Open Textbook Training in Arizona

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  • CC By Photo by David Wiley
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  • 1. Open Textbooks David WileyInstructional Psychology & Technology Brigham Young University
  • 2. What Does “Open” Mean? Why should we care? How will it benefit our students?
  • 3. 1. Education Is Sharing the core argument
  • 4. Teachers Share With Students Knowledge and skills Feedback and criticism Encouragement
  • 5. Students Share With Teachers Questions Assignments Tests
  • 6. If There Is No Sharing There is no education
  • 7. Successful Educators Share most compeltely with the most students
  • 8. Knowledge is MagicalCan be given without being given away
  • 9. Physical Expressions Are Not To give a book you must give it away
  • 10. Expressions Are DifferentTo give a book you must give it away
  • 11. When Expressions Are Digital They also become magical
  • 12. An Indescribable Advance The first time in human history
  • 13. Both Knowledge and Expressions Can be given without giving away
  • 14. Unprecedented Capacity We can share as never before
  • 15. Unprecedented CapacityWe can educate as never before
  • 16. What Does “Share” Mean?Online it means copy and distribute
  • 17. Cost of “Copy”For one 250 page book:• Copy by hand - $1,000• Copy by print on demand - $4.50• Copy by computer - $0.00084
  • 18. Cost of “Distribute”For one 250 page book:• Distribute by mail - $5.20• Distribute by internet - $0.00072
  • 19. Copy and Distribute are “Free” This changes everything
  • 20. Educational SharingAlso means adapting or editing
  • 21. Sense-making, Meaning-making Connecting to prior knowledge Relating to past experience (In an appropriate language)
  • 22. Digital Makes Editing “Free” Editing a printed book or magazine is difficult and expensive
  • 23. Free Copy, Distribute, Edit We can share as never before
  • 24. Free Copy, Distribute, Edit We can educate as never before
  • 25. Except We Can’t© forbids copying, distributing, and editing
  • 26. © Cancels the Possibilities Of digital media and the internet
  • 27. Internet CopyrightEnables Forbids What to do?
  • 28. Use copyright to enforce sharing
  • 29. The 4Rs Reuse – copy verbatimRedistribute – share with others Revise – adapt and edit Remix – combine with others
  • 30. Over 400 Million ItemsUsing CC licenses at end of 2010
  • 31. The “Open” in OERFree permission to do the 4Rs
  • 32. Internet OEREnables Allows Sharing and educating at unprecedented scale
  • 33. 2. The $5 Textbook the financial argument
  • 34. Postsecondary Students Pay $35 instead of $150 per book300,000 students have saved $39M+
  • 35. Postsecondary Students Pay $35 instead of $150 per book300,000 students have saved $39M+
  • 36. Project Kaleidoscope (NGLC) Preliminary research results
  • 37. “How would you rate the qualityof the texts used for this course?”Answer Response %WORSE than… 4 3%About the SAME AS… 67 56%BETTER than… 49 41%
  • 38. “Imagine a future course you are required to take. If two different sections were offered…”Answer Response %I would enroll in the section with 17 13%TRADITIONAL PUBLISHED TEXTSI would enroll in the section with 93 74%TEXTS LIKE THOSE OFFERED INTHIS COURSEI would have no preference 16 13%
  • 39. Utah HS Science Classes Teachers adapted CK12 books for print or digital use
  • 40.
  • 41. High SchoolsPay $5 instead of $80 per book
  • 42. 2700 Students in 2011-2012 1200 students in 2010-2011
  • 43. Statewide Secondary in 2012Math 9, Science 9-12, Language Arts 6-12 Potentially 275,000+ students
  • 44. Back of the EnvelopeCost of Traditional Books Over Cycle $65,000,000Cost of Open Books Over Cycle $25,000,000Potential Savings Over Entire Cycle $40,000,000Potential Savings Per Year $5,500,000
  • 45. Impact on Learning?Simple substitution makes no difference
  • 46. Impact on Learning? With PD we willmove the outcomes needle
  • 47. Pedagogy and OERHighlighting, annotating, taking notes
  • 48. Text Marking Strategies Adapted from
  • 49. Any text marking strategy / systemmust make sense to the person using it.
  • 50. 1. Read first then underline orhighlight selectively.• Read a passage through• Go back and underline/highlight words or phrases that best summarize passage• Limit amount of underlining/highlighting• Requires conscious evaluation – What is most valuable? – What is not as valuable?
  • 51. 2. Box transitions and numberimportant ideas.• Transitions: – First,…Second,…Third, – Next, – Finally, – For example,• Number lists of information imbedded in text – Transition words are good indicators
  • 52. 3. Circle specialized vocabulary.• Look up definitions.• Write brief meanings in margins.
  • 53. 4. Jot down main ideas inthe margin.• “What was most of that passage about?”• Summarize concisely (5-10 words)• Especially useful for short, dense passages
  • 54. 5. Label examples anddefinitions.• Identify main idea being exemplified• Note in-text definitions
  • 55. 6. Write own ideas in [squarebrackets].• Connections to other passages, class discussions, or assignments• Use top or bottom of page• Requires active reading and critical thinking• Will make study more interesting and useful
  • 56. 7. Write questions as you read.• Questions help you think, relate to new material, and wonder about implications and applications• Active questioning can improve learning and retention
  • 57. 8. Summarize larger sectionsand chapters.• Summarize AFTER reading – Don’t read and write at the same time• Use brief phrases• Use whitespace• “What was this section (or chapter) about?”• Use own words, not quotes from the text Use whitespace to summarize sections or chapters in my own words.
  • 58. 9. Map sections or chapters.• Visual diagram showing relationships between concepts – Isolate and organize main ideas• Use in addition to OR in place of summaries Sections Map Chapters
  • 59. 10. Check-mark importantopinions. ✔✔• Isolate opinions of the author from factual statements• Evaluate importance of opinions• Use multiple check-marks for more important opinions