Openness: Arguments and Examples


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  • CC By Photo by David Wiley
  • CC licensedphoto
  • Gass, 2005 Druss and Marcus 2005
  • Wellcome Trust, 2003
  • Selection of winners in the DML Competition. These logos are obviously not licensed under a Creative Commons license.
  • Openness: Arguments and Examples

    1. 1. Openness: Arguments and Examples David Wiley Instructional Psychology & Technology Brigham Young University
    2. 2. Download These Slides
    3. 3. Why Be Open?1. Education is Sharing (the technical argument)2. Buy One, Get One (the political argument)3. The Paradox of Free (the financial argument, part 1)
    4. 4. Why Be Open?4. The $5 Textbook (the financial argument, part 2)5. Facilitate the Unexpected (the serendipity argument)6. Continuous Improvement (the quality argument)
    5. 5. Why Be Open?7. Content / Credential is Infrastructure (the innovation argument)8. Password as Bushel (the religious argument)9. Do the Right Thing (the moral argument)
    6. 6. 1. Education Is Sharing the technical argument
    7. 7. Teachers Share With Students Knowledge and skills Feedback and criticism Encouragement
    8. 8. Students Share With Teachers Questions Assignments Tests
    9. 9. If There Is No Sharing There is no education
    10. 10. Successful Educators Share most compeltely with the most students
    11. 11. Knowledge is MagicalCan be given without being given away
    12. 12. Physical Expressions Are Not To give a book you must give it away
    13. 13. Expressions Are DifferentTo give a book you must give it away
    14. 14. When Expressions Are Digital They also become magical
    15. 15. An Indescribable Advance The first time in human history
    16. 16. Both Knowledge and Expressions Can be given without giving away
    17. 17. Unprecedented Capacity We can share as never before
    18. 18. Unprecedented CapacityWe can educate as never before
    19. 19. What Does “Share” Mean?Online it means copy and distribute
    20. 20. Cost of “Copy”For one 250 page book:• Copy by hand - $1,000• Copy by print on demand - $4.50• Copy by computer - $0.00084
    21. 21. Cost of “Distribute”For one 250 page book:• Distribute by mail - $5.20• Distribute by internet - $0.00072
    22. 22. Copy and Distribute are “Free” This changes everything
    23. 23. Educational SharingAlso means adapting or editing
    24. 24. Sense-making, Meaning-making Connecting to prior knowledge Relating to past experience (In an appropriate language)
    25. 25. Digital Makes Editing “Free” Editing a printed book or magazine is difficult and expensive
    26. 26. Free Copy, Distribute, Edit We can share as never before
    27. 27. Free Copy, Distribute, Edit We can educate as never before
    28. 28. Except We Can’t© forbids copying, distributing, and editing
    29. 29. © Cancels the Possibilities Of digital media and the internet
    30. 30. Internet CopyrightEnables Forbids What to do?
    31. 31. Use copyright to enforce sharing
    32. 32. The 4Rs Reuse – copy verbatimRedistribute – share with others Revise – adapt and edit Remix – combine with others
    33. 33. Over 400 Million ItemsUsing CC licenses at end of 2010
    34. 34. The “Open” in OERFree permission to do the 4Rs
    35. 35. Internet OEREnables Allows Sharing and educating at unprecedented scale
    36. 36. 2. Buy One, Get One the political argument
    37. 37. “Buy One, Get One” Pizza in Ohio
    38. 38. Who Pays for Research?Understanding relative contributions
    39. 39. Public Investment in Research $105,385 to $119,913 per article (U.S. NIH-funded research)
    40. 40. Publisher Investment in Research $2750 per article, including administrative and all other costs
    41. 41. Does This Make Sense?Publishers make 2% of the investment,then take © and charge you for access
    42. 42. Public (Who Paid) Has No Access I thought I bought a pizza?!?
    43. 43. If You Buy One, You Should Get One All taxpayer-funded educational resources should be OER
    44. 44. U. S. Department of Labor $2 Billion for curriculum for high-demand two year programs
    45. 45. 3. The Paradox of Free the financial argument
    46. 46. Do OER Hurt Sales? Won’t people stop paying for thecourse materials or books if they’re free?
    47. 47. Publications• Hilton, J. & Wiley, D. (in press). Free E-Books and Print Sales. Journal of Electronic Publishing.• Hilton, J. & Wiley, D. (in press). Open access textbooks and financial sustainability: A case study on flat world knowledge. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning.• Johansen, J. & Wiley, D. (2011). A sustainable model for opencourseware development. Educational Technology Research & Development.• Hilton, J. & Wiley, D. (2010). A sustainable future for open textbooks? The Flat World Knowledge story. First Monday, 15(8).• Hilton, J. & Wiley, D. (2010). Free: Why authors are giving books away on the Internet. Tech Trends, 54(2).• Hilton, J., Wiley, D. (2010). The short-term influence of free digital versions of books on print sales. Journal of Electronic Publishing, 13(1)
    48. 48. Findings• Over 2% of people who access open online courses become paying customers• Downloads of free online books correlate strongly with sales of print books• A for-profit business can be financially successful using CC licenses on its textbooks
    49. 49. 4. The $5 Textbookthe financial argument, part 2
    50. 50. Postsecondary Students Pay $35 instead of $150 per book300,000 students have saved $39M+
    51. 51. Postsecondary Students Pay $35 instead of $150 per book300,000 students have saved $39M+
    52. 52. Project Kaleidoscope (NGLC) Preliminary research results
    53. 53. “How would you rate the qualityof the texts used for this course?”Answer Response %WORSE than… 4 3%About the SAME AS… 67 56%BETTER than… 49 41%
    54. 54. “How do you feel about the online format of the texts used…?”Answer Response %I like it MORE than … 65 52%I have no preference 38 31%I like it LESS than… 21 17%
    55. 55. “Imagine a future course you are required to take. If two different sections were offered…”Answer Response %I would enroll in the section with 17 13%TRADITIONAL PUBLISHED TEXTSI would enroll in the section with 93 74%TEXTS LIKE THOSE OFFERED INTHIS COURSEI would have no preference 16 13%
    56. 56. High School Science Classes Teachers adapted CK12 books for print or digital use
    57. 57. High SchoolsPay $5 instead of $80 per book
    58. 58. 1200 Students in 2010-2011 2700 students in 2011-2012
    59. 59. Impact on Learning? No difference
    60. 60. Pedagogy and OERHighlighting, annotating, taking notes
    61. 61. Impact on Learning? With PD we willmove the outcomes needle
    62. 62. Statewide Secondary in 2012 Over 275,000 students
    63. 63. Back of the EnvelopeCost of Traditional Books Over Cycle $61,875,000Cost of Open Books Over Cycle $28,875,000Potential Savings Over Entire Cycle $33,000,000Potential Savings Per Year $4,714,286
    64. 64. 5. Facilitate the Unexpected Some examples… on a budget
    65. 65. Character Classes• Bard - Master of the lore, history, and politics of the field, know whats “out there”• Artisan - Has materials production skills in all the necessary Web 1.0 and 2.0 tools like HTML, video sharing, podcasting• Monk Master of copyright and licensing arcana and defender of the university brand• Merchant Deals with short- and long-term sustainability issues
    66. 66.
    67. 67. 6. Continuous Improvement the quality argument
    68. 68. Learning AnalyticsCan tell us who and what needs help
    69. 69. It’s Useless Knowing what needs fixed,when you don’t have permission to fix it
    70. 70. OpennessGives us permission to makechanges and improvements
    71. 71. It’s Useless Having permission to fix things,when you don’t know where to start
    72. 72. Openness + AnalyticsTells you what to fix and allows you to fix it! Enables Continuous Quality Improvement
    73. 73. 7. Content / Credential is Infrastructure the innovation argument
    74. 74. What is Infrastructure?Electric grid, telecom, roads, airports, water, sewer, etc.
    75. 75. What is Infrastructure? “The physical components of interrelatedsystems providing commodities and services essential to enable, sustain, or enhance” societies or enterprises.
    76. 76. To Speed InnovationIncrease quality and decrease cost of infrastructure
    77. 77. Content is CriticalAn important part of every educational institution’s infrastructure
    78. 78. To Speed Education Innovation Increase quality and decrease cost of content infrastructure
    79. 79. University of the People
    80. 80. OER University
    81. 81. Informal Learning Open, standards-based way toissue, manage, and display credentials for ANY learning
    82. 82. Transcript 2.0Fixes many problems with current transcripts
    83. 83. OBI = Credential Infrastructure Platform for education innovation
    84. 84. Open Education InfrastructureDemocratizes innovation opportunities
    85. 85. OER Badges Issue Manage Learn DisplayAnything Credentials
    86. 86. OER Badges Issue Manage Learn DisplayAnything Credentials
    87. 87. Mind the Gap!HUGE demand over the next 10 years Entrepreneurs are on their way
    88. 88. 8. Password as Bushel the religious argument
    89. 89. Matthew 515 Neither do men light a candle, andput it under a bushel, but on acandlestick; and it giveth light unto allthat are in the house.16 Let your light so shine before men,that they may see your good works, andglorify your Father which is in heaven.
    90. 90. 9. Do the Right Thing the moral argument
    91. 91. Consider Our Responsibility What kind of ethical or moral responsibility do we have? Who are you accountable to?
    92. 92. Our Potential Is Limitless The good we can do is constrainedonly by our creativity and commitment
    93. 93. Thank Youdavid.wiley@byu.edu