1 Introduction To Psychology


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1 Introduction To Psychology

  1. 1. BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE 1 Cohort 4: 2008 Ms Umie's
  2. 2. Specific objectives <ul><li>At the end of the lesson, the student should be able to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>define psychology, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>describe the different approaches in psychology: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Neurobiological </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioral </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Psychoanalytical </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>discuss the application of psychology to nursing. </li></ul></ul>Cohort 4: 2008 Ms Umie's
  3. 3. Meaning of psychology <ul><li>Psychology is derived from combination of two Greek word. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Psyche - soul or mind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Logy - knowledge or study of. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Psychology is the study of human </li></ul><ul><li> behavior and mind. </li></ul>Cohort 4: 2008 Ms Umie's
  4. 4. Definition of psychology <ul><li>“ Psychology is the systematic, scientific study of behavior and mental processes. </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior includes all of our outward or overt actions and reactions, such as talking, facial expressions and movements. </li></ul><ul><li>Mental processes refer to all the internal, covert activity of our minds, such as thinking, feeling and remembering. ” </li></ul><ul><li>(Ciccarelli & Meyer 2006) </li></ul>Cohort 4: 2008 Ms Umie's
  5. 5. Other definitions for psychology <ul><li>Psychology is the science that studies behavior and mental processes. </li></ul><ul><li> (Rathus, 1993) </li></ul><ul><li>Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and application gained from that knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li> (Worhcel & Shebilske, 1995) </li></ul>Cohort 4: 2008 Ms Umie's
  6. 6. Goals of psychology <ul><li>1. Describe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding human behavior must begin with careful description of how people think, feel and act in a specific situations. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Explain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To know why people behave in certain manners. We want explanation. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3. Predict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To predict people’s behavior. One will behave in certain way in a certain set of circumstances </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4. Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We can change or influence people’s behavior once we know what is in their mind. </li></ul></ul>Cohort 4: 2008 Ms Umie's
  7. 7. Dangerous patterns of alcohol use: Drink and drive Cohort 4: 2008 Ms Umie Applying of goals of psychology
  8. 8. Psychology and nursing Cohort 4: 2008 Ms Umie's
  9. 9. Psychology and nursing (cont’d) Cohort 4: 2008 Ms Umie's
  10. 10. Psychology and nursing (cont’d) Cohort 4: 2008 Ms Umie's
  11. 11. Different approaches <ul><li>Psychology has a number of different ways of trying to understand the person and these are called approaches. </li></ul><ul><li>Four approaches most commonly used now are: </li></ul>Cohort 4: 2008 Ms Umie's
  12. 12. 1. Neurobiological approach <ul><li>Biopsychologists are often accused of reductionism, which means they reduce the person down to their biological components. </li></ul><ul><li>They suggest that biological function and structure determine behavior. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g; people cannot fly because they do not have wings. </li></ul></ul>Cohort 4: 2008 Ms Umie's
  13. 13. <ul><li>Biopsychologists recognise that biological functioning can significantly influence behaviors, which allows for a biological understanding of Mrs Lillian’s confusion and agitation. </li></ul><ul><li>As a student nurse you are asked to monitor an elderly lady, Mrs Lillian in your ward. She looks confused , restless and says she wants to go home. Her husband said her concentration, attention and memory have worsen since last week. Sometimes she moans as if she is in pain. </li></ul><ul><li>While monitoring her, you find her pulse rate, temperature, breathing and blood pressure are a little raised. Mrs Lillian is unable to explain her problems. The nurse in charge asks what you think might be wrong with her and your mind runs wildly through cancer, anxiety, infection and other options. </li></ul><ul><li>After a physical examination it is found Mrs Lillian is constipated , and she is offered an enema to allow rapid relief. Her restless and mental functioning quickly return to normal. She is also prescribed a laxative and given information on diet, exercise and her other medications. </li></ul>Cohort 4: 2008 Ms Umie’s A biological understanding of how people behave is important for nurses. Without a recognition that a person’s biological functioning will affect their behavior, nurses would have overlooked the exact interventions.
  14. 14. 2. Behavioral approach <ul><li>First arose in the early twentieth century. </li></ul><ul><li>Pioneered by Ivan Pavlov, John B. Watson, EL Thorndike, and BF Skinner. </li></ul><ul><li>The behaviorists propose that all of a person’s behavior, including their personality, is learnt. </li></ul>Cohort 4: 2008 Ms Umie's
  15. 15. <ul><ul><li>Application in nursing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A patient review is occurring in a room near a busy railway line where trains frequently go by. Initially you are distracted by the noise but after a little while you habituate to it and do not notice the trains and can concentrate on the review. </li></ul></ul>a) Habituation - the acknowledgement that people can get used to or accept elements in their environment. Cohort 4: 2008 Ms Umie's
  16. 16. <ul><ul><li>Application in nursing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A person who needs pain-killing tablets is given a sugar tablet at the same time. After a number of times with the two types of tablet being presented together, a reflexive association is formed so that the sugar tablet provokes the same response as the pain killer–pain relief. </li></ul></ul>b) Classical conditioning - the training of reflexes by association. By Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936). Cohort 4: 2008 Ms Umie's
  17. 17. <ul><li>Application in nursing </li></ul><ul><li>A child is frightened of seeing the nurse because each time they see the nurse an injection is given. The nurse recognizes this, and allows the child to play with a stethoscope while administering the injection and gives the child a sticker saying how brave they have been, to wear home. The child is rewarded for their behavior (allowing the nurse to give them the injection) and they behave less fearfully in the future, in anticipation of a reward. </li></ul>c) Operant conditioning - if good things happen following a behavior, the person will repeat the behavior. By B.F Skinner (1904-1990) Cohort 4: 2008 Ms Umie's
  18. 18. <ul><li>Application in nursing </li></ul><ul><li>A relative needs to be informed that their loved one has died. The student nurse observes the experienced nurse giving the relative this information, offering time and support. The student notices how the caring behavior of the experienced nurse helps the relative, and in the future the student attempts to imitate that behavior. </li></ul>d) Social learning theory - learn from observing and imitating others. Cohort 4: 2008 Ms Umie's
  19. 19. 3. Cognitive approach <ul><li>Modern psychologists who study learning consider how people interpret the events and stimuli around them, then behave according to their individual understandings. </li></ul><ul><li>Such understandings, thought, expectations and perceptions are known as cognitions. </li></ul><ul><li>It deals with mental processes like memory and problem solving. </li></ul><ul><li>How information are being stored? </li></ul><ul><ul><li> A schema theory </li></ul></ul>Cohort 4: 2008 Ms Umie's
  20. 20. Schema theory is a cognitive theory of how people might store information – memory. <ul><li>Application in nursing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A schema for giving an injection would have fixed components: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Needle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Syringe </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Person to give injection to, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But it could also have flexible components : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How safe the medication is being injected </li></ul></ul></ul>Cohort 4: 2008 Ms Umie's
  21. 21. 4. Psychoanalytic approach <ul><li>Sigmund Freud emphasized that our behavior and feelings are powerfully affected by unconscious motives. </li></ul><ul><li>Our behavior and feelings as adults (including psychological problems) are rooted in our childhood experiences. </li></ul><ul><li>All behavior has a cause (usually unconscious), even slips of the tongue. Therefore, all behavior is determined. </li></ul>Sigmund Freud Cohort 4: 2008 Ms Umie’s
  22. 22. <ul><li>Application in nursing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A man lives with a nagging wife. She is admitted to hospital and quickly recovers from her illness. On seeing her he intends to say, ‘I’m glad to see you are better’ but what he actually says is, ‘I’m sad to see you are better.’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The nurse sees the next patient and instead of saying, ‘I can see you now Mr Stanley’ says, ‘I can see you now Mr Stud.’ </li></ul></ul>Cohort 4: 2008 Ms Umie's
  23. 23. Summary <ul><li>This topic has considered what nursing practice is and how psychology can enhance nursing. It has offered an overview of the approaches that structure the science of psychology. Each of these offers nurses the opportunity to develop their understanding of themselves and the people with whom they work. </li></ul>Cohort 4: 2008 Ms Umie's
  24. 24. Concept review <ul><li>The systematic, scientific study of behaviors and mental process is called__________. </li></ul><ul><li>The four goals of psychology are to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>_________what organisms do, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>_________the causes of behavior, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>_________behavior in new situations, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>_________behavior, which has both positive and negative aspects. </li></ul></ul>Cohort 4: 2008 Ms Umie's
  25. 25. Concept review <ul><li>The approach that focuses how one’s nervous system, hormones, and genes interact with the environment is called the _______approach. </li></ul><ul><li>The approach that studies how people think, solve problems, and process information is called the _______approach. </li></ul><ul><li>The approach that analyzes how environmental rewards and punishments shape, change, or motivate behavior is called the ________approach. </li></ul><ul><li>The approach that stresses the influence of unconscious feelings, fears, or desires on the development of behavior, personality, and psychological problems is called the a)________approach. This approach also emphasizes the importance of early b)_________experiences. </li></ul>Cohort 4: 2008 Ms Umie's