of Altruism in the next step. I hope that Thai people change to more active to contribute OER, and TCU would take some leading some actions for penetration.
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  • CC By Photo by David Wiley
  • CC By Photo by http://www.flickr.com/photos/gianvc/3544738106/
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/joelogon/2453478462/
  • Wellcome Trust
  • Transcript of "Why OER?"

    1. 1. Why OER?<br />David Wiley<br />Instructional Psychology & Technology<br />Brigham Young University<br />
    2. 2. Why OER?<br />1. Education is Sharing<br />(the technical argument)<br />2. Buy One, Get One<br />(the political argument)<br />3. The Paradox of Free<br />(the financial argument, part 1)<br />
    3. 3. Why OER?<br />4. The $5 Textbook<br />(the financial argument, part 2)<br />5. Continuous Improvement<br />(the quality argument)<br />6. Content is Infrastructure<br />(the innovation argument)<br />
    4. 4. Why OER?<br />7. Do the Right Thing<br /> (the moral argument)<br />
    5. 5. 1. Education Is Sharing<br />the technical argument<br />
    6. 6. Teachers Share With Students<br />Knowledge and skills<br />Feedback and criticism <br />Encouragement<br />
    7. 7. Students Share With Teachers<br />Questions<br />Assignments<br />Tests<br />
    8. 8. If There Is No Sharing<br />There is no education<br />
    9. 9. Successful Educators<br />Share most compeltely<br />with the most students<br />
    10. 10. Knowledge is Magical<br />Can be given without being given away<br />
    11. 11. Physical Expressions Are Not<br />To give a book you must give it away<br />
    12. 12. Expressions Are Different<br />To give a book you must give it away<br />
    13. 13. When Expressions Are Digital<br />They also become magical<br />
    14. 14.
    15. 15. E.g., Online Book<br />We can all read simultaneously<br />
    16. 16. An Indescribable Advance<br />The first time in human history<br />
    17. 17. Both Knowledge and Expressions<br />Can be given without giving away<br />
    18. 18. Unprecedented Capacity<br />We can share as never before<br />
    19. 19. Unprecedented Capacity<br />We can educate as never before<br />
    20. 20. What Does “Share” Mean?<br />Online it means copy and distribute<br />
    21. 21. Cost of “Copy”<br />For one 250 page book:<br /><ul><li>Copy by hand - $1,000
    22. 22. Copy by print on demand - $4.90
    23. 23. Copy by computer - $0.00084</li></li></ul><li>Cost of “Distribute”<br />For one 250 page book:<br /><ul><li>Distribute by mail - $5.20
    24. 24. Distribute by internet - $0.00072</li></li></ul><li>Copy and Distribute are “Free”<br />This changes everything<br />
    25. 25. Educational Sharing<br />Also means adapting or editing<br />
    26. 26. Sense-making, Meaning-making<br />Connecting to prior knowledge<br />Relating to past experience<br />(In an appropriate language)<br />
    27. 27. Digital Makes Editing “Free”<br />Editing a printed book or magazine <br />is difficult and expensive<br />
    28. 28. Free Copy, Distribute, Edit<br />We can share as never before<br />
    29. 29. Free Copy, Distribute, Edit<br />We can educate as never before<br />
    30. 30. Except We Can’t<br />© forbids copying, distributing, and editing<br />
    31. 31. © Cancels the Possibilities<br />Of digital media and the internet<br />
    32. 32. InternetEnables<br />CopyrightForbids<br />What to do?<br />
    33. 33.
    34. 34. Use copyright to enforce sharing<br />
    35. 35. The 4Rs<br />Reuse – copy verbatim<br />Redistribute – share with others<br />Revise – adapt and edit<br />Remix – combine with others<br />
    36. 36.
    37. 37. Over 400 Million Items<br />Using CC licenses at end of 2010<br />
    38. 38. The “Open” in OER<br />Free permission to do the 4Rs<br />
    39. 39. InternetEnables<br />OER<br />Allows<br />Sharing and educating at unprecedented scale<br />
    40. 40. 2. Buy One, Get One<br />the political argument<br />
    41. 41.
    42. 42. “Buy One, Get One”<br />Pizza in Ohio<br />
    43. 43. Who Pays for Research?<br />Understanding relative contributions<br />
    44. 44. Public Investment in Research<br />$105,385 to $119,913 per article<br />(U.S. NIH-funded research)<br />
    45. 45. Publisher Investment in Research<br />$2750 per article, including<br />administrative and all other costs<br />
    46. 46. Does This Make Sense?<br />Publishers make 2% of the investment, <br />then take © and charge you for access<br />
    47. 47. Public (Who Paid) Has No Access<br />I thought I bought a pizza?!?<br />
    48. 48. If You Buy One, You Should Get One<br />All taxpayer-funded educational resources should be OER<br />
    49. 49. U. S. Department of Labor<br />$2 Billion for curriculum for <br />high-demand two year programs<br />
    50. 50. 3. The Paradox of Free<br />the financial argument<br />
    51. 51. Do OER Hurt Sales?<br />Won’t people stop paying for the <br />course materials or books if they’re free?<br />
    52. 52. Publications<br />Hilton, J. & Wiley, D. (in press). Free E-Books and Print Sales. Journal of Electronic Publishing.<br />Hilton, J. & Wiley, D. (in press). Open access textbooks and financial sustainability:  A case study on flat world knowledge. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning.<br />Johansen, J. & Wiley, D. (2011). A sustainable model for opencourseware development. Educational Technology Research & Development. <br />Hilton, J. & Wiley, D. (2010). A sustainable future for open textbooks? The Flat World Knowledge story. First Monday, 15(8). <br />Hilton, J. & Wiley, D. (2010). Free: Why authors are giving books away on the Internet. Tech Trends, 54(2).<br />Hilton, J., Wiley, D. (2010). The short-term influence of free digital versions of books on print sales. Journal of Electronic Publishing, 13(1)<br />http://davidwiley.org/<br />
    53. 53. Findings<br />Over 2% of people who access open online courses become paying customers<br />Downloads of free online books correlate strongly with sales of print books<br />A for-profit business can be financially successful using CC licenses on its textbooks<br />
    54. 54. 4. The $5 Textbook<br />the financial argument, part 2<br />
    55. 55.
    56. 56. Postsecondary Students<br />Pay $35 instead of $150 - $200 per book<br />115,000 students have saved $20M<br />
    57. 57.
    58. 58. High School Science Classes<br />Teachers adapted CK12 books <br />for print or digital use<br />
    59. 59. http://opencontent.org/calculator<br />
    60. 60. A Chemistry Book for $4.86<br />Lean, focused textbooks<br />
    61. 61. 1200 Students in 2010-2011<br />3500 students in 2011-2012<br />
    62. 62. Pedagogy and OER<br />Highlighting, annotating, taking notes<br />
    63. 63. Impact on Learning?<br />Data coming in two weeks!<br />
    64. 64. 5. Continuous Improvement<br />the quality argument<br />
    65. 65.
    66. 66. Each and EveryClick and View<br />Recorded and stored for analysis and quality improvement<br />
    67. 67. Analytics<br />Almost every industry (1) gathers and <br />(2) uses data more effectively than we do<br />
    68. 68. If Only We Could Get Data!<br />We could do analyses (aka research) too<br />
    69. 69.
    70. 70.
    71. 71. What Kind of Data?<br />Assessment data<br />Non-assessment behavioral data<br />
    72. 72. Assessment Data<br />Difficulty estimatesDiscrimination estimatesPer-standard expertise estimatesAnd “grades,” of course<br />
    73. 73. Behavioral Data<br />When they logged in, read, and worked<br />How long they logged in, read, and worked<br />Pathway informationSocial network analysis<br />
    74. 74. What If You Could Know<br />Which students need the most help?<br />Specifically what those students need help on?<br />The least effective parts of you curriculum?<br />Which parts of your tests are malfunctioning?<br />
    75. 75. Teaching as Science<br />Possible with data, tools, and commitment<br />
    76. 76. Learning Analytics<br />Can tell us who and what needs help<br />
    77. 77. It’s Useless<br />Knowing what needs fixed, <br />when you don’t have permission to fix it<br />
    78. 78. Openness<br />Gives us permission to make <br />changes and improvements<br />
    79. 79. It’s Useless<br />Having permission to fix things,<br />when you don’t know where to start<br />
    80. 80. Openness + Analytics<br />Tells you what to fix and allows you to fix it!<br />Enables Continuous Quality Improvement<br />
    81. 81.
    82. 82. TheLoop<br />Curriculum Redesign<br />Data Describing Curriculum Performance<br />Data Supporting Strategic Tutoring<br />Curriculum Use<br />Student<br />Performance<br />Data<br />
    83. 83. 6. Content is Infrastructure<br />the innovation argument<br />
    84. 84. What is Infrastructure?<br />Electric grid, telecom, roads, airports, water, sewer, etc.<br />
    85. 85. What is Infrastructure?<br />“The physical components of interrelated systems providing commodities and services essential to enable, sustain, or enhance” societies or enterprises.<br />
    86. 86. To Speed Innovation<br />Increase quality and decrease cost <br />of infrastructure<br />
    87. 87. Content is Critical<br />An important part of every educational<br />institution’s infrastructure<br />
    88. 88. To Speed Education Innovation<br />Increase quality and decrease cost <br />of content infrastructure<br />
    89. 89.
    90. 90. University of the People<br />
    91. 91.
    92. 92. OER University<br />
    93. 93. Mozilla Badge Lab<br />
    94. 94. Mozilla Badge Lab<br />
    95. 95. 7. Do the Right Thing<br />the moral argument<br />
    96. 96.
    97. 97. Consider Our Responsibility<br />What kind of ethical or moral <br />responsibility do we have?<br />Who are you accountable to?<br />
    98. 98. Our Potential Is Limitless<br />The good we can do is constrained <br />only by our creativity and commitment<br />
    99. 99. Why OER?<br />To be helpful<br />
    100. 100. Thank You<br />david.wiley@byu.edu<br />@opencontent<br />http://davidwiley.org/<br />
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