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Dr. katrin deinhardt   home of memories and more – discovering the wonder world of the healthy brain - iw cafe scientifique
 

Dr. katrin deinhardt home of memories and more – discovering the wonder world of the healthy brain - iw cafe scientifique

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The speaker will be Dr. Katrin Deinhardt, Lecturer in Neuroscience, Centre for Biological Sciences, Southampton. ...

The speaker will be Dr. Katrin Deinhardt, Lecturer in Neuroscience, Centre for Biological Sciences, Southampton.

The title for her talk is “Home of memories and more – discovering the wonder world of the healthy brain” Katrin will discuss some general facts and properties of the brain, and of “memory”, and talk about big challenges and recent advances in trying to understand it.

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    Dr. katrin deinhardt   home of memories and more – discovering the wonder world of the healthy brain - iw cafe scientifique Dr. katrin deinhardt home of memories and more – discovering the wonder world of the healthy brain - iw cafe scientifique Presentation Transcript

    • The wonderworld of the healthy brain Dr Katrin Deinhardt University of Southampton
    • http://www.iflscience.com/categories/brain
    • Image courtesy of the National Institute on Aging/National Institutes of Health
    • The human brain in numbers • ~1.4 kg (~2% of the total body weight) • 1011 (100,000,000,000) individual nerve cells • 1014-1015 (1,000,000,000,000,000) connections • Estimates of storage capacity vary from 10- 1000 terrabytes • In comparison: The entire collection of the US Library of Congress is estimated at 10tb
    • Ramon y Cajal The beginnings..
    • Current initiatives to explore the (human) brain • The Blue Brain Project: http://bluebrain.epfl.ch/ • The Human Connectome: http://www.humanconnectomeproject.org/ http://www.humanconnectome.org/ • The Brain Initiative: http://www.nih.gov/science/brain/ http://www.kavlifoundation.org/brain-initiative
    • The Blue Brain Project • Aim : building a virtual brain in a supercomputer • Challenge : each simulated neuron requires a computing power equivalent to that of an average laptop • Benefit : the ability to simulate how changes in one brain area affect the entire network
    • • Started in 2002 • Developed a realistic model of a rat cortical column (a “building block” of the cortex; ~10,000 nerve cells) with ca 50 different neuronal subtypes by 2006
    • The Human Connectome Project • Aim : to generate a wiring diagram of the living human brain (structural and functional) • Challenge : to access the brain without causing damage • Benefit : to gain an understanding of pathways underlying behaviour
    • • Since 2010 • 1200 healthy individuals • Imaging techniques: – hardwiring: resting functional MRI, diffusion imaging – function: functional MRI; MEG/EEG on 100 individuals – general shape: structural MRI
    • Diffusion imaging Images courtesy of: http://humanconnectome.org
    • Images courtesy of: http://humanconnectomeproject.org
    • Functional MRI: listening to a story (yellow/red), and performing math (blue/green) Images courtesy of: http://humanconnectome.org
    • Structural MRI Images courtesy of: http://humanconnectome.org
    • …put together: Images courtesy of: http://humanconnectome.org
    • The Brain Initiative • Aim : “To revolutionise our understanding of the human brain” “to accelerate the development and application of new technologies that will enable researchers to produce dynamic pictures of the brain that show how individual brain cells and complex neural circuits interact at the speed of thought” • Challenge : Current technologies are limited • Benefits : better basic understanding of brain function to develop treatments for brain disease
    • • Launched 2013 • Promotes new technologies and interdisciplinary research (engineering, informatics, biology etc) • Brings together initiatives such as the connectome, the Allan Institute
    • “new technologies” – what can we do today in model organisms?
    • Some commonly used model organisms in numbers: • C.elegans (roundworm): 302 neurons, ~5,000 synapses • D.melanogaster (fruitfly): ~100,000 neurons, ~10,000,000 synapses • M.musculus (mouse): ~71,000,000 neurons, ~100,000,000,000 synapses • R.norvegicus (rat): ~200,000,000 neurons, ~450,000,000,000
    • Ramon y Cajal
    • Livet et al, Nature 2007 Imaging all nerve cells: The “brainbow” mouse
    • “Clarity” Chung et al, Nature 2013
    • Chung et al, Nature 2013
    • …and we can watch and manipulate live: “optogenetics” • Sensors: Chameleon (Ca2+), Mermaid (voltage) • Manipulators: Light-activated channels switch nerve cells “on” or “off”
    • So what is my specific interest? To understand how an individual nerve cell functions: working with large distances and complicated shapes
    • Long-range logistics: Transport
    • Local decisions: to grow or not to grow?
    • Local decisions: to grow or not to grow?
    • Finally… …a great website for good “brain-related” info: https://www.dana.org/ (also the neuroscience societies: BNA, FENS, SfN)