PH51004 Foundation in Renewable Energy Group Project (2010/11) Taiwan Frank Duggan, Louis Barclay, Jennifer Scott, McGrego...
Outline <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Attitude of the Taiwanese government </li></ul><ul><li>Imports/exports vs. ...
1. Introduction <ul><li>Located across the Taiwan Strait from China </li></ul><ul><li>Population ~ 22.8 billion </li></ul>...
Political history <ul><li>Taiwan is politically known as the ROC </li></ul><ul><li>Not part of the United Nations, UNFCCC ...
2. Attitude of the Taiwanese government And the reasons for their stance Taiwan’s president - Ma Ying-Jeou
“ Since assuming power in 2008, Taiwan’s new administration has set energy conservation, carbon reduction and response to ...
What are the reasons for this stance?
Some figures <ul><li>In 2008, Taiwan’s per capita carbon footprint was  13.17 tCO 2 e – 3 x world average of 4.55 tCO 2 e ...
Energy in Taiwan
Environmental concerns <ul><li>More extreme weather patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Rising sea levels – estimated 272km 2  floo...
http://blog.rti.org.tw/english/2010/07/31/typhoon-morakot-one-year-on/
Economic concerns <ul><li>41.3million USD insurance payouts due to floods and typhoons between 2003 & 2006 – looks set to ...
Increase in energy consumption can primarily be put down to increase in industry in recent decades – correlates with great...
3. Import/Exports vs. Rise in Energy Consumption Correlation?
Exports <ul><li>Due to high foreign demand  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An increase in exports occurred </li></ul></ul><ul><li>E...
Rise in energy demand <ul><li>High demand in foreign trade gave rise to high production demand within Taiwan </li></ul><ul...
Meeting the demand <ul><li>Taiwan needed to have security of supply </li></ul><ul><li>Taiwan imports  99% of their energy ...
Imports <ul><li>Importation of fuel supply lead to a  average growth of imports of  13.5% between 2002 and 2006 </li></ul>
<ul><li>This chart shows us that importation of goods to Taiwan has lead to  a carbon footprint of 84.3 million tonnes of ...
Economic Indicators 29.4 30.3 32.4 33.2 Exchange rate (year-end, per USD) 3.2 3.2 3.2 2.9 Debt Service ratio 23.9 24.8 25....
How Taiwan compares with other Nations <ul><li>There is a 5% increase in Taiwan’s emissions for this period </li></ul><ul>...
Taiwan’s increase in CO 2  emissions <ul><li>There is a sizeable increase in Taiwan’s emissions in this period </li></ul><...
Correlation? <ul><li>There is an apparent correlation between the industrial upturn & Taiwan’s Carbon footprint </li></ul>...
4. Mitigation and control measures Taiwan EPA MOEMA Greenhouse Gas Reduction Act Renewable Energy Development Act 2009 Leg...
CO 2  emissions reduction scenarios <ul><li>Taiwan Environmental  protection Administration established in 1987 began carb...
Air Quality Improvement   Natural Gas Vehicle  Clean Diesel Vehicle Hydrogen Vehicle Fuel vehicle Electric Vehicle Fuel Ce...
Clean Vehicle project <ul><li>10 zones around the Island will be used to test the initiative; each zone will get up to 300...
EPA also forced motorbike manufacturers to start developing low emission Fuel Injection Engines to reduce emissions 50% lo...
River Quality Improvement As of July 2009, the percentage of seriously polluted river section in Taiwan has decreased from...
Feed in tariffs for renewables <ul><li>Aim to have 10GW of installed renewable energy in place in next 20 years </li></ul>...
Feed in tariffs for renewables 2.0615 Others  2.0879 Waste Power Generation 2.0615 Biomass Power Generation 5.1838 Geother...
Taipower plans to encourage and incorporate renewable energy development <ul><li>The state owned ‘Taipower’ is  the major ...
Taiwan Carbon Foot-Print Labelling <ul><li>Carbon label has become an international trend and it can enable consumers to p...
Taiwan Carbon Footprint Labelling The number stands for “ carbon footprint , ” and is the CO2 emission equivalence calcula...
Products using carbon footprint label <ul><li>Also, Taiwan EPA is working with 10 industrial associations on the developme...
Conclusions <ul><li>Foreign trade led to a growth in industry in Taiwan leading to high energy demand </li></ul><ul><li>Th...
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  • 78% conventional thermal, 18% nuclear, 4% renewable in 2008
  • The typhoon brought record-breaking heavy rain (2m in 48 hours) and submerged the entire southern region of Taiwan. One mudslide buried the entire Xiaolin Village in Kaohsiung County, killing an estimated 500 people in the village alone.
  • Presentation

    1. 1. PH51004 Foundation in Renewable Energy Group Project (2010/11) Taiwan Frank Duggan, Louis Barclay, Jennifer Scott, McGregor Snow & Christian Onwe
    2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Attitude of the Taiwanese government </li></ul><ul><li>Imports/exports vs. rise in energy consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Mitigation and control measures </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul>
    3. 3. 1. Introduction <ul><li>Located across the Taiwan Strait from China </li></ul><ul><li>Population ~ 22.8 billion </li></ul><ul><li>Area ~ 135,980 km 2 </li></ul><ul><li>High energy consumer </li></ul><ul><li>Lacks sufficient domestic energy sources </li></ul>
    4. 4. Political history <ul><li>Taiwan is politically known as the ROC </li></ul><ul><li>Not part of the United Nations, UNFCCC and IPCC </li></ul><ul><li>Participation rejected by the PRC </li></ul>
    5. 5. 2. Attitude of the Taiwanese government And the reasons for their stance Taiwan’s president - Ma Ying-Jeou
    6. 6. “ Since assuming power in 2008, Taiwan’s new administration has set energy conservation, carbon reduction and response to climate change as a major policy… ” - Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration
    7. 7. What are the reasons for this stance?
    8. 8. Some figures <ul><li>In 2008, Taiwan’s per capita carbon footprint was 13.17 tCO 2 e – 3 x world average of 4.55 tCO 2 e </li></ul><ul><li>Taiwan’s CO 2 emissions grew by 260.7% between 1980 & 2007 – compared to ~65% globally </li></ul>
    9. 9. Energy in Taiwan
    10. 10. Environmental concerns <ul><li>More extreme weather patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Rising sea levels – estimated 272km 2 flooded by 2100 </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature increase – greater number of pests & diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Longer & more regular dry periods </li></ul>
    11. 11. http://blog.rti.org.tw/english/2010/07/31/typhoon-morakot-one-year-on/
    12. 12. Economic concerns <ul><li>41.3million USD insurance payouts due to floods and typhoons between 2003 & 2006 – looks set to rise dramatically </li></ul><ul><li>Not in UNFCCC – so industries cannot reduce cost of cutting emissions through CDM </li></ul>
    13. 13. Increase in energy consumption can primarily be put down to increase in industry in recent decades – correlates with greater emissions
    14. 14. 3. Import/Exports vs. Rise in Energy Consumption Correlation?
    15. 15. Exports <ul><li>Due to high foreign demand </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An increase in exports occurred </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Exports included: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Steel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic products such as computer monitors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semiconductors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Taiwan joined world trade organisation in 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>This gave rise to higher production demand </li></ul>
    16. 16. Rise in energy demand <ul><li>High demand in foreign trade gave rise to high production demand within Taiwan </li></ul><ul><li>This gave rise to higher energy usage </li></ul><ul><li>Taiwan’s industrial sector rose by 19% in November 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>This lead to a 2.8% rise in electricity demand </li></ul><ul><li>This greater demand had to be met with supply </li></ul>
    17. 17. Meeting the demand <ul><li>Taiwan needed to have security of supply </li></ul><ul><li>Taiwan imports 99% of their energy sources to meet this demand </li></ul><ul><li>The country uses an average of 950,000 barrels of oil/day </li></ul><ul><li>Just over 1% of this is produced at home </li></ul><ul><li>Hence, large scale importing of fuel </li></ul><ul><li>This had a knock on effect on transportation emissions </li></ul>
    18. 18. Imports <ul><li>Importation of fuel supply lead to a average growth of imports of 13.5% between 2002 and 2006 </li></ul>
    19. 19. <ul><li>This chart shows us that importation of goods to Taiwan has lead to a carbon footprint of 84.3 million tonnes of CO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>High carbon emissions can be seen to come from transportation of imports </li></ul><ul><li>We can see there is a correlation between imports/exports and rise in energy demand </li></ul><ul><li>A correlation is evident between imports/exports and carbon footprint also </li></ul><ul><li>A correlation can said to be present between Exports & GDP growth </li></ul><ul><li>The period of 2002-2006 yielded a 4.7% average growth rate </li></ul>
    20. 20. Economic Indicators 29.4 30.3 32.4 33.2 Exchange rate (year-end, per USD) 3.2 3.2 3.2 2.9 Debt Service ratio 23.9 24.8 25.5 21.8 External Debt (% of GDP) 11.4 11.9 11.9 13.8 Reserves (month of imports) 5.6 5.2 8.6 7.0 Current Account (% of GDP) 9.9 14.3 7.3 13.5 Imports ((% growth, BOP goods) 10.4 7.9 10.1 12.1 Exports (% growth, BOP goods) 2.2 -1.9 0.1 -2.1 Fiscal Balance (% of GDP) 2.0 3.1 1.8 0.8 Inflation (%, year-end) 4.6 4.1 5.7 4.7 GDP (% growth, real) 2009 2008 2007 2002-2006 avg. Economic Indicators
    21. 21. How Taiwan compares with other Nations <ul><li>There is a 5% increase in Taiwan’s emissions for this period </li></ul><ul><li>This is compared to a decrease in emissions elsewhere </li></ul>
    22. 22. Taiwan’s increase in CO 2 emissions <ul><li>There is a sizeable increase in Taiwan’s emissions in this period </li></ul><ul><li>This can be attributed to the industrial growth hat this time </li></ul>
    23. 23. Correlation? <ul><li>There is an apparent correlation between the industrial upturn & Taiwan’s Carbon footprint </li></ul><ul><li>The rise in foreign demand was followed by a rise in exports </li></ul><ul><li>The resulting rise in exports caused an increase in energy usage </li></ul><ul><li>The energy usage needed to be meet with security of supply </li></ul><ul><li>This brought an increase in importation of fuel supplies </li></ul><ul><li>This resulted in higher GHG emissions </li></ul>
    24. 24. 4. Mitigation and control measures Taiwan EPA MOEMA Greenhouse Gas Reduction Act Renewable Energy Development Act 2009 Legislative Yuan
    25. 25. CO 2 emissions reduction scenarios <ul><li>Taiwan Environmental protection Administration established in 1987 began carbon emission reduction efforts in 1998 </li></ul><ul><li>The National Energy conference meetings set out plan to return carbon emission level 2000 level </li></ul><ul><li>Blue line shows the BAU scenario </li></ul><ul><li>The red line shows the return of carbon emission to 2000 level (219.4Mt) by 2025, and half of that level (109.7Mt) by 2050 </li></ul>
    26. 26. Air Quality Improvement Natural Gas Vehicle Clean Diesel Vehicle Hydrogen Vehicle Fuel vehicle Electric Vehicle Fuel Cell Vehicle (Gasoline) Present Future EPA targets to lower Sulphur content from current 50ppmw to 10ppmw in 2011
    27. 27. Clean Vehicle project <ul><li>10 zones around the Island will be used to test the initiative; each zone will get up to 300 electric vehicles. This plan is to be subsidized by the Government about NT$2.2billion has been budgeted for the project </li></ul><ul><li>Motorbikes are a commonly used means of transportation in Taiwan and are a great contribution to the generation of emissions </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon monoxide emissions from these motorbikes accounts for about 10% of Taiwan’s total annual emissions </li></ul>
    28. 28. EPA also forced motorbike manufacturers to start developing low emission Fuel Injection Engines to reduce emissions 50% lower than former carburettor engines and 18% more fuel efficient <ul><li>Kwang Yang Motor Co (KYMCO) </li></ul><ul><li>San Yan Motors </li></ul><ul><li>Motor power Co </li></ul><ul><li>Yamaha </li></ul><ul><li>Tai Ling Motor </li></ul>
    29. 29. River Quality Improvement As of July 2009, the percentage of seriously polluted river section in Taiwan has decreased from 13.6% in 2001 to 6.6% in 2009 71% 16% 6.7% 6.6%
    30. 30. Feed in tariffs for renewables <ul><li>Aim to have 10GW of installed renewable energy in place in next 20 years </li></ul><ul><li>Supported through a feed-in tariff system </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear & fossil fuel utilities obliged to pay into the fund </li></ul>
    31. 31. Feed in tariffs for renewables 2.0615 Others 2.0879 Waste Power Generation 2.0615 Biomass Power Generation 5.1838 Geothermal Power Generation 2.0615 Streamflow Hydropower 4.1982 Off-shore Wind Power System 2.3834 On-shore Wind Power System Over 10 kW 7.2714 On-shore Wind Power System 1-10 kW 11.119 PV System: over 500 kWp 12.9722 PV System: 10-500 kWp 11.1883 PV System: 1-10 kWp Feed-in Tariff (NT$/kWh) Type of Renewable Energy
    32. 32. Taipower plans to encourage and incorporate renewable energy development <ul><li>The state owned ‘Taipower’ is the major power supplier in Taiwan. </li></ul><ul><li>They are considered to be a significant emitter of greenhouse gases and have therefore adopted a solution to reduce CO2 emissions company-wide . </li></ul><ul><li>Hydro electricity will hit 2,500MW by the year 2025 and 2,156MW is expected to come from onshore and offshore wind by the same year </li></ul>150 150 10 - Geothermal 200 30 1 - Ocean 1,500 954 850 739 Bio-Energy 1,000 1,000 320 5.6 Solar 1,000 - - - Off-shore wind 1,156 956 806 252 On-shore wind 2,500 2,110 2,050 1,938 Hydro Year 2025 (MW) Year 2020 (MW) Year 2015 (MW) Currently installed(MW) Renewable Energy
    33. 33. Taiwan Carbon Foot-Print Labelling <ul><li>Carbon label has become an international trend and it can enable consumers to practice environmental responsible consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Taiwan is aware that Carbon labeling can create various benefits for companies, such as carbon reduction, product differentiation and reputation. In order to be geared into this international trend, Taiwan EPA </li></ul><ul><li>Has also commissioned projects to study this issue and EPA </li></ul><ul><li>Has implemented carbon labeling in 2010 </li></ul>
    34. 34. Taiwan Carbon Footprint Labelling The number stands for “ carbon footprint , ” and is the CO2 emission equivalence calculated based on the materials and energy consumed during the life cycle of the product. A heart that loves the nature ; CO2 reduction for a “cool” planet; and green consumption for low-carbon society Green leaf stands for health and environmental friendliness
    35. 35. Products using carbon footprint label <ul><li>Also, Taiwan EPA is working with 10 industrial associations on the development of product category rules (PCR) and carbon footprint </li></ul><ul><li>Selected out of 11 demonstrated for products carbon footprint, they will complete the verification review and obtain the Taiwan Carbon Footprint Label by the end of 2010 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hot Cathode </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fluorescent Lamp </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Butterfly orchid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uncoated paper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aerated Water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Household Paper </li></ul></ul>Hair conditioner <ul><ul><li>Printed of paper products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fruit Juices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spun lace Nonwoven </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Needle Punched Nonwoven </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LED Light </li></ul></ul>_
    36. 36. Conclusions <ul><li>Foreign trade led to a growth in industry in Taiwan leading to high energy demand </li></ul><ul><li>This saw a dramatic rise in carbon footprint </li></ul><ul><li>Created a motivation to change due to these circumstances, and the results </li></ul><ul><li>Government put in place various plans & mitigation measures to tackle the effects of rising GHG emissions </li></ul>
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