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Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
Openness: Arguments and Examples
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Openness: Arguments and Examples

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Keynote sessions at the Rocky Mountain THATC

Keynote sessions at the Rocky Mountain THATC

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  • CC By Photo by David Wiley
  • CC licensedphoto http://www.flickr.com/photos/62693815@N03/6277209256/
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/joelogon/2453478462/
  • Gass, 2005 Druss and Marcus 2005
  • Wellcome Trust, 2003
  • Selection of winners in the DML Competition. These logos are obviously not licensed under a Creative Commons license.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Openness: Arguments and Examples David Wiley Instructional Psychology & Technology Brigham Young University
    • 2. Download These Slideshttp://slideshare.net/opencontent/
    • 3. Why Be Open?1. Education is Sharing (the technical argument)2. Buy One, Get One (the political argument)3. The Paradox of Free (the financial argument, part 1)
    • 4. Why Be Open?4. The $5 Textbook (the financial argument, part 2)5. Facilitate the Unexpected (the serendipity argument)6. Continuous Improvement (the quality argument)
    • 5. Why Be Open?7. Content / Credential is Infrastructure (the innovation argument)8. Password as Bushel (the religious argument)9. Do the Right Thing (the moral argument)
    • 6. 1. Education Is Sharing the technical argument
    • 7. Teachers Share With Students Knowledge and skills Feedback and criticism Encouragement
    • 8. Students Share With Teachers Questions Assignments Tests
    • 9. If There Is No Sharing There is no education
    • 10. Successful Educators Share most compeltely with the most students
    • 11. Knowledge is MagicalCan be given without being given away
    • 12. Physical Expressions Are Not To give a book you must give it away
    • 13. Expressions Are DifferentTo give a book you must give it away
    • 14. When Expressions Are Digital They also become magical
    • 15. An Indescribable Advance The first time in human history
    • 16. Both Knowledge and Expressions Can be given without giving away
    • 17. Unprecedented Capacity We can share as never before
    • 18. Unprecedented CapacityWe can educate as never before
    • 19. What Does “Share” Mean?Online it means copy and distribute
    • 20. Cost of “Copy”For one 250 page book:• Copy by hand - $1,000• Copy by print on demand - $4.50• Copy by computer - $0.00084
    • 21. Cost of “Distribute”For one 250 page book:• Distribute by mail - $5.20• Distribute by internet - $0.00072
    • 22. Copy and Distribute are “Free” This changes everything
    • 23. Educational SharingAlso means adapting or editing
    • 24. Sense-making, Meaning-making Connecting to prior knowledge Relating to past experience (In an appropriate language)
    • 25. Digital Makes Editing “Free” Editing a printed book or magazine is difficult and expensive
    • 26. Free Copy, Distribute, Edit We can share as never before
    • 27. Free Copy, Distribute, Edit We can educate as never before
    • 28. Except We Can’t© forbids copying, distributing, and editing
    • 29. © Cancels the Possibilities Of digital media and the internet
    • 30. Internet CopyrightEnables Forbids What to do?
    • 31. Use copyright to enforce sharing
    • 32. The 4Rs Reuse – copy verbatimRedistribute – share with others Revise – adapt and edit Remix – combine with others
    • 33. Over 400 Million ItemsUsing CC licenses at end of 2010
    • 34. The “Open” in OERFree permission to do the 4Rs
    • 35. Internet OEREnables Allows Sharing and educating at unprecedented scale
    • 36. 2. Buy One, Get One the political argument
    • 37. “Buy One, Get One” Pizza in Ohio
    • 38. Who Pays for Research?Understanding relative contributions
    • 39. Public Investment in Research $105,385 to $119,913 per article (U.S. NIH-funded research)
    • 40. Publisher Investment in Research $2750 per article, including administrative and all other costs
    • 41. Does This Make Sense?Publishers make 2% of the investment,then take © and charge you for access
    • 42. Public (Who Paid) Has No Access I thought I bought a pizza?!?
    • 43. If You Buy One, You Should Get One All taxpayer-funded educational resources should be OER
    • 44. U. S. Department of Labor $2 Billion for curriculum for high-demand two year programs
    • 45. 3. The Paradox of Free the financial argument
    • 46. Do OER Hurt Sales? Won’t people stop paying for thecourse materials or books if they’re free?
    • 47. Publications• Hilton, J. & Wiley, D. (in press). Free E-Books and Print Sales. Journal of Electronic Publishing.• Hilton, J. & Wiley, D. (in press). Open access textbooks and financial sustainability: A case study on flat world knowledge. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning.• Johansen, J. & Wiley, D. (2011). A sustainable model for opencourseware development. Educational Technology Research & Development.• Hilton, J. & Wiley, D. (2010). A sustainable future for open textbooks? The Flat World Knowledge story. First Monday, 15(8).• Hilton, J. & Wiley, D. (2010). Free: Why authors are giving books away on the Internet. Tech Trends, 54(2).• Hilton, J., Wiley, D. (2010). The short-term influence of free digital versions of books on print sales. Journal of Electronic Publishing, 13(1) http://davidwiley.org/
    • 48. Findings• Over 2% of people who access open online courses become paying customers• Downloads of free online books correlate strongly with sales of print books• A for-profit business can be financially successful using CC licenses on its textbooks
    • 49. 4. The $5 Textbookthe financial argument, part 2
    • 50. Postsecondary Students Pay $35 instead of $150 per book300,000 students have saved $39M+
    • 51. Postsecondary Students Pay $35 instead of $150 per book300,000 students have saved $39M+
    • 52. Project Kaleidoscope (NGLC) Preliminary research results
    • 53. “How would you rate the qualityof the texts used for this course?”Answer Response %WORSE than… 4 3%About the SAME AS… 67 56%BETTER than… 49 41%
    • 54. “How do you feel about the online format of the texts used…?”Answer Response %I like it MORE than … 65 52%I have no preference 38 31%I like it LESS than… 21 17%
    • 55. “Imagine a future course you are required to take. If two different sections were offered…”Answer Response %I would enroll in the section with 17 13%TRADITIONAL PUBLISHED TEXTSI would enroll in the section with 93 74%TEXTS LIKE THOSE OFFERED INTHIS COURSEI would have no preference 16 13%
    • 56. High School Science Classes Teachers adapted CK12 books for print or digital use
    • 57. High SchoolsPay $5 instead of $80 per book
    • 58. 1200 Students in 2010-2011 2700 students in 2011-2012
    • 59. Impact on Learning? No difference
    • 60. Pedagogy and OERHighlighting, annotating, taking notes
    • 61. Impact on Learning? With PD we willmove the outcomes needle
    • 62. Statewide Secondary in 2012 Over 275,000 students
    • 63. Back of the EnvelopeCost of Traditional Books Over Cycle $61,875,000Cost of Open Books Over Cycle $28,875,000Potential Savings Over Entire Cycle $33,000,000Potential Savings Per Year $4,714,286
    • 64. 5. Facilitate the Unexpected Some examples… on a budget
    • 65. Character Classes• Bard - Master of the lore, history, and politics of the field, know whats “out there”• Artisan - Has materials production skills in all the necessary Web 1.0 and 2.0 tools like HTML, video sharing, podcasting• Monk Master of copyright and licensing arcana and defender of the university brand• Merchant Deals with short- and long-term sustainability issues
    • 66. http://openeducation.us/
    • 67. 6. Continuous Improvement the quality argument
    • 68. Learning AnalyticsCan tell us who and what needs help
    • 69. It’s Useless Knowing what needs fixed,when you don’t have permission to fix it
    • 70. OpennessGives us permission to makechanges and improvements
    • 71. It’s Useless Having permission to fix things,when you don’t know where to start
    • 72. Openness + AnalyticsTells you what to fix and allows you to fix it! Enables Continuous Quality Improvement
    • 73. 7. Content / Credential is Infrastructure the innovation argument
    • 74. What is Infrastructure?Electric grid, telecom, roads, airports, water, sewer, etc.
    • 75. What is Infrastructure? “The physical components of interrelatedsystems providing commodities and services essential to enable, sustain, or enhance” societies or enterprises.
    • 76. To Speed InnovationIncrease quality and decrease cost of infrastructure
    • 77. Content is CriticalAn important part of every educational institution’s infrastructure
    • 78. To Speed Education Innovation Increase quality and decrease cost of content infrastructure
    • 79. University of the People
    • 80. OER University
    • 81. Informal Learning Open, standards-based way toissue, manage, and display credentials for ANY learning
    • 82. Transcript 2.0Fixes many problems with current transcripts
    • 83. OBI = Credential Infrastructure Platform for education innovation
    • 84. Open Education InfrastructureDemocratizes innovation opportunities
    • 85. OER Badges Issue Manage Learn DisplayAnything Credentials
    • 86. OER Badges Issue Manage Learn DisplayAnything Credentials
    • 87. Mind the Gap!HUGE demand over the next 10 years Entrepreneurs are on their way
    • 88. 8. Password as Bushel the religious argument
    • 89. Matthew 515 Neither do men light a candle, andput it under a bushel, but on acandlestick; and it giveth light unto allthat are in the house.16 Let your light so shine before men,that they may see your good works, andglorify your Father which is in heaven.
    • 90. 9. Do the Right Thing the moral argument
    • 91. Consider Our Responsibility What kind of ethical or moral responsibility do we have? Who are you accountable to?
    • 92. Our Potential Is Limitless The good we can do is constrainedonly by our creativity and commitment
    • 93. Thank Youdavid.wiley@byu.eduhttp://davidwiley.org/

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