Why Be Open?


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  • As paper became more affordable, dictations became the common form in early universities, and students hand wrote their own copies of texts.
  • CC By-NC-SA Photo from http://www.flickr.com/photos/nelsray/3760100376/in/photostream/
  • With the “lecture text” we get wide margins, so that faculty can now dictate their annotations to students. Though universities temporarily ban dictations, students demand them and they continue.
  • And this is still our primary mode of instruction, 3000 years later.
  • CC By Photo by David Wiley
  • CC licensedphoto http://www.flickr.com/photos/62693815@N03/6277209256/
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/joelogon/2453478462/
  • Wellcome Trust
  • Why Be Open?

    1. 1. Why Be Open? David WileyInstructional Psychology & Technology Brigham Young University
    2. 2. Download These Slideshttp://slideshare.net/opencontent/
    3. 3. http://www.flickr.com/photos/gls-conference/4687537285/
    4. 4. If the Book Didn’t Change Schools Can the computer? Can the internet? Can “open”?
    5. 5. Why Be Open?1. Education is Sharing (the technical argument)2. Buy One, Get One (the political argument)3. The Paradox of Free (the financial argument, part 1)
    6. 6. Why Be Open?4. The $5 Textbook (the financial argument, part 2)5. Facilitate the Unexpected (the serendipity argument)6. Continuous Improvement (the quality argument)
    7. 7. Why Be Open?7. Content is Infrastructure (the innovation argument)8. Do the Right Thing (the moral argument)
    8. 8. 1. Education Is Sharing the technical argument
    9. 9. Teachers Share With Students Knowledge and skills Feedback and criticism Encouragement
    10. 10. Students Share With Teachers Questions Assignments Tests
    11. 11. If There Is No Sharing There is no education
    12. 12. Successful Educators Share most compeltely with the most students
    13. 13. Knowledge is MagicalCan be given without being given away
    14. 14. Physical Expressions Are Not To give a book you must give it away
    15. 15. Expressions Are DifferentTo give a book you must give it away
    16. 16. When Expressions Are Digital They also become magical
    17. 17. An Indescribable Advance The first time in human history
    18. 18. Both Knowledge and Expressions Can be given without giving away
    19. 19. Unprecedented Capacity We can share as never before
    20. 20. Unprecedented CapacityWe can educate as never before
    21. 21. What Does “Share” Mean?Online it means copy and distribute
    22. 22. Cost of “Copy”For one 250 page book:• Copy by hand - $1,000• Copy by print on demand - $4.50• Copy by computer - $0.00084
    23. 23. Cost of “Distribute”For one 250 page book:• Distribute by mail - $5.20• Distribute by internet - $0.00072
    24. 24. Copy and Distribute are “Free” This changes everything
    25. 25. Educational SharingAlso means adapting or editing
    26. 26. Sense-making, Meaning-making Connecting to prior knowledge Relating to past experience (In an appropriate language)
    27. 27. Digital Makes Editing “Free” Editing a printed book or magazine is difficult and expensive
    28. 28. Free Copy, Distribute, Edit We can share as never before
    29. 29. Free Copy, Distribute, Edit We can educate as never before
    30. 30. Except We Can’t© forbids copying, distributing, and editing
    31. 31. © Cancels the Possibilities Of digital media and the internet
    32. 32. Internet CopyrightEnables Forbids What to do?
    33. 33. Use copyright to enforce sharing
    34. 34. The 4Rs Reuse – copy verbatimRedistribute – share with others Revise – adapt and edit Remix – combine with others
    35. 35. Over 400 Million ItemsUsing CC licenses at end of 2010
    36. 36. The “Open” in OERFree permission to do the 4Rs
    37. 37. Internet OEREnables Allows Sharing and educating at unprecedented scale
    38. 38. 2. Buy One, Get One the political argument
    39. 39. “Buy One, Get One” Pizza in Ohio
    40. 40. Who Pays for Research?Understanding relative contributions
    41. 41. Public Investment in Research $105,385 to $119,913 per article (U.S. NIH-funded research)
    42. 42. Publisher Investment in Research $2750 per article, including administrative and all other costs
    43. 43. Does This Make Sense?Publishers make 2% of the investment,then take © and charge you for access
    44. 44. Public (Who Paid) Has No Access I thought I bought a pizza?!?
    45. 45. If You Buy One, You Should Get One All taxpayer-funded educational resources should be OER
    46. 46. U. S. Department of Labor $2 Billion for curriculum for high-demand two year programs
    47. 47. 3. The Paradox of Free the financial argument
    48. 48. Do OER Hurt Sales? Won’t people stop paying for thecourse materials or books if they’re free?
    49. 49. Publications• Hilton, J. & Wiley, D. (in press). Free E-Books and Print Sales. Journal of Electronic Publishing.• Hilton, J. & Wiley, D. (in press). Open access textbooks and financial sustainability: A case study on flat world knowledge. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning.• Johansen, J. & Wiley, D. (2011). A sustainable model for opencourseware development. Educational Technology Research & Development.• Hilton, J. & Wiley, D. (2010). A sustainable future for open textbooks? The Flat World Knowledge story. First Monday, 15(8).• Hilton, J. & Wiley, D. (2010). Free: Why authors are giving books away on the Internet. Tech Trends, 54(2).• Hilton, J., Wiley, D. (2010). The short-term influence of free digital versions of books on print sales. Journal of Electronic Publishing, 13(1) http://davidwiley.org/
    50. 50. Findings• Over 2% of people who access open online courses become paying customers• Downloads of free online books correlate strongly with sales of print books• A for-profit business can be financially successful using CC licenses on its textbooks
    51. 51. 4. The $5 Textbookthe financial argument, part 2 (aka your fellow travelers)
    52. 52. Postsecondary Students Pay $35 instead of $150 per book300,000 students have saved $39M+
    53. 53. Postsecondary Students Pay $35 instead of $150 per book300,000 students have saved $39M+
    54. 54. Project Kaleidoscope (NGLC) Preliminary research results
    55. 55. “How would you rate the qualityof the texts used for this course?”Answer Response %WORSE than… 4 3%About the SAME AS… 67 56%BETTER than… 49 41%
    56. 56. “How do you feel about the online format of the texts used…?”Answer Response %I like it MORE than … 65 52%I have no preference 38 31%I like it LESS than… 21 17%
    57. 57. “Imagine a future course you are required to take. If two different sections were offered…”Answer Response %I would enroll in the section with 17 13%TRADITIONAL PUBLISHED TEXTSI would enroll in the section with 93 74%TEXTS LIKE THOSE OFFERED INTHIS COURSEI would have no preference 16 13%
    58. 58. High School Science Classes Teachers adapted CK12 books for print or digital use
    59. 59. http://opencontent.org/calculator
    60. 60. High SchoolsPay $5 instead of $80 per book
    61. 61. 1200 Students in 2010-2011 2700 students in 2011-2012
    62. 62. Impact on Learning? No difference – yet
    63. 63. Pedagogy and OERHighlighting, annotating, taking notes
    64. 64. Impact on Learning? With PD we willmove the outcomes needle
    65. 65. Statewide Secondary in 2012 Over 275,000 students
    66. 66. Back of the EnvelopeCost of Traditional Books Over Cycle $61,875,000Cost of Open Books Over Cycle $28,875,000Potential Savings Over Entire Cycle $33,000,000Potential Savings Per Year $4,714,286
    67. 67. 5. Facilitate the Unexpected Some examples… on a budget
    68. 68. Character Classes• Bard - Master of the lore, history, and politics of the field, know whats “out there”• Artisan - Has materials production skills in all the necessary Web 1.0 and 2.0 tools like HTML, video sharing, podcasting• Monk Master of copyright and licensing arcana and defender of the university brand• Merchant Deals with short- and long-term sustainability issues
    69. 69. http://openeducation.us/
    70. 70. 6. Continuous Improvement the quality argument
    71. 71. Learning AnalyticsCan tell us who and what needs help
    72. 72. It’s Useless Knowing what needs fixed,when you don’t have permission to fix it
    73. 73. OpennessGives us permission to makechanges and improvements
    74. 74. It’s Useless Having permission to fix things,when you don’t know where to start
    75. 75. Openness + AnalyticsTells you what to fix and allows you to fix it! Enables Continuous Quality Improvement
    76. 76. 7. Content is Infrastructure the innovation argument
    77. 77. What is Infrastructure?Electric grid, telecom, roads, airports, water, sewer, etc.
    78. 78. What is Infrastructure? “The physical components of interrelatedsystems providing commodities and services essential to enable, sustain, or enhance” societies or enterprises.
    79. 79. To Speed InnovationIncrease quality and decrease cost of infrastructure
    80. 80. Content is CriticalAn important part of every educational institution’s infrastructure
    81. 81. To Speed Education Innovation Increase quality and decrease cost of content infrastructure
    82. 82. University of the People
    83. 83. OER University
    84. 84. Mozilla Badge Lab
    85. 85. 8. Do the Right Thing the moral argument
    86. 86. Consider Our Responsibility What kind of ethical or moral responsibility do we have? Who are you accountable to?
    87. 87. Our Potential Is Limitless The good we can do is constrainedonly by our creativity and commitment
    88. 88. Why Be Open? To be helpful
    89. 89. Thank Youdavid.wiley@byu.eduhttp://davidwiley.org/