Commercial farming of jatropha curcas<br />Presented by:<br />Syed Arif Ali shah (7922)<br />Sumera Wali (7220)<br />Nayani Nisha (4740)<br />Sumayya siddiqui (11084)<br />Syed Ali Mujtabba<br />OUTLINE FOR OUR BUSINESS PLAN<br />
A: NAME AND ADDRESS OF BUSINESS:<br /> Business is a commercial activity engaged in as a means of income or profit, or an entity which engages in such activities. And to run with activities a person start with a small business and passes through different stages. Initially business start with entrepreneurial stage in which person comes with or emphasis on creating a new product with assuming risks and rewards to capture and build a place to survive in the market. <br /> So keeping all the factors in the mind we four entrepreneurs going to start a business for the sake to fulfill the needs of the consumers and to serve the mankind with providing an pollution free environment and stop environmental pollutions which is now a days a main issue for global warming. We are going to start a commercial farming of seed jatropha curcas, starting with the business name of X-Jatropha, Situated with whole setup at Thatta.<br />B: NAME AND ADDRESS OF PRINCIPALS:<br /> Five main partners concerning with the X-Jatropha is:<br />
Syed Arif Ali Shah
Arif is a very task oriented, proactive, diligent and hardworking Entrepreneur. He has his own unique style of doing things in a profound manner. He is very dedicated, also possesses the courage to take calculated risks, He is determined and always willing to face challenges with a positive and immense professional attitude. Dealing with operational plan of X-jatropha. Arif brings tons of experiences. He has worked previously as a self employed Entrepreneur for a personal business. He himself was the originator of the business idea and also engineered innovative strategies. On the basis of his previous technical experiences the boards of directors have nominated him as chief of operations, and are confident in his capacity to look after the essentials of the venture.<br />
Sumera is doing her academic qualification in the business administrative program. She builds her unique capabilities with energy, passion, soul, integrity, humor and flexibility. Her interests are to work on innovative things and to come up with better solutions for future growth of her challenges that comes in her way.Her work in X-Jatropha is to make marketing objectives, strategies and activities to be followed in the company. Finding marketing opportunities and threats for X-jatropha and make our strength to be our opportunity for having a largest share in the agriculture industry. Doing competitor analysis for market control and forecast including with all other major works of marketing.
Nisha has a natural flare for people and is always keen to talk to them. Her strength lies in her ability to understand the demands and aspirations of businesses approaching us as customers, not only enabling her to cultivate mutually beneficial interactions with clients but also preserving this fruitful relationship. Working also for the marketing head of X-jatropha.
Sumayya leads the supply chain division. X-Jatropha is an innovative business venture and this is where her understanding of the demands of the business, ability to work under varying workloads and alternating deadlines comes at play. Her strong academic background, diverse experience portfolio and sharp acumen make her a successful manager responsible for the critical supply chain management function of the company.
As Chief Financial Officer of X-Jatropha, play an active role in the financial/strategic planning of the company, including fund raising and financial activities, with strong business partner for the company and member of the X-Jatropha team. With our team, I am operationally responsible for all the financial and control related issues and processes. <br />C: NATURE OF BUSINESS:<br />“The nature of business is to explore for sustainable and renewable fuel which has taken us to look at the natural products for energy production. Among all the crops and fruits, evaluated Jatropha seeds present itself as one of the most viable source for the production of bio-diesel”<br />
The search for sustainable and renewable fuel has taken us to look at the natural products for energy production. Among all the crops and fruits, evaluated Jatropha seeds present itself as one of the most viable source. Jatropha is a drought, frost and pest resistant plant. The seed of the plant can be pressed to extract a clean and a renewable energy known as ‘Bio Diesel’. <br />Through this report we present the feasibility of planting Jatropha on marginal lands and saline lands which make part of our country, seed of which can be used to produce bio-diesel. With this implemented we seek the country to be self sufficient on its energy. Furthermore, the project includes secondary benefits for the under employment of labor in Pakistan. <br />The business is to lease 100 acres of land in Thatta and plant Jatropha saplings. Our goal is to become the industry leader in the production, marketing, and sale of Jatropha seeds, and position Jatropha as the dominant bio fuel. By cultivating these energy-producing plants, processing them and finally producing biodiesel, we are creating new sources of income for the rural farmers. We apply best of our knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to a broad range of activities to meet the requirements of the Jatropha project.<br />
A: FUTURE OUTLOOK AND TRENDS:<br />The progress of mankind is fuelled, with energy extracted from different sources, the progress is inevitable, and the need for energy ever growing, at present with the residing economic downturns, and the rising issues of global warming, the search for cleaner and economical fuel has intensified, which is the same we propose. According to the report of the Oil Companies Advisory Committee (OCAC) dated June 8, 2008, Pakistan consumes around 8 million tons of diesel and 7.2 million tons of furnace oil per year. Around 9 million tons of diesel and furnace oil is imported. The emissions of gases from burning of these fuels have adversely affected the environment. Pakistan is a low green house gas (GHG) emitting country contributing 0.43% of the world’s total emissions (35th in world’s ranking). However, the low GHG emission status of the country provides no safety from the adverse effects of global climate change. Pakistan being an agricultural based economy, lying in arid and semi-arid region, with heavy dependence on irrigated agriculture, is highly vulnerable to climate change. Hence, there is a need for cleaner and sustainable sources of energy. Renewable/ Alternative energy offers our planet a chance to reduce carbon emissions, clean the air, and put our civilization on a more sustainable footing.<br />Sustainable production of bio fuel presents an opportunity to reduce reliance on imported oil, save foreign reserves, reduce poverty and unemployment. This will also stimulate rural development in areas with acute poverty and enhance access to renewable commercial energy. With the cultivation of Jatropha for bio-fuel the country would be able to save as much as $150 million in foreign exchange for every hectares of Jatropha cultivated in Pakistan. We are an agrarian economy therefore production of Biodiesel by utilizing our agricultural land we can strengthen our energy sector and empower the farmers. We can attain energy security through domestic cultivation and processing of bio fuel crops.<br />B: COMPETITOR ANALYSIS:<br />Commercial farming of Jatropha has not yet been practiced, PSO, has taken the initiative to create model farms of Jatropha to prove its viability and to create awareness. The rising oil prices, coupled with depleting energy sources and the negative environmental impacts calls for a cleaner, renewable and cheap fuel. Jatropha is a clean low emission fuel since it does not contain sulfur. It burns better than diesel and at the same power output, Jatropha oil consumption and efficiencies are higher than diesel fuel. It gives better results due to high oxygen content when compared with Gasoline (Petrol). Tests show that out of various vegetable oils; palm, groundnut, cottonseed, rapeseed, soy and sunflower, the lowest exhaust gas emissions were obtained with Jatropha crude oils. Jatropha’s cost of production is lower compared with other petroleum based products. The properties of mineral diesel and bio-diesel are similar. As a result bio-diesel can be stored in same tanks, dispensers and used in same engines as mineral diesel. Compared to petroleum diesel, bio-diesel is environment friendly, has higher Cetane value (51) against Diesel (48), has better lubrication properties and cleans engines. The energy needed to produce jatropha oil is less than 10 percent of the oil obtained. Since Jatropha can be produced inexpensively, it can be sold at prices lower than gasoline.<br />C: MARKET SEGMENTATION:<br />The world is tiresome of the adversities fossil fuel has caused for its environment; in this age with economies touching the floors, developing nations have intensified the search of economical and renewable fuel. Rape seed, Corn and other such crops have been tried as an energy source but they have failed to impress because of low efficiency. In contrast Jatropha seeds has passed all such tests and proved its worth as a very economical and cleaner energy source. Therefore, the demand is immense, as we enter into a period threatened by climatic changes and depleting resources. In Pakistan PSO has taken the initiative and set its eyes on marketing B20 by 2011. To reach the same goal Pakistan State Oil currently is seeking farmers who could sell Jatropha seeds to them, which they can further process to produce the final product of Bio-Diesel. Apart from PSO the other oil manufacturing concerns will also certainly follow the trend and shift to this natural resource; hence the market for the product is new with great avenues for growth. For a business like ours consumer relation is of highest importance therefore our marketing efforts will seek to create better service for the costumers. <br /> To position Jatropha to make way in to the Pakistani Oil Stream, we would seek the commitment of Opinion Leaders. Opinion leaders are change agents and active media users. However, since we will specialize in the production and farming of Jatropha – to generate raw materials required for Bio Fuel, we will not experience the need to market our product. The oil manufacturing concerns, who would create the demand for Jatropha seeds, will be our sole buyers<br />D: INDUSTRY AND MARKET FORECASTS:<br />According to the goals set by the Government of Pakistan, Pakistan should enforce B-20 (20% Bio-Diesel, 80% Diesel) by 2011. Pakistan State Oil has already set up a model Jatropha farm at Pipri, Sind which provides us ample proof that plants can grow very well in local conditions and climate. Therefore, based on our agricultural traditions, strong research capacity with ideal rainfall and availability of unused marginal lands as well as available unemployed workforce, it is ideal to cultivate this energy generating crop in the areas of interior Sind, Baluchistan and some parts of Punjab. Various farms with Jatropha plantations were visited in the interior of Sind. Farmers were found quite enthusiastic about the cultivation of this crop on their land for the exclusive purpose of producing raw material (seeds) for the produce of Biodiesel<br />
DESCRIPTION OF VENTURE
A: PRODUCT/SERVICES:<br />Jatropha- The Wonder Plant <br /> <br />Jatropha is drought, frost and pest resistant and can be grown almost anywhere; in sandy, saline, barren or infertile soil and is non edible (avoids food crisis). It grows up to 6-10 feet and is easy to propagate as it grows quickly and establishes itself and naturally repels both animals and insects. It lives for over 50 years, if maintained well, and doesn’t exhaust the nutrients in the land; neither requires any expensive crop rotation nor fertilizers. A high yielding crop can yield about 1000 barrels of oil per year per square mile. The yield per crop increases every year and can reach up to 8 – 10 kgs. After five years. The oil content in a seed is about 37 percent and the remainder results in useful byproducts such as glycerin and fertilizers. Seed cake of jatropha is an organic fertilizer or can be briquetted for use as fuel. It will create rural employment (1 job per 2 hectare). Moreover the crop safeguards the land from eroding, combats with desertification and landslides and is capable of stabilizing sand dunes. Farmer economics show that annual profits earned by farmers will be higher on Jatropha cultivation than on any other crops. Jatropha's ability to grow on marginal, waste or arid land and to produce energy crop without displacing food crops, that is, perhaps of most potential importance to us, particularly as we face the affects of climate change. Pakistan has large areas of poor quality land (more than 80 million acres); ideal for the cultivation of this energy crop, so growing Jatropha would not divert land away from growing vital food crops. And the ability to inter crop would generate extra revenue<br />B: SIZE OF BUSINESS:<br />Setting up a Jatropha farm would not require a corporate structure, but instead just like any other farming operation local farmers would be required on the farm. A model farm of 100 acres, on which we have based our forecasts, will require six full time farmers, whose job would be to look after the farm, water the plant, pick the weeds and harvest in the harvesting season. An agriculturist will also be required on the farm who will manage the plants for its complete economic life. <br />The agriculturist will be equipped, and will have experience, about the soil science, fertility, conservation and weed/ pest control. The agriculturist will also assist us in implementing of short & long term strategies to boost growth and consultation for Intercropping. In the harvesting seasons 6 extra workers can be hired on the basis of daily wages to help in plucking, sorting and packing of the fruit. As a sum the farm would require 6 full time farmers which can be hired at a wage rate of PKR 3,000 /- a month. The Agriculturist required can be hired for PKR 6,000 /- a<br />Month, whereas seasonal workers hired in the harvesting season can be paid on the basis of PKR/ 300 daily. The salaries are expected to rise at 5% per year.<br />PostNo of men requiredSalaryTotal yearly costAgriculturist1PKR 6,000 /-PKR 72,000 /-Farmers6PKR 3,000 /-PKR 216,000 /-Seasonal workers6PKR 300 per dayPKR 54,000 /-<br />
Harvesting would be done at the end of the year. The yield of Jatropha increases with the age of the plant and so does the income of the farmer. After the harvesting the seeds are sorted and packed and temporarily stored at the shed. The yield for the first five years is as follows:
YEAR 1YEAR 2YEAR 3YEAR 4YEAR 5YIELD/PLANTKG0.5026810NO. OF PLANTS 1E+05135000135000135000135000YIELD/YEARSEEDS/KG6750027000081000010800001350000<br />MANUFACTURING PROCESS:<br />Preparation of landHarvesting Extraction and packaging of seedsArrangement of saplingsSelling of seeds to the clientsAcquisition of land<br />B: NAMES OF SUPPLIERS OF RAW MATERIALS:<br />P-S-O: Pakistan State Oil would be our partner in progress: Initially we will acquire the seeds from them. As Pakistan State Oil has taken an initiative towards alternate fuels by launching a pilot project for production of Bio Diesel. For the purpose the PSO has developed a Jatropha Model Farm at Marshalling Yard, Pipri, and Karachi.<br />
Operations:<br />The operation starts by acquisition of land, its preparation/ irrigation system, simultaneously saplings are arranged. After a year from plantation the fruit will be harvested and seeds will be extracted from the fruit. The seed would then be sorted and packed. The seed would be temporarily stored in the store from where these would be picked by the client. The flow chart of the process is as illustrated as follows.<br />
Preparation of Land:
The preparation of land would include cleaning of shrubs and leveling the land. Planting of Jatropha does not require any advance techniques of preparation of land. The cost for land preparation is one time.<br />
The tree is fast in growth and as such there is no difficulty experienced in the management and planting of the tree. The land should be prepared during the dry season, such that the seedlings can be planted during the rainy season. The main stem of the plant should be cut once the tree is 1m tall. This will lead to increased branching of the tree. The more branches a plant has, the higher the production of fruits and therefore more seeds. Every year, branches grow near the base, and these should be removed and replanted elsewhere. It is very important to cut the tree in time and keep it in proper shape. The plant would be planted through saplings imported from India at a C&F cost of PKR 15 /- per sapling. Total of 1,350 plants can be cultivated in an acre of land.<br />
Flowering and Fruit Development
The plants once established after planting grow vigorously and the first flowers are produced in 8 months of maturity of the plant. Flowering occurs during the rainy seasons and the plant flowers twice a year. The fruits mature 2-3 months after flowering. The tree is deciduous (sheds its leaves off during the dry season) such that it remains leafless. The fruits have three seeds and they mature when the nut (fruits) changes from green to yellow after two to three months of maturity. The nut split when mature and dries to release the seeds. The seeds are black/greyish and thin shelled when mature. The seeds should be collected when they are mature, that is, when the fruits have changed from green to yellow from the tree. They should be picked from the tree not when they have opened and released from the fruit (nuts), no ground collection. <br />4 Building & Shed<br />This project does not require any major building structure. Only a small room for storage purpose is required. A maximum of 10’x10’ room is enough, along with a shed for the farmers.<br />5 Farm Fixtures & Tools<br />Basic farm tools and fixtures would include tools for pruning the plants, picking the fruit, and removing leaves, etc. Besides these tools, other fixtures are required including clean water hand pump, tables, tubs, wooden crates and fans. Total capital requirement for all these items is Rs 40,000. All items would be Pakistan made and are easily available.<br />
A: POSITIONING:<br />To position our jatropha seeds we make way in to the Pakistani oil stream like PSO, shell and all other petroleum sectors. We would seek the commitment of opinion leaders. Opinion leaders are change agent and active media users. However, since we will specialize in the production and farming of jatropha- to generate raw materials required for Bio-fuel, we will not experience the need to market our product.<br />B: DISTRIBUTION:<br />As per B2B business we will directly distribute the jatropha seeds to our targeted businesses, and the oil manufacturing concerns that create the demand for jatropha seeds will be our sole buyers.<br />C: PRICING:<br />We have set cost per sapling at Rs / 15.<br />D: PRODUCT FORECASTS AND CONTROLS:<br />
Low cost of land because the land used is marginal and/or un-productive (Saline)
Work in X-Jatropha is to make marketing objectives, strategies and activities to be followed in the company.
Finding marketing opportunities and threats for X-jatropha and make our strength to be our opportunity for having a largest share in the agriculture industry.
Doing competitor analysis for market control and forecast including with all other major works of marketing.
Ability to understand the demands and aspirations of businesses approaching us as customers, not only enabling to cultivate mutually beneficial interactions with clients but also preserving this fruitful relationship.
Firm belief in the success of the undertaken ventures and the vision of the means towards this end make a valuable asset for the company.
Being a commercial undeveloped fuel, the product needs innovative and extensive marketing strategies targeted towards not only the Oil Manufacturing Concerns in Pakistan but the international market as well.
Sumayya Siddiqui:<br />
Lead the supply chain division, X-Jatropha is an innovative business venture and this is where her understanding of the demands of the business, ability to work under varying workloads and alternating deadlines comes at play.
Make diverse experience portfolio and sharp acumen to make a successful manager responsible for the critical supply chain management function of the company.
Syed Ali Mujtabba:<br />Setting up and managing the financial planning process, determining the financial needs, cash management and monitoring adverse effect of rates; <br />Setting up and implementing the Business Control System; <br />Ensuring that the financial reporting and planning for the business is reliable, timely and effective while also taking proper consideration of short to medium term risk and business needs; <br />Initiating and preparing the (yearly) budgets and (quarterly) forecasts; <br />Preparing the monthly and annual (internal and external) financial reports and analysis; <br />Completing all financial activities on time and processing all financial information of the company; <br />Judging commercial initiatives and decisions on their financial impact; <br />Supervising the profitability and advising on the pricing of our product; <br />Advising on strategic decisions and business planning; <br />The necessary accounting controls with regard to the financial data in the Business Control and Financial systems; <br />Managing contacts with the bank, tax collectors office, salary administration, subsidy agencies and external accountants; <br />
Preparing and executing tax declarations like V.A.T., Corporate Income Tax
C: MANAGEMENT TEAM BACKGROUND:<br />As per cultivating jatropha seeds we need simple structure initially and other functions will be handle by five of us as we starting with the simple structure by centralizing all the work making standardization for labors so avoid them from any arbitrary actions with providing fair benefits to all labors equally and treating all as a same while resolving issues is come up with any. So that clarity in lines of authority, rules and duties are clearly defined and to be accountable for the decisions which are made. The decision authority would be taken by Mr. arif who is the CEO and operations manager as well he will delegated decision authority among four as well while consider all four of us decisions and come up with best solution which will be implied if any issues come to our ways.<br /> <br />
COSTING:<br />SAPPLING Land Area100Acer Cost per sapling15Rs Sappling/acre1200 Total Sappling120000 Total Cost of Sappling1800000 HARI Hari Employed6 Salary/Month6500Rs Total Salary(Yearly) 468000 SEASONAL HARI EXPENSE Additional Hari6 Daily wages300 Additional Expenses1800 Agriculturist12000Per month Agriculturist 144000 Salaries per annum 613800 Year 1 sappling1620000 Year 2 sappling180000 IRRIGATION SYSTEMRS Drip Farming System50000 Maintenance/Year5000 Tube Well80000 Maintenance8000 Buildings120000 Farm fixture and Tools40000 Fertilizer1200000 Electricity Charges60000 Total Maintenance73000 RSLEASE AMOUT15000000FOR 30 YEARSPER Year500000<br />COST OF PRODUCTION:<br /> FINANCIAL YR 1FINANCIAL YR 2FINANCIAL YR 3FINANCIAL YR 4 COST OF PRODUCTION Lease/Yr500000500000500000500000 Sappling Opening1,620,0001,822,5001,822,5001,822,500 Ending-BS1,620,0001,822,5001,822,5001,822,500 Building Opening1200001080009600084000 Depreciation12000120001200012000 Ending-BS108000960008400072000 Farm Fixture Opening40000360003200028000 Depreciation4000400040004000 Ending-BS36000320002800024000 Tubewell Opening80,00077,33374,66671,999 Depreciation2667266726672667 Ending-BS77,33374,66671,99969,332 Drip Farming System Opening50000450004000035000 Depreciation5000500050005000 Ending-BS45000400003500030000 <br /> CASH FLOWS: Year 1Year 2Year 3Year 4 Cash276200 Total cost of invesment3973785 Loan1800000 Equity2173785 Fertilizerr1200000138576016002761847998 Operation and Maintenance730008430097350112420Salaries613800708816818541945251 Yield/Plantkg0.5268 No. of Plants120000120000120000120000Yield/Yearseeds/kg60000240000720000960000 Selling Price(seed)Rs/kg1011.513.315.4 Revenue from Sale600,0002,771,5209,601,65414,783,987 Longterm loans Beginning1800000162000014400001260000Current maturity180000180000180000180000Ending - BS Figure1620000144000012600001080000Interest payments345085345085345085345085 Cash Opening3,973,785-450,600-1,085,5424,974,860Additions600,0002,771,5209,601,65414,783,987Expenditure5,024,3853,406,4623,541,2523,930,755Closing -450,600-1,085,5424,974,86015,828,091<br />INCOME STATEMENT:<br /> Year 1Year 2Year 3Year 4 Sales600,0002,771,5209,601,65414,783,987 less: Cost of goods sold Salaries613800708816818541945251 Fertilisers1200000138576016002761847998 Loss on sapplings202500 Depreciation -Sappling Depreciation -Tubewell2667266726672667 Depreciation -Drip Farming Sys5000500050005000 TOTAL2023967210224324264842800916 Less: Admin expenses Lease500000500000500000500000 Operation and main expenses730008430097350112420 Interest on loan345085.41345085.4345085.4345085.41 Depreciation -Building12000120001200012000 Depreciation -Farm fixture4000400040004000 TOTAL434085.41445385.4458435.4473505.41 TOTAL EXPENSES2458052.4254762828849193274421.4 GROSS PROFIT-2,358,052-276,1086,216,73511,009,566 TAX @ 17%001,056,8451,871,626 Net (Loss) / profit-2,358,052-276,1085,159,8909,137,939 PROFIT OR LOSS WILL BE EQUALLY DISTRIBUTED TO ALL THE PATNERS<br />BALANCE SHEET:<br /> Year 1Year 2Year 3Year 4 FIXED ASSETS Opening1,620,0001,822,5001,822,5001,822,500 Depreciation 1,620,0001,822,5001,822,5001,822,500 Building Opening1200001080009600084000 Depreciation12000120001200012000 108000960008400072000 Farm Fixture Opening40000360003200028000 Depreciation4000400040004000 36000320002800024000 Tubewell Opening80,00077,33374,66671,999 Depreciation2667266726672667 77,33374,66671,99969,332 Drip Farming System Opening50000450004000035000 Depreciation5000500050005000 45000400003500030000 TOTAL FIXED ASSETS1,886,3332,065,1662,041,4992,017,832 CURRENT ASSETS CASH IN HANDS4506001,085,5424,974,86015,828,091 TOTAL ASSETS1,435,733979,6257,016,36617,84,925 LONG TERM LIABILITY1,620,001,440,0001,260,0001,080,000 TOTAL EQUITY 1,435,733979,6257,016,36617,84,925 <br />`<br />
ASSESMENT OF RISKS
A: NEW TECHNOLOGIES:<br />We will update our self by making are self little flexible but keeping the same standardization technique, with this flexibility we can achieve the new technologies and innovations and also adopt uncertainty if we come up with in the environment. Adopting new technologies if come up with any new innovation in agriculture sector and train our labors to handle with the new equipments.<br />B: CONTINGENCY PLAN:<br />
If the jatropha seeds are less demanded by the OMC sectors than we will utilize our land in some other agriculture products
Can do cattle farming as well with this piece of land.