We	
  Survived	
  the	
  Book	
  –	
  	
  
Why	
  Worry	
  About	
  the	
  Internet?	
  
     (A	
  few	
  thoughts	
  on	...
Two	
  Historical	
  Sketches	
  

(You	
  should	
  always	
  open	
  with	
  stories,	
  right?)	
  




               ...
Sketch	
  1	
  

In	
  which	
  technology	
  overturns	
  the	
  world’s	
  
           most	
  powerful	
  ins@tu@on	
  ...
11th	
  Century	
  

 Vernacular	
  transla@ons	
  	
  
of	
  the	
  Bible	
  are	
  forbidden	
  



                    ...
12th	
  Century	
  

Possession	
  or	
  memoriza@on	
  of	
  
     scriptures	
  forbidden	
  



                       ...
14th	
  Century	
  

Wycliffe	
  finishes	
  English	
  transla@on	
  




                                                 ...
15th	
  Century	
  

English	
  law	
  reads:	
  “whosoever	
  reads	
  the	
  Scriptures	
  
in	
  the	
  mother	
  tongu...
15th	
  Century	
  

Gutenberg,	
  the	
  prin@ng	
  press,	
  and	
  
     metallic	
  movable	
  type	
  



           ...
15th	
  Century	
  

The	
  church	
  leverages	
  technology	
  to	
  print	
  
   indulgences	
  at	
  scale	
  for	
  a...
16th	
  Century	
  

   English	
  and	
  German	
  Bibles	
  are	
  mass-­‐	
  
produced	
  and	
  pirate	
  Bibles	
  ar...
16th	
  Century	
  

Empowered	
  with	
  access,	
  people	
  won’t	
  
  tolerate	
  foolishness	
  (indulgences)	
  


...
16th	
  Century	
  

Luther’s	
  95	
  theses	
  




                               CC BY!
16th	
  Century	
  

Luther	
  and	
  others	
  work	
  to	
  reform	
  	
  
    from	
  the	
  inside,	
  but	
  #fail	
 ...
16th	
  Century	
  

Protestant	
  sects	
  form	
  and	
  the	
  Church	
  loses	
  
    membership,	
  revenue,	
  and	
...
17th	
  Century	
  

  30	
  Years	
  War	
  ends	
  Pope's	
  	
  
pan-­‐European	
  poli@cal	
  power	
  



           ...
17th	
  Century	
  

Popular	
  reforms	
  carried	
  out,	
  	
  
   but	
  too	
  liWle	
  too	
  late	
  



          ...
Moral	
  of	
  the	
  Story	
  
       Don’t	
  bet	
  against	
  the	
  	
  
transforma@ve	
  power	
  of	
  technology	
...
Sketch	
  2	
  

 In	
  which	
  we	
  unlearn	
  	
  
the	
  lessons	
  of	
  Sketch	
  1	
  



                        ...
Lectures	
  

“Very	
  old.”	
  E.g.,	
  in	
  Deuteronomy	
  31	
  Moses	
  
  commands	
  the	
  people	
  to	
  gather	...
4th	
  Century	
  BC	
  

Plato	
  founds	
  the	
  Academy,	
  
  lectures	
  “On	
  the	
  Good”	
  



                ...
4th	
  Century	
  

   First	
  record	
  of	
  learners	
  	
  
taking	
  notes	
  during	
  lectures	
  



            ...
8th	
  Century	
  

  Note-­‐taking	
  happens	
  primarily	
  on	
  wax	
  
tablets	
  (with	
  later	
  clean	
  copying...
13th	
  Century	
  

Widespread	
  belief	
  that	
  hand	
  wri@ng	
  your	
  
own	
  textbook	
  is	
  powerful	
  pedag...
13th	
  Century	
  

General	
  outrage	
  as	
  wealthy	
  students	
  begin	
  
  purchasing	
  rather	
  than	
  copyin...
14th	
  Century	
  

Universi@es	
  begin	
  banning	
  “dicta@ons”	
  	
  
(though	
  they	
  are	
  s@ll	
  widely	
  pr...
14th	
  Century	
  

Paris	
  sta@oners	
  begin	
  ren@ng	
  popular	
  books	
  
   to	
  people	
  to	
  copy	
  (witho...
15th	
  Century	
  

Gutenberg,	
  prin@ng	
  press,	
  	
  
 metallic	
  movable	
  type	
  



                         ...
16th	
  Century	
  

Though	
  texts	
  are	
  less	
  expensive,	
  students	
  
 aren’t	
  buying	
  -­‐	
  and	
  write...
16th	
  Century	
  

“Lecture	
  Texts,”	
  printed	
  classics	
  with	
  	
  
very	
  wide	
  margins	
  for	
  copying	...
18th	
  Century	
  

Transcribing	
  lectures	
  finally	
  begins	
  to	
  stop,	
  
  though	
  lectures	
  and	
  the	
 ...
18th	
  Century	
  

Earliest	
  recorded	
  use	
  of	
  erasable	
  chalkboard	
  
            in	
  teaching	
  arts	
 ...
20th	
  Century	
  

  Purchase	
  of	
  textbooks	
  required	
  for	
  class	
  
(though	
  prac@ced	
  in	
  early	
  1...
20th	
  Century	
  

Overhead	
  projectors,	
  transparencies,	
  	
  
slide	
  carousels,	
  computer	
  projectors,	
  ...
Moral	
  of	
  the	
  Story	
  

The	
  2nd	
  most	
  transforma@ve	
  technology	
  of	
  
       all	
  @me	
  cannot	
...
If	
  500	
  Years	
  of	
  Books	
  …	
  

Can’t	
  get	
  faculty	
  off	
  the	
  stage,	
  why	
  would	
  
          w...
Lecture	
  Is	
  A	
  Millennia-­‐old	
  Prac@ce	
  

       That	
  we	
  just	
  can’t	
  seem	
  to	
  shake	
  
      ...
Faculty	
  Corrupt	
  Web	
  2.0	
  

These	
  are	
  technologies	
  based	
  on	
  the	
  idea	
  of	
  
  democracy	
  ...
(Remember	
  the	
  Church	
  /	
  Press?)	
  

  Instead	
  of	
  using	
  the	
  technology	
  to	
  drive	
  
   needed...
Reform	
  from	
  Within	
  is	
  Failing	
  

Will	
  higher	
  educa@on	
  have	
  its	
  30	
  years	
  war?	
  




  ...
And	
  What	
  Reforms?	
  

Cost,	
  accessibility,	
  appropriateness	
  




                                          ...
Catholic	
  ::	
  Protestant	
  

Tradi@onal	
  Higher	
  Educa@on	
  ::	
  ?	
  




                                    ...
What	
  are	
  the	
  appropriate	
  roles	
  of	
  
   technology	
  in	
  educa@on?	
  
  Hint:	
  We’re	
  not	
  reall...
Role	
  1	
  

Leveraging	
  the	
  nonrivalrous	
  nature	
  of	
  digital	
  
materials	
  to	
  provide	
  free,	
  unf...
Open	
  Educa@onal	
  Resources	
  

  The	
  briefest	
  possible	
  introduc@on	
  




                                ...
The	
  Gutenberg	
  Difference	
  

   From	
  slow,	
  expensive	
  copies	
  	
  
    to	
  fast,	
  inexpensive	
  copie...
CC BY!
The	
  Internet	
  Difference	
  

 From	
  fast,	
  inexpensive	
  copies	
  	
  
 to	
  instantaneous,	
  free	
  copies	...
CC BY!
If...	
  
         educa@on	
  blesses	
  people’s	
  lives,	
  
                               and	
  
we	
  can	
  make	...
Small	
  (c)	
  Problems	
  

  Just	
  because	
  you	
  can	
  copy	
  	
  
doesn’t	
  mean	
  you’re	
  allowed	
  to	
...
Open	
  Educa@onal	
  Resources	
  

Hacking	
  (c)	
  to	
  leverage	
  the	
  nonrivalrous	
  
 nature	
  of	
  digital	...
Open,	
  adj.	
  

Providing	
  users	
  a	
  collec@on	
  of	
  rights	
  	
  
   called	
  “the	
  four	
  R’s”	
  -­‐	
...
The	
  4Rs	
  

       Reuse	
  	
  -­‐	
  	
  verba@m	
  copies	
  

    Redistribute	
  	
  -­‐	
  	
  share	
  copies	
...
Communicate	
  4R	
  Permissions	
  

 Since	
  this	
  overrides	
  default	
  copyright,	
  
   only	
  a	
  copyright	
...
Offers	
  easy	
  to	
  use	
  4Rs	
  licenses	
  




                                                    CC BY!
CC BY!
Free	
  =	
  Open	
  

  Check	
  the	
  “Copyright	
  Statement”	
  or	
  	
  
 “Terms	
  of	
  Use”!	
  Without	
  a	
  ...
CC	
  Licensed	
  Items	
  Online	
  (Millions)	
  

250	
  


200	
  


150	
  


100	
  


 50	
  



            2003	
...
CC BY!
CC BY!
CC BY!
CC BY!
CC BY!
CC BY!
CC BY!
CC BY!
CC BY!
CC BY!
CC BY!
CC BY!
CC BY!
CC BY!
CC BY!
Declining	
  Budgets	
  and	
  No	
  Bail	
  Out	
  

        More	
  and	
  more	
  ins@tu@ons	
  are	
  	
  
          s...
Role	
  2	
  

Capturing,	
  storing,	
  managing,	
  and	
  
         visualizing	
  data	
  




                       ...
Educa@on	
  Relies	
  Heavily	
  on	
  Intui@on	
  

          LiWle	
  choice	
  without	
  alterna@ves	
  	
  

    So	
...
We	
  Could	
  Be	
  Swimming	
  in	
  Data!	
  

   Every	
  computer-­‐mediated	
  interac@on	
  
    with	
  content,	
...
We	
  Don’t	
  Bother	
  Capturing…	
  

Let	
  alone	
  analyzing	
  this	
  data	
  or	
  using	
  it	
  
         to	
 ...
What	
  Kinds	
  of	
  Decisions?	
  
Who’s	
  behind?	
  Who’s	
  read?	
  Who	
  needs	
  
some	
  tutoring?	
  What	
  ...
A/B	
  Tes@ng	
  

Every	
  garage-­‐based	
  Mom’s-­‐credit-­‐card	
  
 startup	
  does	
  A/B	
  tes@ng,	
  pours	
  ove...
Even	
  Instruc@onal	
  Tech	
  is	
  Guilty	
  

 You’ve	
  had	
  classes	
  on	
  designing	
  effec@ve	
  
  instruc@on...
Even	
  Instruc@onal	
  Tech	
  is	
  Guilty	
  

 Have	
  you	
  ever	
  had	
  a	
  class	
  on	
  how	
  to	
  use	
  
...
The	
  An@-­‐Role	
  

      Replacing	
  all	
  human-­‐to-­‐human	
  
  interac@on	
  with	
  human-­‐to-­‐machine	
  
 ...
If	
  Educa@on	
  Ignores	
  the	
  Trends…	
  

    The	
  “alterna@ves”	
  (protestants)	
  will	
  
                beg...
Rather	
  than	
  a	
  30	
  Years	
  War…	
  

You’re	
  going	
  to	
  end	
  up	
  reforming	
  anyway	
  -­‐	
  
    w...
The	
  Reese’s	
  Cup	
  

What	
  happens	
  when	
  you	
  put	
  the	
  “open”	
  
chocolate	
  in	
  the	
  “data”	
  ...
CC BY!
Bloom’s	
  2	
  Sigma	
  Challenge	
  

            Bloom,	
  1984	
  




                                         CC BY!
One-­‐to-­‐One	
  Tutoring	
  

And	
  other	
  methods	
  compared	
  to	
  	
  
  30	
  students	
  in	
  the	
  classro...
Average	
  Tutored	
  Student	
  by	
  2	
  SD	
  

    In	
  other	
  words,	
  the	
  average	
  student	
  
           ...
Tutoring	
  is	
  Expensive	
  

 So	
  we	
  teach	
  class	
  instead!	
  




                                         ...
If	
  the	
  research	
  on	
  the	
  2	
  sigma	
  problem	
  
yields	
  prac@ced	
  methods	
  (methods	
  that	
  
the	...
To	
  Tutor	
  Or	
  Not	
  to	
  Tutor?	
  

    That	
  is	
  the	
  (false)	
  ques@on	
  




                        ...
“Strategic	
  Tutoring”	
  

  What	
  if	
  we	
  could	
  do	
  just-­‐in-­‐@me,	
  	
  
just-­‐on-­‐topic,	
  one-­‐on-...
Obs.	
  1	
  -­‐	
  Requires	
  Great	
  Insight	
  

We’d	
  have	
  to	
  know	
  who	
  needs	
  help,	
  when,	
  
   ...
Obs.	
  2	
  -­‐	
  Requires	
  Great	
  Curriculum	
  

   The	
  more	
  the	
  student	
  can	
  learn	
  from	
  the	
...
Obs.	
  3	
  -­‐	
  Data	
  Is	
  the	
  Key	
  

You’d	
  need	
  live,	
  fine-­‐grained	
  data	
  about	
  
 student,	
...
Simultaneous	
  Con@nuous	
  
           Improvement	
  
Working	
  in	
  a	
  way	
  that	
  constantly	
  improves	
  
b...
The	
  Loop	
      Curriculum
                   Redesign!




         Data                         Data
      Supporting...
OHSU	
  Teaching	
  Model	
  

Create	
  and	
  aggregate	
  great,	
  open	
  curriculum,	
  	
  
  let	
  it	
  do	
  as...
How	
  Do	
  You	
  Improve	
  Curriculum?	
  

  Performance	
  data	
  alone	
  aren’t	
  sufficient	
  –	
  
           y...
Open	
  Educa@onal	
  Resources	
  

Give	
  OHSU	
  the	
  permissions	
  it	
  needs	
  to	
  
 engage	
  in	
  con@nuou...
OHSU	
  Charter	
  Requires	
  OER	
  

Founders’	
  way	
  of	
  “burning	
  the	
  ships”	
  




                      ...
Two	
  Quick	
  Screenshots	
  

From	
  the	
  Agilix	
  BrainHoney	
  system	
  




                                   ...
State	
  Standards	
  As	
  Skeleton	
  

Standards	
  provide	
  the	
  framework	
  for	
  	
  
content	
  aggrega@on	
 ...
Restric@ng	
  Access	
  to	
  the	
  Bible	
  

       Zealously	
  and	
  passionately	
  




                          ...
Suppor@ng	
  Strategic	
  Tutoring	
  

Data	
  visualized	
  in	
  an	
  easy	
  to	
  use	
  manner	
  




            ...
When	
  Tech	
  and	
  Policy	
  Collide	
  

   A	
  story	
  from	
  history:	
  1000	
  -­‐	
  1600	
  




           ...
Watch	
  Out	
  Bloom!	
  =)	
  

OHSU	
  is	
  only	
  a	
  semester	
  old	
  but	
  the	
  model	
  is	
  
   already	
...
OHSU	
  Is	
  Only	
  One	
  Example	
  

There	
  needs	
  to	
  be	
  a	
  terrific	
  amount	
  of	
  
    work	
  all	
...
Lots	
  of	
  Research	
  to	
  be	
  Done	
  

We	
  would	
  love	
  more	
  research	
  partners!	
  




             ...
Thank	
  You	
  

david.wiley@byu.edu	
  
   801-­‐422-­‐7071	
  
hWp://davidwiley.org/	
  


                            ...
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We Survived the Book: Why Worry About the Internet?

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  • Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  • Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  • Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  • Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
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  • Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  • Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  • Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  • Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  • Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  • Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  • Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  • Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  • Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  • Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  • Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  • Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  • Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  • Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  • Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  • Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  • Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  • Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  • Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  • Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  • Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  • Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  • Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  • Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  • Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  • Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  • Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  • Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  • Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  • Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  • Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  • Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  • Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  • Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  • Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  • Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  • Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  • Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  • Massive hyperlinking; 300,000 person communities of interest; etc.
  • Massive hyperlinking; 300,000 person communities of interest; etc.
  • Massive hyperlinking; 300,000 person communities of interest; etc.
  • We Survived the Book: Why Worry About the Internet?

    1. 1. We  Survived  the  Book  –     Why  Worry  About  the  Internet?   (A  few  thoughts  on  the  future  of  educa@on)   David  Wiley,  PhD   Department  of  Instruc@onal  Psychology  &  Technology   Brigham  Young  University   CC BY!
    2. 2. Two  Historical  Sketches   (You  should  always  open  with  stories,  right?)   CC BY!
    3. 3. Sketch  1   In  which  technology  overturns  the  world’s   most  powerful  ins@tu@on   CC BY!
    4. 4. 11th  Century   Vernacular  transla@ons     of  the  Bible  are  forbidden   CC BY!
    5. 5. 12th  Century   Possession  or  memoriza@on  of   scriptures  forbidden   CC BY!
    6. 6. 14th  Century   Wycliffe  finishes  English  transla@on   CC BY!
    7. 7. 15th  Century   English  law  reads:  “whosoever  reads  the  Scriptures   in  the  mother  tongue,  shall  forfeit  land,  caWle,  life,   and  goods  from  their  heirs  forever,  and  so  be   condemned  for  here@cs  to  God,  enemies  to  the   crown,  and  most  arrant  traitors  to  the  land.”   CC BY!
    8. 8. 15th  Century   Gutenberg,  the  prin@ng  press,  and   metallic  movable  type   CC BY!
    9. 9. 15th  Century   The  church  leverages  technology  to  print   indulgences  at  scale  for  a  frac@on     of  the  cost  –  but  no  Bibles   CC BY!
    10. 10. 16th  Century   English  and  German  Bibles  are  mass-­‐   produced  and  pirate  Bibles  are  smuggled  in   flour  sacks  and  coWon  bales   CC BY!
    11. 11. 16th  Century   Empowered  with  access,  people  won’t   tolerate  foolishness  (indulgences)   CC BY!
    12. 12. 16th  Century   Luther’s  95  theses   CC BY!
    13. 13. 16th  Century   Luther  and  others  work  to  reform     from  the  inside,  but  #fail   CC BY!
    14. 14. 16th  Century   Protestant  sects  form  and  the  Church  loses   membership,  revenue,  and  power   CC BY!
    15. 15. 17th  Century   30  Years  War  ends  Pope's     pan-­‐European  poli@cal  power   CC BY!
    16. 16. 17th  Century   Popular  reforms  carried  out,     but  too  liWle  too  late   CC BY!
    17. 17. Moral  of  the  Story   Don’t  bet  against  the     transforma@ve  power  of  technology   CC BY!
    18. 18. Sketch  2   In  which  we  unlearn     the  lessons  of  Sketch  1   CC BY!
    19. 19. Lectures   “Very  old.”  E.g.,  in  Deuteronomy  31  Moses   commands  the  people  to  gather  every   seven  years  to  hear  the  law  read   CC BY!
    20. 20. 4th  Century  BC   Plato  founds  the  Academy,   lectures  “On  the  Good”   CC BY!
    21. 21. 4th  Century   First  record  of  learners     taking  notes  during  lectures   CC BY!
    22. 22. 8th  Century   Note-­‐taking  happens  primarily  on  wax   tablets  (with  later  clean  copying  to  paper)   CC BY!
    23. 23. 13th  Century   Widespread  belief  that  hand  wri@ng  your   own  textbook  is  powerful  pedagogically,   “dicta@ons”  dominate  classrooms   CC BY!
    24. 24. 13th  Century   General  outrage  as  wealthy  students  begin   purchasing  rather  than  copying  texts   CC BY!
    25. 25. 14th  Century   Universi@es  begin  banning  “dicta@ons”     (though  they  are  s@ll  widely  prac@ced),   normal  speed  lectures  increase   CC BY!
    26. 26. 14th  Century   Paris  sta@oners  begin  ren@ng  popular  books   to  people  to  copy  (without  dicta@ons)   CC BY!
    27. 27. 15th  Century   Gutenberg,  prin@ng  press,     metallic  movable  type   CC BY!
    28. 28. 16th  Century   Though  texts  are  less  expensive,  students   aren’t  buying  -­‐  and  write  leWers  asking   faculty  to  slow  down   CC BY!
    29. 29. 16th  Century   “Lecture  Texts,”  printed  classics  with     very  wide  margins  for  copying  faculty   annota@ons,  come  into  use   CC BY!
    30. 30. 18th  Century   Transcribing  lectures  finally  begins  to  stop,   though  lectures  and  the  transcribing  of   annota@ons  con@nues   CC BY!
    31. 31. 18th  Century   Earliest  recorded  use  of  erasable  chalkboard   in  teaching  arts  and  sciences   CC BY!
    32. 32. 20th  Century   Purchase  of  textbooks  required  for  class   (though  prac@ced  in  early  1700s  at  Harvard)   CC BY!
    33. 33. 20th  Century   Overhead  projectors,  transparencies,     slide  carousels,  computer  projectors,   Powerpoint,  etc.   CC BY!
    34. 34. Moral  of  the  Story   The  2nd  most  transforma@ve  technology  of   all  @me  cannot  convince  faculty  to     stop  lecturing   CC BY!
    35. 35. If  500  Years  of  Books  …   Can’t  get  faculty  off  the  stage,  why  would   we  believe  that  computers     or  the  Internet  can?   CC BY!
    36. 36. Lecture  Is  A  Millennia-­‐old  Prac@ce   That  we  just  can’t  seem  to  shake   (including  this  presenta@on!)   CC BY!
    37. 37. Faculty  Corrupt  Web  2.0   These  are  technologies  based  on  the  idea  of   democracy  and  equal  contribu@on,  but   faculty  co-­‐opt  them  as  lecture  supports   CC BY!
    38. 38. (Remember  the  Church  /  Press?)   Instead  of  using  the  technology  to  drive   needed  reforms,  higher  ed  uses  tech  +   policy  to  further  entrench  the  status  quo   CC BY!
    39. 39. Reform  from  Within  is  Failing   Will  higher  educa@on  have  its  30  years  war?   CC BY!
    40. 40. And  What  Reforms?   Cost,  accessibility,  appropriateness   CC BY!
    41. 41. Catholic  ::  Protestant   Tradi@onal  Higher  Educa@on  ::  ?   CC BY!
    42. 42. What  are  the  appropriate  roles  of   technology  in  educa@on?   Hint:  We’re  not  really  leveraging  them  yet   CC BY!
    43. 43. Role  1   Leveraging  the  nonrivalrous  nature  of  digital   materials  to  provide  free,  unfeWered  access   to  educa@onal  opportunity   CC BY!
    44. 44. Open  Educa@onal  Resources   The  briefest  possible  introduc@on   CC BY!
    45. 45. The  Gutenberg  Difference   From  slow,  expensive  copies     to  fast,  inexpensive  copies   CC BY!
    46. 46. CC BY!
    47. 47. The  Internet  Difference   From  fast,  inexpensive  copies     to  instantaneous,  free  copies   CC BY!
    48. 48. CC BY!
    49. 49. If...   educa@on  blesses  people’s  lives,   and   we  can  make  instant,  free  copies  of  materials,   then   what  kind  of  ethical  obliga@on  do  we  have?   CC BY!
    50. 50. Small  (c)  Problems   Just  because  you  can  copy     doesn’t  mean  you’re  allowed  to   CC BY!
    51. 51. Open  Educa@onal  Resources   Hacking  (c)  to  leverage  the  nonrivalrous   nature  of  digital  educa@onal  materials   CC BY!
    52. 52. Open,  adj.   Providing  users  a  collec@on  of  rights     called  “the  four  R’s”  -­‐  for  free   CC BY!
    53. 53. The  4Rs   Reuse    -­‐    verba@m  copies   Redistribute    -­‐    share  copies     Revise    -­‐    make  adapta@ons   Remix    -­‐    combina@ons  /  mashups   CC BY!
    54. 54. Communicate  4R  Permissions   Since  this  overrides  default  copyright,   only  a  copyright  license  can  grant   CC BY!
    55. 55. Offers  easy  to  use  4Rs  licenses   CC BY!
    56. 56. CC BY!
    57. 57. Free  =  Open   Check  the  “Copyright  Statement”  or     “Terms  of  Use”!  Without  a  CC  license     you  will  (likely)  not  have  4R  permissions.     CC BY!
    58. 58. CC  Licensed  Items  Online  (Millions)   250   200   150   100   50   2003   2004   2005   2006   2007   2008   2009   CC BY!
    59. 59. CC BY!
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    74. 74. Declining  Budgets  and  No  Bail  Out   More  and  more  ins@tu@ons  are     sharing  and  reusing  OERs   CC BY!
    75. 75. Role  2   Capturing,  storing,  managing,  and   visualizing  data   CC BY!
    76. 76. Educa@on  Relies  Heavily  on  Intui@on   LiWle  choice  without  alterna@ves     So  like  the  “pedagogical  benefits  of  hand   copying  a  text,”  a  mythology  has   developed  around  hunches   CC BY!
    77. 77. We  Could  Be  Swimming  in  Data!   Every  computer-­‐mediated  interac@on   with  content,  a  teacher,  or  learners   creates  vast  amounts  of  data   CC BY!
    78. 78. We  Don’t  Bother  Capturing…   Let  alone  analyzing  this  data  or  using  it   to  support  decision  making   CC BY!
    79. 79. What  Kinds  of  Decisions?   Who’s  behind?  Who’s  read?  Who  needs   some  tutoring?  What  do  they  need  help   with?  What  should  I  teach  today?  How’s   my  curriculum  func@oning?  Which   pieces  of  it  need  replaced  or  updated?   Are  my  assessments  too  hard?     CC BY!
    80. 80. A/B  Tes@ng   Every  garage-­‐based  Mom’s-­‐credit-­‐card   startup  does  A/B  tes@ng,  pours  over   their  data,  and  adjusts  their  offering   based  on  data  –  it’s  not  rocket  science   CC BY!
    81. 81. Even  Instruc@onal  Tech  is  Guilty   You’ve  had  classes  on  designing  effec@ve   instruc@on  –  have  you  ever  had  a  class   on  designing  instruc@on  that  generates   the  right  kinds  of  data?   CC BY!
    82. 82. Even  Instruc@onal  Tech  is  Guilty   Have  you  ever  had  a  class  on  how  to  use   data  (in  real-­‐@me  or  otherwise)  to   op@mize  your  instruc@on?   CC BY!
    83. 83. The  An@-­‐Role   Replacing  all  human-­‐to-­‐human   interac@on  with  human-­‐to-­‐machine   interac@on   No  efficiency,  scale,  or  other  argument   jus@fies  taking  people  out  of  educa@on   CC BY!
    84. 84. If  Educa@on  Ignores  the  Trends…   The  “alterna@ves”  (protestants)  will   begin  springing  up   (e.g.,  charter  schools,  Phoenix,  Capella,   Walden,  Kaplan,  etc.)   CC BY!
    85. 85. Rather  than  a  30  Years  War…   You’re  going  to  end  up  reforming  anyway  -­‐   why  not  do  it  on  your  own  terms,     before  ceding  leadership?   CC BY!
    86. 86. The  Reese’s  Cup   What  happens  when  you  put  the  “open”   chocolate  in  the  “data”  peanut  buWer?   CC BY!
    87. 87. CC BY!
    88. 88. Bloom’s  2  Sigma  Challenge   Bloom,  1984   CC BY!
    89. 89. One-­‐to-­‐One  Tutoring   And  other  methods  compared  to     30  students  in  the  classroom   CC BY!
    90. 90. Average  Tutored  Student  by  2  SD   In  other  words,  the  average  student   is  capable  of  much  more   CC BY!
    91. 91. Tutoring  is  Expensive   So  we  teach  class  instead!   CC BY!
    92. 92. If  the  research  on  the  2  sigma  problem   yields  prac@ced  methods  (methods  that   the  average  teacher  or  school  faculty   can  learn  in  a  brief  period  of  @me  and   use  with  li6le  more  cost  or  8me  than   conven@onal  instruc@on),  it  would  be  an   educa@onal  contribu8on  of  the  greatest   magnitude.  (p.  5)   Bloom,  1984   CC BY!
    93. 93. To  Tutor  Or  Not  to  Tutor?   That  is  the  (false)  ques@on   CC BY!
    94. 94. “Strategic  Tutoring”   What  if  we  could  do  just-­‐in-­‐@me,     just-­‐on-­‐topic,  one-­‐on-­‐one  tutoring?   CC BY!
    95. 95. Obs.  1  -­‐  Requires  Great  Insight   We’d  have  to  know  who  needs  help,  when,   and  what  they  need  help  with   CC BY!
    96. 96. Obs.  2  -­‐  Requires  Great  Curriculum   The  more  the  student  can  learn  from  the   materials,  the  less  tutoring  is  required   CC BY!
    97. 97. Obs.  3  -­‐  Data  Is  the  Key   You’d  need  live,  fine-­‐grained  data  about   student,  assessment,  and  curriculum   performance   CC BY!
    98. 98. Simultaneous  Con@nuous   Improvement   Working  in  a  way  that  constantly  improves   both  student  learning  and  the  curriculum   CC BY!
    99. 99. The  Loop   Curriculum Redesign! Data Data Supporting Curriculum Describing Strategic Use! Curriculum Tutoring! Performance! Student! Performance! Data! CC BY!
    100. 100. OHSU  Teaching  Model   Create  and  aggregate  great,  open  curriculum,     let  it  do  as  much  instruc@ng  as  possible,   follow-­‐up  with  “strategic  tutoring”   CC BY!
    101. 101. How  Do  You  Improve  Curriculum?   Performance  data  alone  aren’t  sufficient  –   you  need  permission   CC BY!
    102. 102. Open  Educa@onal  Resources   Give  OHSU  the  permissions  it  needs  to   engage  in  con@nuous  improvement   CC BY!
    103. 103. OHSU  Charter  Requires  OER   Founders’  way  of  “burning  the  ships”   CC BY!
    104. 104. Two  Quick  Screenshots   From  the  Agilix  BrainHoney  system   CC BY!
    105. 105. State  Standards  As  Skeleton   Standards  provide  the  framework  for     content  aggrega@on  and  assessment   CC BY!
    106. 106. Restric@ng  Access  to  the  Bible   Zealously  and  passionately   CC BY!
    107. 107. Suppor@ng  Strategic  Tutoring   Data  visualized  in  an  easy  to  use  manner   CC BY!
    108. 108. When  Tech  and  Policy  Collide   A  story  from  history:  1000  -­‐  1600   CC BY!
    109. 109. Watch  Out  Bloom!  =)   OHSU  is  only  a  semester  old  but  the  model  is   already  proving  terrifically  effec@ve   CC BY!
    110. 110. OHSU  Is  Only  One  Example   There  needs  to  be  a  terrific  amount  of   work  all  happening  in  parallel   CC BY!
    111. 111. Lots  of  Research  to  be  Done   We  would  love  more  research  partners!   CC BY!
    112. 112. Thank  You   david.wiley@byu.edu   801-­‐422-­‐7071   hWp://davidwiley.org/   CC BY!
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