Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
We Survived the Book: Why Worry About the Internet?
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

We Survived the Book: Why Worry About the Internet?

2,921

Published on

Published in: Education, Spiritual
1 Comment
6 Likes
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total Views
2,921
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
25
Comments
1
Likes
6
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide
  • Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  • Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  • Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  • Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  • Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  • Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  • Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  • Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  • Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  • Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  • Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  • Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  • Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  • Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  • Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  • Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  • Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  • Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  • Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  • Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  • Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  • Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  • Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  • Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  • Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  • Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  • Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  • Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  • Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  • Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  • Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  • Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  • Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  • Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  • Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  • Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  • Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  • Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  • Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  • Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  • Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  • Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  • Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  • Massive hyperlinking; 300,000 person communities of interest; etc.
  • Massive hyperlinking; 300,000 person communities of interest; etc.
  • Massive hyperlinking; 300,000 person communities of interest; etc.
  • Transcript

    • 1. We  Survived  the  Book  –     Why  Worry  About  the  Internet?   (A  few  thoughts  on  the  future  of  educa@on)   David  Wiley,  PhD   Department  of  Instruc@onal  Psychology  &  Technology   Brigham  Young  University   CC BY!
    • 2. Two  Historical  Sketches   (You  should  always  open  with  stories,  right?)   CC BY!
    • 3. Sketch  1   In  which  technology  overturns  the  world’s   most  powerful  ins@tu@on   CC BY!
    • 4. 11th  Century   Vernacular  transla@ons     of  the  Bible  are  forbidden   CC BY!
    • 5. 12th  Century   Possession  or  memoriza@on  of   scriptures  forbidden   CC BY!
    • 6. 14th  Century   Wycliffe  finishes  English  transla@on   CC BY!
    • 7. 15th  Century   English  law  reads:  “whosoever  reads  the  Scriptures   in  the  mother  tongue,  shall  forfeit  land,  caWle,  life,   and  goods  from  their  heirs  forever,  and  so  be   condemned  for  here@cs  to  God,  enemies  to  the   crown,  and  most  arrant  traitors  to  the  land.”   CC BY!
    • 8. 15th  Century   Gutenberg,  the  prin@ng  press,  and   metallic  movable  type   CC BY!
    • 9. 15th  Century   The  church  leverages  technology  to  print   indulgences  at  scale  for  a  frac@on     of  the  cost  –  but  no  Bibles   CC BY!
    • 10. 16th  Century   English  and  German  Bibles  are  mass-­‐   produced  and  pirate  Bibles  are  smuggled  in   flour  sacks  and  coWon  bales   CC BY!
    • 11. 16th  Century   Empowered  with  access,  people  won’t   tolerate  foolishness  (indulgences)   CC BY!
    • 12. 16th  Century   Luther’s  95  theses   CC BY!
    • 13. 16th  Century   Luther  and  others  work  to  reform     from  the  inside,  but  #fail   CC BY!
    • 14. 16th  Century   Protestant  sects  form  and  the  Church  loses   membership,  revenue,  and  power   CC BY!
    • 15. 17th  Century   30  Years  War  ends  Pope's     pan-­‐European  poli@cal  power   CC BY!
    • 16. 17th  Century   Popular  reforms  carried  out,     but  too  liWle  too  late   CC BY!
    • 17. Moral  of  the  Story   Don’t  bet  against  the     transforma@ve  power  of  technology   CC BY!
    • 18. Sketch  2   In  which  we  unlearn     the  lessons  of  Sketch  1   CC BY!
    • 19. Lectures   “Very  old.”  E.g.,  in  Deuteronomy  31  Moses   commands  the  people  to  gather  every   seven  years  to  hear  the  law  read   CC BY!
    • 20. 4th  Century  BC   Plato  founds  the  Academy,   lectures  “On  the  Good”   CC BY!
    • 21. 4th  Century   First  record  of  learners     taking  notes  during  lectures   CC BY!
    • 22. 8th  Century   Note-­‐taking  happens  primarily  on  wax   tablets  (with  later  clean  copying  to  paper)   CC BY!
    • 23. 13th  Century   Widespread  belief  that  hand  wri@ng  your   own  textbook  is  powerful  pedagogically,   “dicta@ons”  dominate  classrooms   CC BY!
    • 24. 13th  Century   General  outrage  as  wealthy  students  begin   purchasing  rather  than  copying  texts   CC BY!
    • 25. 14th  Century   Universi@es  begin  banning  “dicta@ons”     (though  they  are  s@ll  widely  prac@ced),   normal  speed  lectures  increase   CC BY!
    • 26. 14th  Century   Paris  sta@oners  begin  ren@ng  popular  books   to  people  to  copy  (without  dicta@ons)   CC BY!
    • 27. 15th  Century   Gutenberg,  prin@ng  press,     metallic  movable  type   CC BY!
    • 28. 16th  Century   Though  texts  are  less  expensive,  students   aren’t  buying  -­‐  and  write  leWers  asking   faculty  to  slow  down   CC BY!
    • 29. 16th  Century   “Lecture  Texts,”  printed  classics  with     very  wide  margins  for  copying  faculty   annota@ons,  come  into  use   CC BY!
    • 30. 18th  Century   Transcribing  lectures  finally  begins  to  stop,   though  lectures  and  the  transcribing  of   annota@ons  con@nues   CC BY!
    • 31. 18th  Century   Earliest  recorded  use  of  erasable  chalkboard   in  teaching  arts  and  sciences   CC BY!
    • 32. 20th  Century   Purchase  of  textbooks  required  for  class   (though  prac@ced  in  early  1700s  at  Harvard)   CC BY!
    • 33. 20th  Century   Overhead  projectors,  transparencies,     slide  carousels,  computer  projectors,   Powerpoint,  etc.   CC BY!
    • 34. Moral  of  the  Story   The  2nd  most  transforma@ve  technology  of   all  @me  cannot  convince  faculty  to     stop  lecturing   CC BY!
    • 35. If  500  Years  of  Books  …   Can’t  get  faculty  off  the  stage,  why  would   we  believe  that  computers     or  the  Internet  can?   CC BY!
    • 36. Lecture  Is  A  Millennia-­‐old  Prac@ce   That  we  just  can’t  seem  to  shake   (including  this  presenta@on!)   CC BY!
    • 37. Faculty  Corrupt  Web  2.0   These  are  technologies  based  on  the  idea  of   democracy  and  equal  contribu@on,  but   faculty  co-­‐opt  them  as  lecture  supports   CC BY!
    • 38. (Remember  the  Church  /  Press?)   Instead  of  using  the  technology  to  drive   needed  reforms,  higher  ed  uses  tech  +   policy  to  further  entrench  the  status  quo   CC BY!
    • 39. Reform  from  Within  is  Failing   Will  higher  educa@on  have  its  30  years  war?   CC BY!
    • 40. And  What  Reforms?   Cost,  accessibility,  appropriateness   CC BY!
    • 41. Catholic  ::  Protestant   Tradi@onal  Higher  Educa@on  ::  ?   CC BY!
    • 42. What  are  the  appropriate  roles  of   technology  in  educa@on?   Hint:  We’re  not  really  leveraging  them  yet   CC BY!
    • 43. Role  1   Leveraging  the  nonrivalrous  nature  of  digital   materials  to  provide  free,  unfeWered  access   to  educa@onal  opportunity   CC BY!
    • 44. Open  Educa@onal  Resources   The  briefest  possible  introduc@on   CC BY!
    • 45. The  Gutenberg  Difference   From  slow,  expensive  copies     to  fast,  inexpensive  copies   CC BY!
    • 46. CC BY!
    • 47. The  Internet  Difference   From  fast,  inexpensive  copies     to  instantaneous,  free  copies   CC BY!
    • 48. CC BY!
    • 49. If...   educa@on  blesses  people’s  lives,   and   we  can  make  instant,  free  copies  of  materials,   then   what  kind  of  ethical  obliga@on  do  we  have?   CC BY!
    • 50. Small  (c)  Problems   Just  because  you  can  copy     doesn’t  mean  you’re  allowed  to   CC BY!
    • 51. Open  Educa@onal  Resources   Hacking  (c)  to  leverage  the  nonrivalrous   nature  of  digital  educa@onal  materials   CC BY!
    • 52. Open,  adj.   Providing  users  a  collec@on  of  rights     called  “the  four  R’s”  -­‐  for  free   CC BY!
    • 53. The  4Rs   Reuse    -­‐    verba@m  copies   Redistribute    -­‐    share  copies     Revise    -­‐    make  adapta@ons   Remix    -­‐    combina@ons  /  mashups   CC BY!
    • 54. Communicate  4R  Permissions   Since  this  overrides  default  copyright,   only  a  copyright  license  can  grant   CC BY!
    • 55. Offers  easy  to  use  4Rs  licenses   CC BY!
    • 56. CC BY!
    • 57. Free  =  Open   Check  the  “Copyright  Statement”  or     “Terms  of  Use”!  Without  a  CC  license     you  will  (likely)  not  have  4R  permissions.     CC BY!
    • 58. CC  Licensed  Items  Online  (Millions)   250   200   150   100   50   2003   2004   2005   2006   2007   2008   2009   CC BY!
    • 59. CC BY!
    • 60. CC BY!
    • 61. CC BY!
    • 62. CC BY!
    • 63. CC BY!
    • 64. CC BY!
    • 65. CC BY!
    • 66. CC BY!
    • 67. CC BY!
    • 68. CC BY!
    • 69. CC BY!
    • 70. CC BY!
    • 71. CC BY!
    • 72. CC BY!
    • 73. CC BY!
    • 74. Declining  Budgets  and  No  Bail  Out   More  and  more  ins@tu@ons  are     sharing  and  reusing  OERs   CC BY!
    • 75. Role  2   Capturing,  storing,  managing,  and   visualizing  data   CC BY!
    • 76. Educa@on  Relies  Heavily  on  Intui@on   LiWle  choice  without  alterna@ves     So  like  the  “pedagogical  benefits  of  hand   copying  a  text,”  a  mythology  has   developed  around  hunches   CC BY!
    • 77. We  Could  Be  Swimming  in  Data!   Every  computer-­‐mediated  interac@on   with  content,  a  teacher,  or  learners   creates  vast  amounts  of  data   CC BY!
    • 78. We  Don’t  Bother  Capturing…   Let  alone  analyzing  this  data  or  using  it   to  support  decision  making   CC BY!
    • 79. What  Kinds  of  Decisions?   Who’s  behind?  Who’s  read?  Who  needs   some  tutoring?  What  do  they  need  help   with?  What  should  I  teach  today?  How’s   my  curriculum  func@oning?  Which   pieces  of  it  need  replaced  or  updated?   Are  my  assessments  too  hard?     CC BY!
    • 80. A/B  Tes@ng   Every  garage-­‐based  Mom’s-­‐credit-­‐card   startup  does  A/B  tes@ng,  pours  over   their  data,  and  adjusts  their  offering   based  on  data  –  it’s  not  rocket  science   CC BY!
    • 81. Even  Instruc@onal  Tech  is  Guilty   You’ve  had  classes  on  designing  effec@ve   instruc@on  –  have  you  ever  had  a  class   on  designing  instruc@on  that  generates   the  right  kinds  of  data?   CC BY!
    • 82. Even  Instruc@onal  Tech  is  Guilty   Have  you  ever  had  a  class  on  how  to  use   data  (in  real-­‐@me  or  otherwise)  to   op@mize  your  instruc@on?   CC BY!
    • 83. The  An@-­‐Role   Replacing  all  human-­‐to-­‐human   interac@on  with  human-­‐to-­‐machine   interac@on   No  efficiency,  scale,  or  other  argument   jus@fies  taking  people  out  of  educa@on   CC BY!
    • 84. If  Educa@on  Ignores  the  Trends…   The  “alterna@ves”  (protestants)  will   begin  springing  up   (e.g.,  charter  schools,  Phoenix,  Capella,   Walden,  Kaplan,  etc.)   CC BY!
    • 85. Rather  than  a  30  Years  War…   You’re  going  to  end  up  reforming  anyway  -­‐   why  not  do  it  on  your  own  terms,     before  ceding  leadership?   CC BY!
    • 86. The  Reese’s  Cup   What  happens  when  you  put  the  “open”   chocolate  in  the  “data”  peanut  buWer?   CC BY!
    • 87. CC BY!
    • 88. Bloom’s  2  Sigma  Challenge   Bloom,  1984   CC BY!
    • 89. One-­‐to-­‐One  Tutoring   And  other  methods  compared  to     30  students  in  the  classroom   CC BY!
    • 90. Average  Tutored  Student  by  2  SD   In  other  words,  the  average  student   is  capable  of  much  more   CC BY!
    • 91. Tutoring  is  Expensive   So  we  teach  class  instead!   CC BY!
    • 92. If  the  research  on  the  2  sigma  problem   yields  prac@ced  methods  (methods  that   the  average  teacher  or  school  faculty   can  learn  in  a  brief  period  of  @me  and   use  with  li6le  more  cost  or  8me  than   conven@onal  instruc@on),  it  would  be  an   educa@onal  contribu8on  of  the  greatest   magnitude.  (p.  5)   Bloom,  1984   CC BY!
    • 93. To  Tutor  Or  Not  to  Tutor?   That  is  the  (false)  ques@on   CC BY!
    • 94. “Strategic  Tutoring”   What  if  we  could  do  just-­‐in-­‐@me,     just-­‐on-­‐topic,  one-­‐on-­‐one  tutoring?   CC BY!
    • 95. Obs.  1  -­‐  Requires  Great  Insight   We’d  have  to  know  who  needs  help,  when,   and  what  they  need  help  with   CC BY!
    • 96. Obs.  2  -­‐  Requires  Great  Curriculum   The  more  the  student  can  learn  from  the   materials,  the  less  tutoring  is  required   CC BY!
    • 97. Obs.  3  -­‐  Data  Is  the  Key   You’d  need  live,  fine-­‐grained  data  about   student,  assessment,  and  curriculum   performance   CC BY!
    • 98. Simultaneous  Con@nuous   Improvement   Working  in  a  way  that  constantly  improves   both  student  learning  and  the  curriculum   CC BY!
    • 99. The  Loop   Curriculum Redesign! Data Data Supporting Curriculum Describing Strategic Use! Curriculum Tutoring! Performance! Student! Performance! Data! CC BY!
    • 100. OHSU  Teaching  Model   Create  and  aggregate  great,  open  curriculum,     let  it  do  as  much  instruc@ng  as  possible,   follow-­‐up  with  “strategic  tutoring”   CC BY!
    • 101. How  Do  You  Improve  Curriculum?   Performance  data  alone  aren’t  sufficient  –   you  need  permission   CC BY!
    • 102. Open  Educa@onal  Resources   Give  OHSU  the  permissions  it  needs  to   engage  in  con@nuous  improvement   CC BY!
    • 103. OHSU  Charter  Requires  OER   Founders’  way  of  “burning  the  ships”   CC BY!
    • 104. Two  Quick  Screenshots   From  the  Agilix  BrainHoney  system   CC BY!
    • 105. State  Standards  As  Skeleton   Standards  provide  the  framework  for     content  aggrega@on  and  assessment   CC BY!
    • 106. Restric@ng  Access  to  the  Bible   Zealously  and  passionately   CC BY!
    • 107. Suppor@ng  Strategic  Tutoring   Data  visualized  in  an  easy  to  use  manner   CC BY!
    • 108. When  Tech  and  Policy  Collide   A  story  from  history:  1000  -­‐  1600   CC BY!
    • 109. Watch  Out  Bloom!  =)   OHSU  is  only  a  semester  old  but  the  model  is   already  proving  terrifically  effec@ve   CC BY!
    • 110. OHSU  Is  Only  One  Example   There  needs  to  be  a  terrific  amount  of   work  all  happening  in  parallel   CC BY!
    • 111. Lots  of  Research  to  be  Done   We  would  love  more  research  partners!   CC BY!
    • 112. Thank  You   david.wiley@byu.edu   801-­‐422-­‐7071   hWp://davidwiley.org/   CC BY!

    ×