Goal = A Sustainable “Slum Free Delhi”
Previous Policy = Inferences; Failures
Current Policies = Issues, Limitations
Proposed Strategy = Democratic Self-screening
= No Future Slums, if we
ROADMAPS . . . = Implementation of Various
Land Ownership of Current Slum Locations:
S.No. Name of the L.O.A. No. of JJ Cluster No. of Jhuggie in Lacs
1 DDA 425 1.80
2 Railways 80 0.60
3 L&DO and CPWD 60 0.49
4 NDMC 35 0.20
5 MCD 25 0.20
6 Slum & JJ Deptt. 80 0.40
7 Others : PWD, I&F, P&T, Delhi Govt. and Central Govt. 125 0.40
8 Cantonment Area 15 0.10
9 Gram Sabha 15 0.10
Total 860 4.20
Source: MCD Survey
Previous Govt. Policy
Some In-situ Upgradation
Provision of some basic amenities
Previous Strategy I: Forced Relocation to Outskirts of City
Issue 1: Spatial and social integration into the larger urban community.
Leads to further poverty:
People relocated far from place of work,
additional expense on travel.
Informal employment by other household
members & women stopped, as no high-
income households or commercial hubs in
Children have no future:
Limited resources available for children.
Lack of good quality education
The above often forces people to move
back into an inner city slum - to be closer
to local employment and better amenities.
Source: Housing and Land Rights Network, Habitat International Coalition
Issue 2: Current large concentrations of low-income social ‘ghettos’ creating Social Stigma
Large concentrations of
low-income groups in one area:
Leads to “social stigma”, low self-esteem,
segregation, insecurity, dilapidation &
Lack of investment in civic amenities
and basic social infrastructure – these
areas often perpetuate unemployment,
lack of education, crime and very
unsanitary living conditions.
Seelampur, Delhi Seemapuri, Delhi
Sultanpuri, Mangolpuri – low income social ghettos of Delhi Image Source: The Tribune, India, 2006 Image Source: Mackenzie Berg, 2008
Issue 3: Climatic sensitivity and flexibility to socio-economic needs.
Inferences from Mumbai:
FAR-bonuses (instead of density-bonuses) lead to
developers dislocating the poor from inner cities and
getting undue benefits from subsidized land value sites.
New relocation colonies have extremely bad design which
compromises access to even fundamental amenities like
daylight and fresh air.
Image Source: Dheeraj Patil, 2008 Image Source: Dheeraj Patil, 2008
Inferences from Gurgaon:
20% reservation of dwelling units for low-income groups – failed to
provide sustainable housing due to illegal allotments and lack of
Management of housing – both ownership and rental - is critical to
Previous Strategy II: In-Situ Upgradation urban community.
Issue 1: Spatial and social integration into the larger
Good model – tenure
rights given to original
residents for self
upgradation over the
and good sewerage
facilities severely lacking.
Previous Strategy III: integration intobasic civic amenities
Issue 1: Spatial and social Provision of the larger urban community.
Anna Nagar Slum in ITO
and good sewerage
facilities severely lacking.
Too few toilets for
number of people being
Women do not like to use
People continue to
defecate in the open.
Maintenance is also
In-situ Upgradation In-situ RE-development
Criteria for • High density (>600 du/ha) • Low density (<600 du/ha) • All New area level
Selection: • High % of pucca houses • Is within 1000 M of high- plans should have
• People have already invested speed Public Transport. 55% low-income
a lot in their homes • Potential for Area level component with
• Infrastructure is partly or fully redevelopment or Urban cross-subsidization
existing Renewal and Redensification of services.
• No environmental or health exists.
hazards exist • No environmental or health
In-situ Upgradation – is the gradual self-construction or improvement of homes done by
the community themselves with minimal govt. support and through provision of basic social
and physical infrastructure services.
For in-situ up-gradation to happen, residents must be given secure tenure rights such that
they may not be uprooted and relocated at random.
In-situ upgradation may be applied to areas which meet the following thumb-rule criteria:
High density (~600 du/ha)
High % of pucca houses
People have already invested a lot in their homes
Infrastructure is partly or fully existing
No environmental or health hazards exist
Have good amenities, parks & public transport in community vicinity.
In-situ Redevelopment – is the process of redeveloping areas with current slum
settlements where new mixed-use mixed-income communities can be created with a viable
cross-subsidy model, which is a function of local land values, socio-economic needs and
general context of the area. For example, a commercial Mall may not be a viable cross-
subsidizing use of land in an area where the demand may actually be for high and middle
income housing, along with low-income groups. Therefore, a socio-economic study of local
context is critical for decision making.
In-situ Redevelopment may be applied to areas which meet the following thumb-rule
Low density (<450 du/ha)
Is within 1500 M of high-speed Public Transport.
Potential for Area level redevelopment or Urban Renewal and Redensification exists.
No environmental or health hazards exist.
Need for mixing with other income groups and mixed uses.
New Development to Prevent New Slums – is essential so that new population coming to
work and contribute to the growing economy of the city can be provided a range of viable
and affordable shelter options.
Not everyone needs to be provided apartment titles or tenure rights. People are
often seasonal immigrants or short term employees, and therefore a range of shelter
options for the new working population needs to be developed in order to prevent the
sprouting of future slums within the city. Providing dormitories or temporary rented shelter
options as well as high-quality high-speed public transportation is also the sustainable way
of controlling and reducing permanent immigration into the city.:
According to a 2008 United Nations Report, India will see a 26% growth in urbanized
population by 2025.
The Masterplan of Delhi- 2021 provides the following targets for provision of Housing
for Urban poor through Slum & JJ approaches till Year 2011 (page 129):
70,000 units through Redevelopment.
100,000 units through New Housing stock.
Current Govt. Policy
In Situ… Allocation of New Free/ Subsidized
Homes based on Eligibility Criteria:
• Free/ Subsidized Homes are quickly sold off &
31.12.1998 Cut off date Proof
people move back to slums.
• Only 10-20% of current Slum Population is
Below 60 K Household Income “ELIGIBLE”. But where will the rest go??
• Not a sustainable or “realistic” model.
Shelter is a Human Right, not Home Ownership.
Giving People a spectrum of Affordable Shelter Options.
Shelter is a Human Right – Not Apartment Titles.
One Size Does not Fit All –
Give people Options for self-selection.
The goal of our approach to a Slum Free Delhi is that people of all income groups and
various strata of society are given formal + hygenic options for shelter – for living
within, or in the outskirts, or in the various sub-cities of Delhi – based on their paying
capacities and lifestyle choices.
Upgradation of current Shelter conditions to acceptable standards as well as provision of
requisite amount of new housing stock, as per socio-economic context and MPD-2021
targets – would prevent the formation of new slums.
Our approach follows the Guidelines for Slum Free City planning laid down by the latest
Draft by Rajiv Awas Yojna (RAY) for Ministry of Housing & Urban Poverty Alleviation.
Provide various Housing & Upward Mobility Options to all
Phased redevelopment: EXPENSIVE:
at current location in city
Relocated New Development: COMMUNITIES:
within 2 km of current location near transit,
Relocated to new Pre-
constructed location: Provide
distant from current location Upward
but close to MRTS. Mobility
In-situ up-gradation (NO demolition)
‘slum’ population Rental (shared or single) - YEARLY
Rental (shared or single) - MONTHLY
Rental (shared or single) - - DAILY
Rental (shared or single) MONTHLY EXPENSIVE
Rental (shared orSHELTERS
Rental (shared or single) - MONTHLY
Rental - NIGHT single) - MONTHLY
Provide a Variety of Housing Options – through innovative design, community
participation and micro-finance models.
25 m2 MAIN STREET
Medium size kitchen
Independent bathroom Shared Toilet/ Bathroom for 20-25 persons
A variety of affordable unit-size choices WITH SHARED OR INDIVIDUAL TOILETS - can be provided based
on family size; income level and household savings...
Density caps may need to be increased from the current allowable 600 du/Ha
DESIGN CRITERIA: Double loaded corridor buildings are NOT recommended. Single loaded (double aspect)
buildings are recommended – as this allows adequate natural ventilation and daylighting of homes.
Block FSI = 4.0 Block FSI = 1.5 Block FSI = 1.8
Density = 1600 units/Ha Density = 600 units/Ha Density = 750 units/Ha
UNDESIRABLE OPTION DESIRABLE OPTION FOR VENTILATION RECOMMENDED OPTION
Double loaded corridor buildings with homes on both Low-rise housing with double aspect homes without Design details can allow the internal courtyards to be used by
sides – do not allow adequate ventilation. corridors – is preferable as it allows adequate residents for a variety of uses (cottage industry, kids
ventilation of homes. playing, clothes washing and drying, social gatherings, etc.
Microclimate of shared courtyards:
Grass and trees greatly help reduce heat island
effect and create comfort in open spaces.
However, internal courtyards should not be fenced off as shown above. Courtyards (with permeable paving, instead of
grass) are more usable for children playing , cottage industries, etc. Terraces are also valuable play areas for children.
Image Source: Author
Community Spaces must be inbuilt into design
Schemes need to allow people to CUSTOMIZE their homes and surroundings to their needs…
Social and Circulation spaces in Community halls provide living Shared spaces can be used by
taller buildings space outside the family’s small women’s cooperatives to
apartment. generate home-employment.
From here, women can supervise
children at play on terraces,
Charles Correa – Maharashtra Housing, 1999
An “Ideal” Community Layout
1500 M walking
All new or redeveloped high-density radius
housing must be within 1500-2000 M walk/
cycling distance from an MRTS Station.
Housing options must be clustered with
local employment opportunities – both
formal and informal. This includes
proximity to High-income groups to
provide informal employment.
To avoid the creation of large “planned
slums”, New low-income groups must be
integrated in small clusters within mixed-
income mixed-use neighborhoods. This
also allows cross-subsidization of
physical and social infrastructure for low-
income groups. Low income housing
(Size < 250 families) Rapid Transit Station
High/ Middle income housing (Metro/ BRT)
Offices/ Light Industrial
Schools/ Libraries/ Civic uses
Image Source: Paromita (Romi) Roy
Enable Design Cooperative
Financing & Micro-finance based
• Give Tenure Rights at a cost, OR
• Develop with Renumerative uses
to cross-subsidize housing and
• Funded through (Public or Private)
Developer investment and
personal/ group savings.
Land Construction Services Upgradation prosperity
• Government funded
• Funded through Group-pooling
and Micro-finance schemes.
• Funded through Group-pooling
and Micro-finance schemes,
partnering with NGOs+CBOs.
Direct subsidies towards housing cost should not be provided as this is not a feasible and
sustainable model for the city to finance. Moreover, providing subsidized flats only tempts or
induces people to sell or rent them out immediately in order to increase their liquid incomes, and
therefore does not actually solve the housing problem.
• Cross Subsidization should only be for infrastructure and amenities.
• Symbiosis through Proximity b/w HIG & EWS.
• Common Shared Amenities – Schools, Parks, Markets
Secondary Street / Lane
Mid-High e t alu
Income Housing/ tre ial V
Main Street Commercial Uses ain mer
(High Visibility / Commercial Value)
Infrastructure must be Decentralized & use Natural Systems:
Strategies for Efficient and Natural Storm Water run-off
a) Storm water management should be separated
from waste water treatment to reduce pressure on
infrastructure costs required for piping, conveyance Street bio-filtration bed
1) Treat at Source:
and treatment. Use street-swales or raingardens to filter and convey water naturally.
This also helps save on piping cost, while providing additional greenery.
b) A 3-tier approach for natural storm water
management should be followed…. run-
i. Treat at Source – using bio-swales, filtration beds,
raingardens, etc. which can be integrated within the
planted edges of streets. This helps save huge
piping costs. Parks/ Detention
2) Capture and Convey Naturally:
ii. Capture and Convey Naturally – Parks, forests Parks and Open spaces should be multi-used as detention ponds during rainy
seasons, while remaining usable green spaces for the rest of the year.
and residual open spaces should be used as
Detention and Retention ponds during rainy
seasons – to purify and absorb water at source.
iii. Final Treatment - of remaining storm water can
take place at a natural treatment wetland or an
Wetland Detention Pond
3) Final treatment of remaining storm water can take place at a natural treatment
wetland or a conventional facility.
3.3 Recycle and reuse waste Decentralized & use Natural Systems:
Infrastructure must bewater for the larger community, wherever possible.
Recycle and reuse waste locally;
To provide adequate sanitation and systems to deal with waste and sewage, several strategies can be employed for reducing pressure on the sewage
system and improving the environment of the overall community:
Separate the sewage + waste water system from the storm water management system;
• Employ Decentralized Sewage Treatment Systems to recycle upto 80% of Waste water – and reuse it locally.
• Reverse Osmosis can help further treat recycled sewage water to drinkable standards.
If low-income groups are located in integrated high-density mixed income communities, common facilities like bio-gas plants and aerobic/ anaerobic
digesters can be constructed. Biogas thus generated can be used in community kitchens, restaurants, etc. while energy generated from the waste
could benefit the entire community.
Resource & Waste Management
Organic Waste Treatment Separation
Compost Biogas Recyclables Residual
Sale for landscaping Energy Generation / On-site Off-Site Disposal
and/or agriculture vehicle fuel / cooking Gasification (Landfill)
Reuse organic waste to produce biogas: a The “floating” type biogas plant at a A “fixed” type biogas plant A natural sewage treatment facility
technology used through history in rural India, Working Women's Hostel, Trivandrum under construction. implemented in Bombay University
now should be implemented in cities. by NEERI
Image Source: industrialgasplants.com Image Source: dailymail.uk.co
ROADMAP - WAY FORWARD:
• Existing Capacity
• How much more needed?
(Nallahs, floodplains, etc.)
SOI • Is decentralized Infrastructure
Social Amenities • Space requirements for
(Schools/ Parks/ Clinics/ etc. as /MPD) additional infrastructure…
Proportion of Renters vs.
interested Home Owners
• Home Owners
Paying Capabilities • Is decentralized Infrastructure
Test Socio- feasible?
Site Economic Local Economic Synergies • Unit Design/ Composition:
Survey • 12 sq m
• 18 sq. m
• 25 sq m
Social Networks, NGOs/CBOs • Space requirements for social
Eligibility Beneficiary Allocation
Ineligibility Many Affordable Options –
Rental or Ownership
Type of In-Situ Strategy Upgradation, Redevelopment,
Ward/ Assembly Level or local Relocation