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Process of building Reference Ontology for Higher Education
 

Process of building Reference Ontology for Higher Education

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This is our presentation at International Conference of Data Mining and Knowledge Engineering "ICDMKE 13'" held at London, UK, 03-05 July 2013. the paper is available at: ...

This is our presentation at International Conference of Data Mining and Knowledge Engineering "ICDMKE 13'" held at London, UK, 03-05 July 2013. the paper is available at: http://www.iaeng.org/publication/WCE2013/WCE2013_pp1595-1600.pdf

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    Process of building Reference Ontology for Higher Education Process of building Reference Ontology for Higher Education Presentation Transcript

    • The 2013 International Conference of Data Mining and Knowledge Engineering, ICDMKE'13 3-5 July, 2013, London, U.K. Process of Building Reference Ontology for Higher Education Leila ZEMMOUCHI-GHOMARI, l_ghomari@umbb.dz UMBB, M’hamed Bouguerra University Boumèrdes, www.umbb.dz Boumèrdes, ALGERIA & Abdessamed Réda GHOMARI, a_ghomari@esi.dz LMCS Laboratory ESI, national Superior School of Computer Science, www.esi.dz Algiers, ALGERIA
    • OUTLINE Introduction  Reference Ontology  University Ontologies  Ontology Building Process   Selected Scenarios  Building phases Ontology Evaluation o Structural Evaluation o Functional Evaluation o  ICMKE'13 London, UK  Usability Issues Conclusion 2
    • INTRODUCTION Context: Semantic Web Issue: ontology applications specifity  Weak use and ICMKE'13 London, UK Reuse Proposition: Use of Reference ontology instead of Domain or Application ontology Case Study: Reference Ontology for Higher Education knowledge Domain Main Purpose: Explain the Process of Building a Reference Ontology for a given Domain 3
    • REFERENCE ONTOLOGY Definition “ Domain Reference ontologies represent knowledge about a ICMKE'13 London, UK particular part of the world in a way that is independent from specific objectives, through a theory of the domain” [Burgun, 2006] Features [Ghomari & Ghomari, 2009]  Reference Ontology is a core ontology (central concepts)  Reference Ontology is a heavyweight ontology (rich axiomatic theory)  Reference ontology is consensual domain ontology (not an application ontology) 4
    • UNIVERSITY ONTOLOGIES Limitations University ontology (Heflin, Lehigh University, 2000) No inference rules are defined Univ-Bench ontology (Lehigh university, 2004) Intended to be a benchmark for performance evaluation of semantic web repositories AIISO, Academic Institution Internal Structure Ontology (Styles and Shabir, 2008) ICMKE'13 London, UK Ontology Focus on structural perspective of the university domain 5
    • ONTOLOGY BUILDING PROCESS HERO Ontology: Higher Education Reference Ontology (http://sourceforge.net/projects/heronto/?source=directory) ICMKE'13 London, UK Ontology engineering methodology: NeOn methodology (Networked ontologies) [Suarez-Figueroa & al, 2008] proposes nine (9) scenarios Selected Scenarios:  Development from scratch (scenario 1)  Reuse of non ontological resources (scenario 2) Classifications (eg: Carnegie Classification)  Academic reports, higher education websites   Reuse of ontological resources (scenario 3) 6
    • ONTOLOGY BUILDING PROCESS ICMKE'13 London, UK Building Phases: 1. Specification: Ontology Requirement Specification Document (ORSD): Purpose, Scope, Implementation Language, Intended End-Users, Intended Uses, Ontology Requirements: Competency Questions Technique [Gruninger & Fox, 1995] Five categories: [ACE, 2007]  Faculty, appointments and research area  Student and their life  Administration  Degrees and Curriculum Programs  Finance  Governance 7
    • CQ03. Must a university teacher be a researcher? CQ29.What is a campus? CQ33.What higher education admission criteria are required? 15 CQs 27 CQs CQ4. What is expected from university teachers? 4. Degrees and Curriculum Program University Domain competency questions ICMKE'13 London, UK CQ38.What roles and responsibilities have a dean? CQ53. What high education degrees exist? CQ55.How is organized the academic year? 1Faculty, appointments and research area 2. Students and their life 3. Administration 14 CQs CQ41.Why universities are organized into departments? 33 CQs CQ73. What average size and duration have governing board ? CQ76. What is the role of the accreditation? 6. Governance 11 CQs CQ77. Who are accreditors? 5. Finance 08CQs CQ74. What financial incomes have higher education institutions? 8
    • ONTOLOGY BUILDING PROCESS Specification (suite): Extraction of relevant terms from competency questions and their answers  Glossary of terms (nouns, verbs) ICMKE'13 London, UK 2. Conceptualization: organization of ontology entities with regard to each other by means of inetermediate representations (data dictionary, hierarchy of concepts, hierarchy of attributes and table of relations between concepts) 3. Formalization: restrictions on ontology primitives are defined and the ontology is generated in a formal language via the ontology editor (NeOn Toolkit) 9
    • ONTOLOGY BUILDING PROCESS Specification (suite): Extraction of relevant terms from competency questions and their answers  Glossary of terms (nouns, verbs) ICMKE'13 London, UK 2. Conceptualization: organization of ontology entities with regard to each other by means of inetermediate representations (data dictionary, hierarchy of concepts, hierarchy of attributes and table of relations between concepts) 3. Formalization: restrictions on ontology primitives are defined and the ontology is generated in a formal language via the ontology editor (NeOn Toolkit) 10
    • ONTOLOGY BUILDING PROCESS Specification (suite): Extraction of relevant terms from competency questions and their answers  Glossary of terms (nouns, verbs) ICMKE'13 London, UK <owl :Class rdf :about= »http://www.UniversityReferenceOntology.org/HERO#Laboratory »> <owl :equivalentClass> <owl :Restriction> 2. Conceptualization: organization of ontology entities <owl :onProperty rdf :resource= »http://www.UniversityReferenceOntology.org/HERO#Contains »/> with regard to each other by means of inetermediate <owl :onClass rdf :resource= »http://www.UniversityReferenceOntology.org/HERO#ResearchGroup »/> representations (data dictionary, hierarchy of concepts, <owl :minQualifiedCardinalityrdf :datatype=http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#nonNegativeInteger >1hierarchy of attributes and table of relations between </owl:minQualifiedCardinality> </owl:Restriction> concepts) 3. Formalization: restrictions on ontology primitives are defined and the ontology is generated in a formal language via the ontology editor (NeOn Toolkit) 11
    • ONTOLOGY EVALUATION Structural Evaluation: verification of consistency and coherence of the ontology via logical reasoners, such as: Pellet (PlugIns of ontology editors) 1. Functional Evaluation: « how well the ontology meets the requirements of the developers/the users ? » 1. Evaluation by domain experts: via an online questionnaire [Zemmouchi-Ghomari & Ghomari, 2013a] 2. 2. Evaluation via competency questions technique: translation of natural language competency questions into SPARQL queries, [Zemmouchi-Ghomari & Ghomari, 2013b] ICMKE'13 London, UK 1. Usability issues: depends on the level of annotation of the evaluated ontology. In the case of HERO ontology: 97 annotations (definitions, comments and labels) 12
    • CONCLUSION ICMKE'13 London, UK HERO Ontology has been built according to rigorous ontology building principles however it is not yet a reference ontology for higher education large consensus of domain experts not yet reached several evaluation rounds are necessary to improve the quality of the ontology Some recommendations in order to build a reference ontology for a given domain:  Give priority to reuse of available resources (non ontological and ontological)  Make emphasis on specification (knowledge acquisition) and evaluation (according to several perspectives) in the ontology engineering process 13
    • REFERENCES       ICMKE'13 London, UK  [ACE, 2007], ACE, American Council on Education, “A brief guide to us higher education system”, 2004. [Burgun, 2006], Burgun A., “Desiderata for domain reference ontologies in biomedicine”, Journal of Biomedical Information, Vol. 39, N° 3, 2006, pp. 307-313. [Ghomari & Ghomari, 2009], Zemmouchi-Ghomari L., Ghomari A. R., “Reference Ontology”, International IEEE Conference on Signal-Image Technologies and Internet-Based System, Marrakech, Morocco, 2009. [Gruninger & Fox, 1995], Gruninger M., Fox M. S., “Methodology for the design and evaluation of ontologies”, Workshop on Basic Ontological Issues in Knowledge Sharing, Montreal, Canada, 1995, pp. 6.1–6.10. [Suarez-Figueroa & al, 2008], Suarez-Figueroa M., Dellschaft K., Montiel-Ponsada E., Villazon-Terrazas B., Yufei Z., Agyado-Decea G, Garcia A., Fernandez-Lopez M., Gomez-Perez A., Espinoza, Sabou M., “NeOn Methodology for Building Contextualized Ontology Networks”, (NeOn Deliverable D5.4.1.), FP7 NeOn Project, 2008. [Zemmouchi-Ghomari & Ghomari, 2013a], Zemmouchi-Ghomari L., Ghomari A. R., “A New Approach for Human Assessment of Ontologies”, the third international conference of information systems and technologies, ICIST’2013, Tangier, Morocco, 2013. [Zemmouchi-Ghomari & Ghomari, 2013b], Zemmouchi-Ghomari L., Ghomari A. R., “Translating Natural Language Competency Questions into SPARQL Queries: a Case Study”, The First International Conference on Building and Exploring Web Based Environments, Seville, Spain, 2013. 14
    • QUESTIONS & COMMENTS ARE WELCOME ICMKE'13 London, UK THANK YOU l_ghomari@umbb.dz 15