MDST 3703 F10 Seminar 3


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  • True since AristotleCodified by Augustine – the first “reader”Tied to the referentBut the referent gets severed
  • [Note that the loss of the referent is a form – perhaps the fundamental form – of alienation.][So much depends on a theory of reference; a theory of mediated reference.]
  • Meaning as codeText as reconfigurable bundles of lexiaHypertext as readerly textMetatext = libraryIntertext = linksMultivocality = many voices
  • MDST 3703 F10 Seminar 3

    1. 1. Seminar 3 Hypertext 2<br />Introduction to the Digital Liberal Arts<br />MDST 3703 / 7703Fall 2010<br />
    2. 2. Business<br />Blogging issues?<br />Project descriptions Thursday<br />Topic focused sites<br />Individual meetings<br />We will send out a sign-up list of available dates <br />
    3. 3. “Hypertext and Critical Theory”Hypertext 3.0, Ch. 2<br />George Landow<br />English and Art History<br />Brown University<br />
    4. 4. Derrida<br />Bush<br />Barthes<br />Nelson<br />Foucault<br />Baudrillard<br />
    5. 5. Bakhtin<br />
    6. 6. Where is Julia Kristeva?<br />“Perhaps the most obvious theory that hypertext embodies and makes explicit is Julia Kristeva's (1986) notions of intertextuality: Kristeva, influenced by the work of Bakhtin, charts a three-dimensional textual space whose three "coordinates of dialogue" are the writing subject, the addressee (or ideal reader), and exterior texts; she describes this textual space as intersecting planes which have horizontal and vertical axes …”<br />See<br />(An abandoned site on teaching hypertext)<br />
    7. 7. Some Framing Questions<br />Why is the relationship important?<br /> Helps us understand the affordances of the medium, for better or for worse<br />Is postmodern critical theory worth fighting for?<br />If so, can hypertext and hypermedia technologies pull it off?<br />If not, can they go in another direction?<br />
    8. 8. Brief introduction to structuralism<br />
    9. 9. The Semantic Triangle. From C. K. Ogden and I. A. Richards, The Meaning of Meaning: A Study of the Influence of Language upon Thought and of the Science of Symbolism, 1923.<br />
    10. 10. From Saussure, Ferdinand, Course in general linguistics, 1966 [1916].  <br />Saussure: signs are self-sufficient <br />(No need for reference)<br />
    11. 11.
    12. 12. From Saussure, Ferdinand, Course in general linguistics, 1966 [1916].  <br />Communication is the exchange of signs<br />
    13. 13. Communication = audition/phonation<br />
    14. 14. From Shannon, Claude E. “A Mathematical Theory of Communication,” Bell Systems Technical Journal 27 (1948): 379-423 and 623–656.  <br />Information Theory proves this<br />Communication = coding/decoding<br />
    15. 15. If reference is not meaning, then what is?<br />
    16. 16. Semantic network of word BITTER<br />
    17. 17. The linguistic analogy<br />meaning as structure as a system of differences<br />
    18. 18. Basis of culture is in the codenot the discourse (e.g. the writing, not the books)<br />Code = rules and elements for creating patterns = ‘reality’<br />
    19. 19. Pomo concepts realized by hypertext<br /> The Nature of Text<br />Code<br />Lexia<br />Readerly text<br />Open text (metatext)<br />Intertextual<br />Multivocal<br />De-centered text<br />Virtual text<br />Network …<br /> Networks<br />Are non-linear<br />As links, forking paths, a web, a matrix<br />Of lexia, documents, domputers, everything<br />Docuverse or Babel?<br />= Hyper = “above” <br />The network is “above” the text<br />As “natural” (brain, gene, immune system, etc.)<br />
    20. 20. Paul Baran, “Introduction to Distributed Communications Network," 1964 <br />
    21. 21. What are some of the effects of hypertext?<br />
    22. 22. Intertextuality:from history to structure<br />… replaces the evolutionary model of literary history with a structural or synchronic model of literature as a sign system. The most salient effect of this strategic change is to free the literary text from psychological, sociological, and historical determinisms, opening it up to an apparently infinite play of relationships.<br />
    23. 23. The Writerly Text:Death of the author, God<br />… is a perpetual present, upon which no consequent language (which would inevitably make it past) can be superimposed; the writerly text is ourselves writing, before the infinite play of the world (the world as function) is traversed, intersected, stopped, plasticized by some singular system (Ideology, Genus, Criticism) which reduces the plurality of entrances, the opening of networks, the infinity of languages. (Barthes, S/Z, p. 5)<br />
    24. 24.
    25. 25. The Victorian Web<br />
    26. 26.
    27. 27. Exercise: Victorian Web Review<br />Break up into groups and review the Victorian Web in terms of critical hypertext theory<br />Group A: How writerly is the site?<br />Group B: What is the structure of the site?<br />Group C: How would you improve the interactivity of the site?<br />Group D: How would you improve the navigation of the site?<br />
    28. 28. Questions <br />Does the site contain lexias?<br />What is the network structure of the site?<br />Does the site exhibit any postmodern traits?<br />Intertextuality, multivocality, de-centeredness, etc.<br />
    29. 29. HyperLand<br />A documentary on hypermedia created just as Tim Berners-Lee is inventing the World Wide Web<br />
    30. 30. Hyperland Index<br />14:30 Nelson on Xanadu<br />17:10 The shape of music<br />21:43 The shape of stories<br />24:00 Guernica<br />
    31. 31. Picasso, Guernica, 1937<br />
    32. 32. Key ideas<br />Characteristics of digital representation<br />Shapes of music and stories<br />Character (adjusting the agents characteristics)<br />Agents as filters<br />Guernica<br />Form and content of a hypermedia work<br />Picasso’s art as hypertext<br />How does Hyperland compare to the web we have?<br />
    33. 33. Student-generated Stuff<br />Poetics of reuse<br />Anticipated by HT theorists?<br />Lasting effect of HT on what counts as knowledge work?<br />“Many professors seem to brush aside the use of technology assuming it distracts from the authentic nature of their work. Yet those who have chosen to embrace technology, the way Father Busa did, will discover new pathways, a new staircase in Borges’ library.”<br />“I am the interpreter.”<br />