Openness, Data and
the Future of Education
David Wiley, PhD
Department of Instructional Psychology & Technology
Brigham Yo...
Download These Slides
http://slideshare.net/opencontent/
Openness… In Education?
Open, adj.
Describes educational artifacts
Open Textbooks
Open Educational Resources
Open Courseware
Open, adj.
Teaching materials freely shared with
permissions to engage in the “4R” activities
The 4Rs
Reuse – copy verbatim
Redistribute – share with others
Revise – adapt and improve
Remix – combine with others
Communicate 4Rs Permissions
Since this overrides default copyright,
you must use a copyright license
Offers easy to use 4R’s licenses
Open Educational Resources
Open
Course
Ware
Open
Course
Ware
Open
Courses
Open
Courses
Open
Textbooks
Open
Textbooks
Repository Examples
OpenCourseWare Examples
Open Courses Examples
Open Textbook Examples
Organizations
While Nouns Differ…
The operationalizing actions are the same
Open, adj.
Sharing
Why Be Open?
Role of Openness in Education?
A terrible, insidious question
Openness is the only means
of doing education.
If There Is No Sharing
There is no education
Successful Teachers
Share most thoroughly with
the most students
What’s the Value Proposition?
Who’s Doing the Valuing?
Students, institutions, teachers, society
Affordability
The average college student spends
$900 per year on textbooks
Students? Affordability
The average college student spends
$900 per year on textbooks
Students? Affordability
The average college student spends
$900 per year on textbooks
Affordability
Students, institutions, society
A Brief Pivot to Data
And then back to
institutions and society
Each and Every Interaction
Recorded and stored for analysis
to improve quality of service / experience
Continuous Improvement Process
(CIP)
If Only We Could Get It…
Education could engage in continuous quality
improvement, too!
Even the Grocer!
Almost every industry (1) gathers and
(2) uses data more effectively than we do
Data Alone Don’t Enable CIP
You need Openness + Data
A Concrete Example
Why you need BOTH
Openness + Data to CIP
Bloom’s 2 Sigma Challenge
Bloom, 1984
One-to-One Tutoring
And other methods compared to
30 students in the classroom
Average Tutored Student +2sd
In other words, the average student
is capable of much more
Tutoring is Expensive
So we teach class instead!
Bloom, 1984
If the research on the 2 sigma
problem yields practiced methods
(methods that the average
teacher or school fa...
To Tutor Or Not to Tutor?
That is the (false) question
“Intelligent” Tutors
Have different scalability problems
Dehumanize learning
“Strategic Tutoring”
What if we could do one-on-one tutoring
just-in-time and just-on-topic?
Would Require Lots of Data
Where can we get it all?
Would Require New Model
Institutional commitment
What Kind of Data?
When they logged in, read, and worked
How long they logged in, read, and worked
Pathway information, It...
OHSU Teaching Model
Online curriculum teaches as much as possible,
teachers do proactive “strategic tutoring”
Teacher Becomes Tutor
Has the curriculum replaced the teacher?
As broadcast machinery, yes.
Are You Even Allowed to CIP?
Data aren’t sufficient – you need permission
Open Educational Resources
Give OHSU the permissions it needs to
engage in continuous improvement
“4R” Permissions
Reuse – copy verbatim
Redistribute – share with others
Revise – adapt and improve
Remix – combine with ot...
OHSU Charter Requires OER
Founders’ way of “burning the ships”
and fully committing to CIP
Conjoint CIP
Student learning and curriculum effectiveness
grow simultaneously
Curriculum
Use
Curriculum
Redesign
Student
Performance
Data
Data
Describing
Curriculum
Performance
Data
Supporting
Strateg...
But Tutoring Data are Out-of-Band!
Using customer relationship management
(CRM) tools
Visualizing Educational Data
Creating new visualization techniques to
support teaching and learning
Openness + Data Are Required
For Continuous Improvement Processes
CIP, Of Course
(Design-based Research)
Must either use open materials,
violate its own principles,
or fail to scale
Recruiting
MIT OCW reports:
35% of incoming freshman aware of
OCW reported it influenced their
attendance decision
Alumni Outreach
MIT OCW reports:
78% of alumni are aware of OCW
42% of alumni use the site
To Make Money
BYU IS reports 2.5% of all visitors to
OCW site become paying customers
Teachers
Transparency increases quality
Increased interaction and perspectives
Finally, Society
What is the value of openness in
education to society?
Finally, Society
What is the value of openness in
education to society?
Lifelong Learning Opportunities
Refresh, review, or learn something
new informally and for free
Or “upgrade” for tutoring ...
Public As Patrons
Who funds the creation of educational
materials by faculty?
The Trucker Tale
A parable of ingenuity and despair
CC BYhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/farleyj/2768941171/
CC BYhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/pagedooley/2810314243/
CC BYhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/chicagoeye/2710749425/
CC BY
http://www.flickr.com/photos/striatic/2192192956/
CC BY
http://www.flickr.com/photos/booleansplit/2634767088/
CC BYhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/flissphil/245158736/
Terms of Distribution
Surrender all rights to the product
Truckers keep 100% of all sales
Terms are life + 70 years
CC BY
http://www.flickr.com/photos/glutnix/47989973/
The Moral of the Story
This is a tale about faculty and their
research, and proportional effort
• Come up with ideas for research,
• Find grant funding for the research,
• Identify and hire graduate students
and other ...
Completely, Utterly Unacceptable
As ridiculous as the Trucker Tale sounds,
faculty have it worse
Financial Contribution
How about the proportional financial
contribution to research articles?
Public Investment in Research
$105,385 to $119,913 per article
(US NIH-funded research)
Publisher Investment in Research
$2750 per article, including
administrative and all other costs
Does This Make Sense?
Publishers make approximately 2% of
the overall investment
“Volunteers?”
In addition to conducting and writing,
you also do the reviewing and editing!
Unbelievable Profits
Elsevier + LexusNexus = $1,500,000,000
in 2008
(Not revenue - profit)
Buy One, Get One
Pizza in Ohio
NIH Policy Now…
FRPAA coming soon
A FRPAA For Educational Materials?
Who knows,
but the public probably deserves it
Conclusions
Openness and sharing
are required for education
Conclusions
Openness and sharing
can be financially sustainable
Conclusions
Openness and data enable
CIP and other things we value
An Invitation
Reconsider the stewardship
you’ve been given you as an educator
Your Inner Two-year Old
Overcoming the impulse to scream
“Mine!”
The More Open You Are
The better education will be for everyone
Thank You!
david.wiley@byu.edu
http://davidwiley.org/
AECT 2010 Presidential Session: Openness, Data, and the Future of Education
AECT 2010 Presidential Session: Openness, Data, and the Future of Education
AECT 2010 Presidential Session: Openness, Data, and the Future of Education
AECT 2010 Presidential Session: Openness, Data, and the Future of Education
AECT 2010 Presidential Session: Openness, Data, and the Future of Education
AECT 2010 Presidential Session: Openness, Data, and the Future of Education
AECT 2010 Presidential Session: Openness, Data, and the Future of Education
AECT 2010 Presidential Session: Openness, Data, and the Future of Education
AECT 2010 Presidential Session: Openness, Data, and the Future of Education
AECT 2010 Presidential Session: Openness, Data, and the Future of Education
AECT 2010 Presidential Session: Openness, Data, and the Future of Education
AECT 2010 Presidential Session: Openness, Data, and the Future of Education
AECT 2010 Presidential Session: Openness, Data, and the Future of Education
AECT 2010 Presidential Session: Openness, Data, and the Future of Education
AECT 2010 Presidential Session: Openness, Data, and the Future of Education
AECT 2010 Presidential Session: Openness, Data, and the Future of Education
AECT 2010 Presidential Session: Openness, Data, and the Future of Education
AECT 2010 Presidential Session: Openness, Data, and the Future of Education
AECT 2010 Presidential Session: Openness, Data, and the Future of Education
AECT 2010 Presidential Session: Openness, Data, and the Future of Education
AECT 2010 Presidential Session: Openness, Data, and the Future of Education
AECT 2010 Presidential Session: Openness, Data, and the Future of Education
AECT 2010 Presidential Session: Openness, Data, and the Future of Education
AECT 2010 Presidential Session: Openness, Data, and the Future of Education
AECT 2010 Presidential Session: Openness, Data, and the Future of Education
AECT 2010 Presidential Session: Openness, Data, and the Future of Education
AECT 2010 Presidential Session: Openness, Data, and the Future of Education
AECT 2010 Presidential Session: Openness, Data, and the Future of Education
AECT 2010 Presidential Session: Openness, Data, and the Future of Education
AECT 2010 Presidential Session: Openness, Data, and the Future of Education
AECT 2010 Presidential Session: Openness, Data, and the Future of Education
AECT 2010 Presidential Session: Openness, Data, and the Future of Education
AECT 2010 Presidential Session: Openness, Data, and the Future of Education
AECT 2010 Presidential Session: Openness, Data, and the Future of Education
AECT 2010 Presidential Session: Openness, Data, and the Future of Education
AECT 2010 Presidential Session: Openness, Data, and the Future of Education
AECT 2010 Presidential Session: Openness, Data, and the Future of Education
AECT 2010 Presidential Session: Openness, Data, and the Future of Education
AECT 2010 Presidential Session: Openness, Data, and the Future of Education
AECT 2010 Presidential Session: Openness, Data, and the Future of Education
AECT 2010 Presidential Session: Openness, Data, and the Future of Education
AECT 2010 Presidential Session: Openness, Data, and the Future of Education
AECT 2010 Presidential Session: Openness, Data, and the Future of Education
AECT 2010 Presidential Session: Openness, Data, and the Future of Education
AECT 2010 Presidential Session: Openness, Data, and the Future of Education
AECT 2010 Presidential Session: Openness, Data, and the Future of Education
AECT 2010 Presidential Session: Openness, Data, and the Future of Education
AECT 2010 Presidential Session: Openness, Data, and the Future of Education
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  • http://wiki.creativecommons.org/File:Metrics_Updated.png
  • http://oercommons.org/
  • http://cnx.org/
  • http://google.com/
  • http://google.com/
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/pitel/507791613/
    CC BY-SA
  • Allen. A Cover To Cover Solution: How Open Textbooks are the Path to Textbook Affordability. (2010).
    This cost is 70% of tuition for some students.
  • Allen. A Cover To Cover Solution: How Open Textbooks are the Path to Textbook Affordability. (2010)
  • Allen. A Cover To Cover Solution: How Open Textbooks are the Path to Textbook Affordability. (2010)
  • Allen. A Cover To Cover Solution: How Open Textbooks are the Path to Textbook Affordability. (2010)
  • Allen. A Cover To Cover Solution: How Open Textbooks are the Path to Textbook Affordability. (2010)
  • http://www.smartmusic.com/
  • http://ocw.mit.edu/ans7870/global/05_Prog_Eval_Report_Final.pdf
  • http://ocw.mit.edu/ans7870/global/05_Prog_Eval_Report_Final.pdf
  • Johansen & Wiley, ETR&D, DOI: 10.1007/s11423-010-9160-7
  • Johansen & Wiley, ETR&D, DOI: 10.1007/s11423-010-9160-7
  • Johansen & Wiley, ETR&D, DOI: 10.1007/s11423-010-9160-7
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/avlxyz/4912317632/
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/avlxyz/4912317632/
  • You can’t connect to / with things you can’t access. You can’t custom pull modules into an instructional experience when you don’t have access to the modules. And students certainly can’t participate when there is no mechanism for contribution of materials or a way to find and tutor one another.
  • You can’t connect to / with things you can’t access. You can’t custom pull modules into an instructional experience when you don’t have access to the modules. And students certainly can’t participate when there is no mechanism for contribution of materials or a way to find and tutor one another.
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/avlxyz/4912317632/
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/avlxyz/4912317632/
  • Wellcome Trust
  • CC By-SA Photo from http://www.flickr.com/photos/majorvols/2772682741/
  • AECT 2010 Presidential Session: Openness, Data, and the Future of Education

    1. 1. Openness, Data and the Future of Education David Wiley, PhD Department of Instructional Psychology & Technology Brigham Young University
    2. 2. Download These Slides http://slideshare.net/opencontent/
    3. 3. Openness… In Education?
    4. 4. Open, adj. Describes educational artifacts
    5. 5. Open Textbooks Open Educational Resources Open Courseware
    6. 6. Open, adj. Teaching materials freely shared with permissions to engage in the “4R” activities
    7. 7. The 4Rs Reuse – copy verbatim Redistribute – share with others Revise – adapt and improve Remix – combine with others
    8. 8. Communicate 4Rs Permissions Since this overrides default copyright, you must use a copyright license
    9. 9. Offers easy to use 4R’s licenses
    10. 10. Open Educational Resources Open Course Ware Open Course Ware Open Courses Open Courses Open Textbooks Open Textbooks
    11. 11. Repository Examples
    12. 12. OpenCourseWare Examples
    13. 13. Open Courses Examples
    14. 14. Open Textbook Examples
    15. 15. Organizations
    16. 16. While Nouns Differ… The operationalizing actions are the same
    17. 17. Open, adj. Sharing
    18. 18. Why Be Open?
    19. 19. Role of Openness in Education? A terrible, insidious question
    20. 20. Openness is the only means of doing education.
    21. 21. If There Is No Sharing There is no education
    22. 22. Successful Teachers Share most thoroughly with the most students
    23. 23. What’s the Value Proposition?
    24. 24. Who’s Doing the Valuing? Students, institutions, teachers, society
    25. 25. Affordability The average college student spends $900 per year on textbooks
    26. 26. Students? Affordability The average college student spends $900 per year on textbooks
    27. 27. Students? Affordability The average college student spends $900 per year on textbooks
    28. 28. Affordability Students, institutions, society
    29. 29. A Brief Pivot to Data And then back to institutions and society
    30. 30. Each and Every Interaction Recorded and stored for analysis to improve quality of service / experience
    31. 31. Continuous Improvement Process (CIP)
    32. 32. If Only We Could Get It… Education could engage in continuous quality improvement, too!
    33. 33. Even the Grocer! Almost every industry (1) gathers and (2) uses data more effectively than we do
    34. 34. Data Alone Don’t Enable CIP You need Openness + Data
    35. 35. A Concrete Example Why you need BOTH Openness + Data to CIP
    36. 36. Bloom’s 2 Sigma Challenge Bloom, 1984
    37. 37. One-to-One Tutoring And other methods compared to 30 students in the classroom
    38. 38. Average Tutored Student +2sd In other words, the average student is capable of much more
    39. 39. Tutoring is Expensive So we teach class instead!
    40. 40. Bloom, 1984 If the research on the 2 sigma problem yields practiced methods (methods that the average teacher or school faculty can learn in a brief period of time and use with little more cost or time than conventional instruction), it would be an educational contribution of the greatest magnitude. (p. 5)
    41. 41. To Tutor Or Not to Tutor? That is the (false) question
    42. 42. “Intelligent” Tutors Have different scalability problems Dehumanize learning
    43. 43. “Strategic Tutoring” What if we could do one-on-one tutoring just-in-time and just-on-topic?
    44. 44. Would Require Lots of Data Where can we get it all?
    45. 45. Would Require New Model Institutional commitment
    46. 46. What Kind of Data? When they logged in, read, and worked How long they logged in, read, and worked Pathway information, Item-by-item analytics, &c.
    47. 47. OHSU Teaching Model Online curriculum teaches as much as possible, teachers do proactive “strategic tutoring”
    48. 48. Teacher Becomes Tutor Has the curriculum replaced the teacher? As broadcast machinery, yes.
    49. 49. Are You Even Allowed to CIP? Data aren’t sufficient – you need permission
    50. 50. Open Educational Resources Give OHSU the permissions it needs to engage in continuous improvement
    51. 51. “4R” Permissions Reuse – copy verbatim Redistribute – share with others Revise – adapt and improve Remix – combine with others
    52. 52. OHSU Charter Requires OER Founders’ way of “burning the ships” and fully committing to CIP
    53. 53. Conjoint CIP Student learning and curriculum effectiveness grow simultaneously
    54. 54. Curriculum Use Curriculum Redesign Student Performance Data Data Describing Curriculum Performance Data Supporting Strategic Tutoring Feedback Loop
    55. 55. But Tutoring Data are Out-of-Band! Using customer relationship management (CRM) tools
    56. 56. Visualizing Educational Data Creating new visualization techniques to support teaching and learning
    57. 57. Openness + Data Are Required For Continuous Improvement Processes
    58. 58. CIP, Of Course
    59. 59. (Design-based Research) Must either use open materials, violate its own principles, or fail to scale
    60. 60. Recruiting MIT OCW reports: 35% of incoming freshman aware of OCW reported it influenced their attendance decision
    61. 61. Alumni Outreach MIT OCW reports: 78% of alumni are aware of OCW 42% of alumni use the site
    62. 62. To Make Money BYU IS reports 2.5% of all visitors to OCW site become paying customers
    63. 63. Teachers Transparency increases quality Increased interaction and perspectives
    64. 64. Finally, Society What is the value of openness in education to society?
    65. 65. Finally, Society What is the value of openness in education to society?
    66. 66. Lifelong Learning Opportunities Refresh, review, or learn something new informally and for free Or “upgrade” for tutoring and credits
    67. 67. Public As Patrons Who funds the creation of educational materials by faculty?
    68. 68. The Trucker Tale A parable of ingenuity and despair
    69. 69. CC BYhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/farleyj/2768941171/
    70. 70. CC BYhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/pagedooley/2810314243/
    71. 71. CC BYhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/chicagoeye/2710749425/
    72. 72. CC BY http://www.flickr.com/photos/striatic/2192192956/
    73. 73. CC BY http://www.flickr.com/photos/booleansplit/2634767088/
    74. 74. CC BYhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/flissphil/245158736/
    75. 75. Terms of Distribution Surrender all rights to the product Truckers keep 100% of all sales Terms are life + 70 years
    76. 76. CC BY http://www.flickr.com/photos/glutnix/47989973/
    77. 77. The Moral of the Story This is a tale about faculty and their research, and proportional effort
    78. 78. • Come up with ideas for research, • Find grant funding for the research, • Identify and hire graduate students and other professionals, • Conduct the research, • Write up the results of the research in a clear and concise manner, and • Surrender all rights to the written results of our research to a
    79. 79. Completely, Utterly Unacceptable As ridiculous as the Trucker Tale sounds, faculty have it worse
    80. 80. Financial Contribution How about the proportional financial contribution to research articles?
    81. 81. Public Investment in Research $105,385 to $119,913 per article (US NIH-funded research)
    82. 82. Publisher Investment in Research $2750 per article, including administrative and all other costs
    83. 83. Does This Make Sense? Publishers make approximately 2% of the overall investment
    84. 84. “Volunteers?” In addition to conducting and writing, you also do the reviewing and editing!
    85. 85. Unbelievable Profits Elsevier + LexusNexus = $1,500,000,000 in 2008 (Not revenue - profit)
    86. 86. Buy One, Get One Pizza in Ohio
    87. 87. NIH Policy Now… FRPAA coming soon
    88. 88. A FRPAA For Educational Materials? Who knows, but the public probably deserves it
    89. 89. Conclusions Openness and sharing are required for education
    90. 90. Conclusions Openness and sharing can be financially sustainable
    91. 91. Conclusions Openness and data enable CIP and other things we value
    92. 92. An Invitation Reconsider the stewardship you’ve been given you as an educator
    93. 93. Your Inner Two-year Old Overcoming the impulse to scream “Mine!”
    94. 94. The More Open You Are The better education will be for everyone
    95. 95. Thank You! david.wiley@byu.edu http://davidwiley.org/

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