Open Textbooks              David WileyInstructional Psychology & Technology       Brigham Young University
What Does “Open” Mean?      Why should we care? How will it benefit our students?
1. Education Is Sharing    the core argument
Teachers Share With Students       Knowledge and skills      Feedback and criticism         Encouragement
Students Share With Teachers           Questions          Assignments              Tests
If There Is No Sharing   There is no education
Successful Educators Share most compeltely with the most students
Knowledge is MagicalCan be given without being given away
Physical Expressions Are Not To give a book you must give it away
Expressions Are DifferentTo give a book you must give it away
When Expressions Are Digital    They also become magical
An Indescribable Advance The first time in human history
Both Knowledge and Expressions   Can be given without giving away
Unprecedented Capacity We can share as never before
Unprecedented CapacityWe can educate as never before
What Does “Share” Mean?Online it means copy and distribute
Cost of “Copy”For one 250 page book:• Copy by hand - $1,000• Copy by print on demand - $4.50• Copy by computer - $0.00084
Cost of “Distribute”For one 250 page book:• Distribute by mail - $5.20• Distribute by internet - $0.00072
Copy and Distribute are “Free”      This changes everything
Educational SharingAlso means adapting or editing
Sense-making, Meaning-making    Connecting to prior knowledge      Relating to past experience     (In an appropriate lang...
Digital Makes Editing “Free” Editing a printed book or magazine       is difficult and expensive
Free Copy, Distribute, Edit  We can share as never before
Free Copy, Distribute, Edit We can educate as never before
Except We Can’t© forbids copying, distributing, and editing
© Cancels the Possibilities Of digital media and the internet
Internet                 CopyrightEnables                   Forbids           What to do?
Use copyright to enforce sharing
The 4Rs    Reuse – copy verbatimRedistribute – share with others    Revise – adapt and edit Remix – combine with others
Over 400 Million ItemsUsing CC licenses at end of 2010
The “Open” in OERFree permission to do the 4Rs
Internet                 OEREnables                 Allows    Sharing and educating at      unprecedented scale
2. The $5 Textbook the financial argument
Postsecondary Students Pay $35 instead of $150 per book300,000 students have saved $39M+
Postsecondary Students Pay $35 instead of $150 per book300,000 students have saved $39M+
Project Kaleidoscope (NGLC)    Preliminary research results
“How would you rate the qualityof the texts used for this course?”Answer               Response   %WORSE than…          4 ...
“Imagine a future course you are required to take. If two different    sections were offered…”Answer                      ...
Utah HS Science Classes Teachers adapted CK12 books     for print or digital use
http://opencontent.org/calculator
High SchoolsPay $5 instead of $80 per book
2700 Students in 2011-2012   1200 students in 2010-2011
Statewide Secondary in 2012Math 9, Science 9-12, Language Arts 6-12     Potentially 275,000+ students
Back of the EnvelopeCost of Traditional Books Over Cycle   $65,000,000Cost of Open Books Over Cycle          $25,000,000Po...
Impact on Learning?Simple substitution makes no difference
Impact on Learning?    With PD we willmove the outcomes needle
Pedagogy and OERHighlighting, annotating, taking notes
Text Marking Strategies              Adapted fromhttp://academic.cuesta.edu/acasupp/as/609.htm
Any text marking strategy / systemmust make sense to the person using it.
1. Read first then underline orhighlight selectively.• Read a passage through• Go back and underline/highlight words or  p...
2. Box transitions and numberimportant ideas.• Transitions:  – First,…Second,…Third,  – Next,  – Finally,  – For example,•...
3. Circle specialized vocabulary.• Look up definitions.• Write brief meanings in margins.
4. Jot down main ideas inthe margin.• “What was most of that passage about?”• Summarize concisely (5-10 words)• Especially...
5. Label examples anddefinitions.• Identify main idea being exemplified• Note in-text definitions
6. Write own ideas in [squarebrackets].• Connections to other passages, class  discussions, or assignments• Use top or bot...
7. Write questions as you read.• Questions help you think, relate to new  material, and wonder about implications and  app...
8. Summarize larger sectionsand chapters.• Summarize AFTER reading    – Don’t read and write at the same time•   Use brief...
9. Map sections or chapters.• Visual diagram showing relationships between  concepts  – Isolate and organize main ideas• U...
10. Check-mark importantopinions. ✔✔• Isolate opinions of the author from factual  statements• Evaluate importance of opin...
Open Textbook Training in Arizona
Open Textbook Training in Arizona
Open Textbook Training in Arizona
Open Textbook Training in Arizona
Open Textbook Training in Arizona
Open Textbook Training in Arizona
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Open Textbook Training in Arizona

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  • Transcript of "Open Textbook Training in Arizona"

    1. 1. Open Textbooks David WileyInstructional Psychology & Technology Brigham Young University
    2. 2. What Does “Open” Mean? Why should we care? How will it benefit our students?
    3. 3. 1. Education Is Sharing the core argument
    4. 4. Teachers Share With Students Knowledge and skills Feedback and criticism Encouragement
    5. 5. Students Share With Teachers Questions Assignments Tests
    6. 6. If There Is No Sharing There is no education
    7. 7. Successful Educators Share most compeltely with the most students
    8. 8. Knowledge is MagicalCan be given without being given away
    9. 9. Physical Expressions Are Not To give a book you must give it away
    10. 10. Expressions Are DifferentTo give a book you must give it away
    11. 11. When Expressions Are Digital They also become magical
    12. 12. An Indescribable Advance The first time in human history
    13. 13. Both Knowledge and Expressions Can be given without giving away
    14. 14. Unprecedented Capacity We can share as never before
    15. 15. Unprecedented CapacityWe can educate as never before
    16. 16. What Does “Share” Mean?Online it means copy and distribute
    17. 17. Cost of “Copy”For one 250 page book:• Copy by hand - $1,000• Copy by print on demand - $4.50• Copy by computer - $0.00084
    18. 18. Cost of “Distribute”For one 250 page book:• Distribute by mail - $5.20• Distribute by internet - $0.00072
    19. 19. Copy and Distribute are “Free” This changes everything
    20. 20. Educational SharingAlso means adapting or editing
    21. 21. Sense-making, Meaning-making Connecting to prior knowledge Relating to past experience (In an appropriate language)
    22. 22. Digital Makes Editing “Free” Editing a printed book or magazine is difficult and expensive
    23. 23. Free Copy, Distribute, Edit We can share as never before
    24. 24. Free Copy, Distribute, Edit We can educate as never before
    25. 25. Except We Can’t© forbids copying, distributing, and editing
    26. 26. © Cancels the Possibilities Of digital media and the internet
    27. 27. Internet CopyrightEnables Forbids What to do?
    28. 28. Use copyright to enforce sharing
    29. 29. The 4Rs Reuse – copy verbatimRedistribute – share with others Revise – adapt and edit Remix – combine with others
    30. 30. Over 400 Million ItemsUsing CC licenses at end of 2010
    31. 31. The “Open” in OERFree permission to do the 4Rs
    32. 32. Internet OEREnables Allows Sharing and educating at unprecedented scale
    33. 33. 2. The $5 Textbook the financial argument
    34. 34. Postsecondary Students Pay $35 instead of $150 per book300,000 students have saved $39M+
    35. 35. Postsecondary Students Pay $35 instead of $150 per book300,000 students have saved $39M+
    36. 36. Project Kaleidoscope (NGLC) Preliminary research results
    37. 37. “How would you rate the qualityof the texts used for this course?”Answer Response %WORSE than… 4 3%About the SAME AS… 67 56%BETTER than… 49 41%
    38. 38. “Imagine a future course you are required to take. If two different sections were offered…”Answer Response %I would enroll in the section with 17 13%TRADITIONAL PUBLISHED TEXTSI would enroll in the section with 93 74%TEXTS LIKE THOSE OFFERED INTHIS COURSEI would have no preference 16 13%
    39. 39. Utah HS Science Classes Teachers adapted CK12 books for print or digital use
    40. 40. http://opencontent.org/calculator
    41. 41. High SchoolsPay $5 instead of $80 per book
    42. 42. 2700 Students in 2011-2012 1200 students in 2010-2011
    43. 43. Statewide Secondary in 2012Math 9, Science 9-12, Language Arts 6-12 Potentially 275,000+ students
    44. 44. Back of the EnvelopeCost of Traditional Books Over Cycle $65,000,000Cost of Open Books Over Cycle $25,000,000Potential Savings Over Entire Cycle $40,000,000Potential Savings Per Year $5,500,000
    45. 45. Impact on Learning?Simple substitution makes no difference
    46. 46. Impact on Learning? With PD we willmove the outcomes needle
    47. 47. Pedagogy and OERHighlighting, annotating, taking notes
    48. 48. Text Marking Strategies Adapted fromhttp://academic.cuesta.edu/acasupp/as/609.htm
    49. 49. Any text marking strategy / systemmust make sense to the person using it.
    50. 50. 1. Read first then underline orhighlight selectively.• Read a passage through• Go back and underline/highlight words or phrases that best summarize passage• Limit amount of underlining/highlighting• Requires conscious evaluation – What is most valuable? – What is not as valuable?
    51. 51. 2. Box transitions and numberimportant ideas.• Transitions: – First,…Second,…Third, – Next, – Finally, – For example,• Number lists of information imbedded in text – Transition words are good indicators
    52. 52. 3. Circle specialized vocabulary.• Look up definitions.• Write brief meanings in margins.
    53. 53. 4. Jot down main ideas inthe margin.• “What was most of that passage about?”• Summarize concisely (5-10 words)• Especially useful for short, dense passages
    54. 54. 5. Label examples anddefinitions.• Identify main idea being exemplified• Note in-text definitions
    55. 55. 6. Write own ideas in [squarebrackets].• Connections to other passages, class discussions, or assignments• Use top or bottom of page• Requires active reading and critical thinking• Will make study more interesting and useful
    56. 56. 7. Write questions as you read.• Questions help you think, relate to new material, and wonder about implications and applications• Active questioning can improve learning and retention
    57. 57. 8. Summarize larger sectionsand chapters.• Summarize AFTER reading – Don’t read and write at the same time• Use brief phrases• Use whitespace• “What was this section (or chapter) about?”• Use own words, not quotes from the text Use whitespace to summarize sections or chapters in my own words.
    58. 58. 9. Map sections or chapters.• Visual diagram showing relationships between concepts – Isolate and organize main ideas• Use in addition to OR in place of summaries Sections Map Chapters
    59. 59. 10. Check-mark importantopinions. ✔✔• Isolate opinions of the author from factual statements• Evaluate importance of opinions• Use multiple check-marks for more important opinions
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