29. The 4Rs Reuse – copy verbatimRedistribute – share with others Revise – adapt and edit Remix – combine with others
30. Over 400 Million ItemsUsing CC licenses at end of 2010
31. The “Open” in OERFree permission to do the 4Rs
32. Internet OEREnables Allows Sharing and educating at unprecedented scale
33. 2. The $5 Textbook the financial argument
34. Postsecondary Students Pay $35 instead of $150 per book300,000 students have saved $39M+
35. Postsecondary Students Pay $35 instead of $150 per book300,000 students have saved $39M+
36. Project Kaleidoscope (NGLC) Preliminary research results
37. “How would you rate the qualityof the texts used for this course?”Answer Response %WORSE than… 4 3%About the SAME AS… 67 56%BETTER than… 49 41%
38. “Imagine a future course you are required to take. If two different sections were offered…”Answer Response %I would enroll in the section with 17 13%TRADITIONAL PUBLISHED TEXTSI would enroll in the section with 93 74%TEXTS LIKE THOSE OFFERED INTHIS COURSEI would have no preference 16 13%
39. Utah HS Science Classes Teachers adapted CK12 books for print or digital use
41. High SchoolsPay $5 instead of $80 per book
42. 2700 Students in 2011-2012 1200 students in 2010-2011
43. Statewide Secondary in 2012Math 9, Science 9-12, Language Arts 6-12 Potentially 275,000+ students
44. Back of the EnvelopeCost of Traditional Books Over Cycle $65,000,000Cost of Open Books Over Cycle $25,000,000Potential Savings Over Entire Cycle $40,000,000Potential Savings Per Year $5,500,000
45. Impact on Learning?Simple substitution makes no difference
46. Impact on Learning? With PD we willmove the outcomes needle
47. Pedagogy and OERHighlighting, annotating, taking notes
48. Text Marking Strategies Adapted fromhttp://academic.cuesta.edu/acasupp/as/609.htm
49. Any text marking strategy / systemmust make sense to the person using it.
50. 1. Read first then underline orhighlight selectively.• Read a passage through• Go back and underline/highlight words or phrases that best summarize passage• Limit amount of underlining/highlighting• Requires conscious evaluation – What is most valuable? – What is not as valuable?
51. 2. Box transitions and numberimportant ideas.• Transitions: – First,…Second,…Third, – Next, – Finally, – For example,• Number lists of information imbedded in text – Transition words are good indicators
52. 3. Circle specialized vocabulary.• Look up definitions.• Write brief meanings in margins.
53. 4. Jot down main ideas inthe margin.• “What was most of that passage about?”• Summarize concisely (5-10 words)• Especially useful for short, dense passages
54. 5. Label examples anddefinitions.• Identify main idea being exemplified• Note in-text definitions
55. 6. Write own ideas in [squarebrackets].• Connections to other passages, class discussions, or assignments• Use top or bottom of page• Requires active reading and critical thinking• Will make study more interesting and useful
56. 7. Write questions as you read.• Questions help you think, relate to new material, and wonder about implications and applications• Active questioning can improve learning and retention
57. 8. Summarize larger sectionsand chapters.• Summarize AFTER reading – Don’t read and write at the same time• Use brief phrases• Use whitespace• “What was this section (or chapter) about?”• Use own words, not quotes from the text Use whitespace to summarize sections or chapters in my own words.
58. 9. Map sections or chapters.• Visual diagram showing relationships between concepts – Isolate and organize main ideas• Use in addition to OR in place of summaries Sections Map Chapters
59. 10. Check-mark importantopinions. ✔✔• Isolate opinions of the author from factual statements• Evaluate importance of opinions• Use multiple check-marks for more important opinions