Slum freedelhi principles-roadmap

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  • 1. Principles and Roadmap: FOR A “SLUM-FREE” DELHI
  • 2. Goal = A Sustainable “Slum Free Delhi” Previous Policy = Inferences; Failures Current Policies = Issues, Limitations Proposed Strategy = Democratic Self-screening = No Future Slums, if we keep pace. ROADMAPS . . . = Implementation of Various Scenarios.
  • 3. Land Ownership of Current Slum Locations: S.No. Name of the L.O.A. No. of JJ Cluster No. of Jhuggie in Lacs 1 DDA 425 1.80 2 Railways 80 0.60 3 L&DO and CPWD 60 0.49 4 NDMC 35 0.20 5 MCD 25 0.20 6 Slum & JJ Deptt. 80 0.40 7 Others : PWD, I&F, P&T, Delhi Govt. and Central Govt.  125 0.40 Agencies 8 Cantonment Area 15 0.10 9 Gram Sabha 15 0.10 Total 860 4.20 Source: MCD Survey
  • 4. Previous Govt. Policy Relocation Some In-situ Upgradation Provision of some basic amenities
  • 5. Previous Strategy I: Forced Relocation to Outskirts of City Issue 1: Spatial and social integration into the larger urban community. Observations: Leads to further poverty: People relocated far from place of work, additional expense on travel. Informal employment by other household members & women stopped, as no high- income households or commercial hubs in vicinity. Children have no future: Limited resources available for children. Lack of good quality education The above often forces people to move back into an inner city slum - to be closer to local employment and better amenities. Source: Housing and Land Rights Network, Habitat International Coalition
  • 6. Issue 2: Current large concentrations of low-income social ‘ghettos’ creating Social Stigma Large concentrations of low-income groups in one area: Leads to “social stigma”, low self-esteem, segregation, insecurity, dilapidation & crime. Lack of investment in civic amenities and basic social infrastructure – these areas often perpetuate unemployment, Dakshinpuri… lack of education, crime and very unsanitary living conditions. Seelampur, Delhi Seemapuri, Delhi Sultanpuri, Mangolpuri – low income social ghettos of Delhi Image Source: The Tribune, India, 2006 Image Source: Mackenzie Berg, 2008
  • 7. Issue 3: Climatic sensitivity and flexibility to socio-economic needs. Inferences from Mumbai: FAR-bonuses (instead of density-bonuses) lead to developers dislocating the poor from inner cities and getting undue benefits from subsidized land value sites. New relocation colonies have extremely bad design which compromises access to even fundamental amenities like daylight and fresh air. Image Source: Dheeraj Patil, 2008 Image Source: Dheeraj Patil, 2008
  • 8. Inferences from Gurgaon: 20% reservation of dwelling units for low-income groups – failed to provide sustainable housing due to illegal allotments and lack of management. Management of housing – both ownership and rental - is critical to long-term success.
  • 9. Previous Strategy II: In-Situ Upgradation urban community. Issue 1: Spatial and social integration into the larger Inferences: Good model – tenure rights given to original residents for self upgradation over the years. Down-side – Infrastructure, sanitation and good sewerage facilities severely lacking.
  • 10. Previous Strategy III: integration intobasic civic amenities Issue 1: Spatial and social Provision of the larger urban community. Inferences: Common Toilets, sweepers Down-side – Anna Nagar Slum in ITO Infrastructure, sanitation and good sewerage facilities severely lacking. Common Toilets: Too few toilets for number of people being served. Women do not like to use them. People continue to defecate in the open. Maintenance is also generally lacking.
  • 11. Delivery New In-situ Upgradation In-situ RE-development Development Criteria for • High density (>600 du/ha) • Low density (<600 du/ha) • All New area level Selection: • High % of pucca houses • Is within 1000 M of high- plans should have • People have already invested speed Public Transport. 55% low-income a lot in their homes • Potential for Area level component with • Infrastructure is partly or fully redevelopment or Urban cross-subsidization existing Renewal and Redensification of services. • No environmental or health exists. hazards exist • No environmental or health hazards exist
  • 12. Definitions: In-situ Upgradation – is the gradual self-construction or improvement of homes done by the community themselves with minimal govt. support and through provision of basic social and physical infrastructure services. For in-situ up-gradation to happen, residents must be given secure tenure rights such that they may not be uprooted and relocated at random. In-situ upgradation may be applied to areas which meet the following thumb-rule criteria: High density (~600 du/ha) High % of pucca houses People have already invested a lot in their homes Infrastructure is partly or fully existing No environmental or health hazards exist Have good amenities, parks & public transport in community vicinity.
  • 13. Definitions: In-situ Redevelopment – is the process of redeveloping areas with current slum settlements where new mixed-use mixed-income communities can be created with a viable cross-subsidy model, which is a function of local land values, socio-economic needs and general context of the area. For example, a commercial Mall may not be a viable cross- subsidizing use of land in an area where the demand may actually be for high and middle income housing, along with low-income groups. Therefore, a socio-economic study of local context is critical for decision making. In-situ Redevelopment may be applied to areas which meet the following thumb-rule criteria: Low density (<450 du/ha) Is within 1500 M of high-speed Public Transport. Potential for Area level redevelopment or Urban Renewal and Redensification exists. No environmental or health hazards exist. Need for mixing with other income groups and mixed uses.
  • 14. Definitions: New Development to Prevent New Slums – is essential so that new population coming to work and contribute to the growing economy of the city can be provided a range of viable and affordable shelter options. Not everyone needs to be provided apartment titles or tenure rights. People are often seasonal immigrants or short term employees, and therefore a range of shelter options for the new working population needs to be developed in order to prevent the sprouting of future slums within the city. Providing dormitories or temporary rented shelter options as well as high-quality high-speed public transportation is also the sustainable way of controlling and reducing permanent immigration into the city.: According to a 2008 United Nations Report, India will see a 26% growth in urbanized population by 2025. The Masterplan of Delhi- 2021 provides the following targets for provision of Housing for Urban poor through Slum & JJ approaches till Year 2011 (page 129): 70,000 units through Redevelopment. 100,000 units through New Housing stock.
  • 15. Current Govt. Policy In Situ… Allocation of New Free/ Subsidized Homes based on Eligibility Criteria: Implications: • Free/ Subsidized Homes are quickly sold off & 31.12.1998 Cut off date Proof people move back to slums. • Only 10-20% of current Slum Population is Below 60 K Household Income “ELIGIBLE”. But where will the rest go?? • Not a sustainable or “realistic” model.
  • 16. Proposed Strategies Shelter is a Human Right, not Home Ownership. Giving People a spectrum of Affordable Shelter Options.
  • 17. GOALS: Shelter is a Human Right – Not Apartment Titles. One Size Does not Fit All – Give people Options for self-selection. The goal of our approach to a Slum Free Delhi is that people of all income groups and various strata of society are given formal + hygenic options for shelter – for living within, or in the outskirts, or in the various sub-cities of Delhi – based on their paying capacities and lifestyle choices. Upgradation of current Shelter conditions to acceptable standards as well as provision of requisite amount of new housing stock, as per socio-economic context and MPD-2021 targets – would prevent the formation of new slums. Our approach follows the Guidelines for Slum Free City planning laid down by the latest Draft by Rajiv Awas Yojna (RAY) for Ministry of Housing & Urban Poverty Alleviation.
  • 18. PRINCIPLES:
  • 19. Provide various Housing & Upward Mobility Options to all New low- income immigrants MOST Phased redevelopment: EXPENSIVE: at current location in city NEW MIXED INCOME Relocated New Development: COMMUNITIES: within 2 km of current location near transit, with shared amenities Relocated to new Pre- constructed location: Provide distant from current location Upward but close to MRTS. Mobility Options In-situ up-gradation (NO demolition) Existing Low-income or ‘slum’ population Rental (shared or single) - YEARLY Rental (shared or single) - MONTHLY LEAST Rental (shared or single) - - DAILY Rental (shared or single) MONTHLY EXPENSIVE Rental (shared orSHELTERS Rental (shared or single) - MONTHLY Rental - NIGHT single) - MONTHLY
  • 20. Provide a Variety of Housing Options – through innovative design, community participation and micro-finance models. 12 m2 Kitchen counter Shared bathroom 15 m2 Small kitchen Woonerf Shared bathroom 18 m2 Small kitchen Independent bathroom 25 m2 MAIN STREET One bedroom Medium size kitchen Independent bathroom Shared Toilet/ Bathroom for 20-25 persons A variety of affordable unit-size choices WITH SHARED OR INDIVIDUAL TOILETS - can be provided based on family size; income level and household savings...
  • 21. Density caps may need to be increased from the current allowable 600 du/Ha DESIGN CRITERIA: Double loaded corridor buildings are NOT recommended. Single loaded (double aspect) buildings are recommended – as this allows adequate natural ventilation and daylighting of homes. Block FSI = 4.0 Block FSI = 1.5 Block FSI = 1.8 Density = 1600 units/Ha Density = 600 units/Ha Density = 750 units/Ha UNDESIRABLE OPTION DESIRABLE OPTION FOR VENTILATION RECOMMENDED OPTION Double loaded corridor buildings with homes on both Low-rise housing with double aspect homes without Design details can allow the internal courtyards to be used by sides – do not allow adequate ventilation. corridors – is preferable as it allows adequate residents for a variety of uses (cottage industry, kids ventilation of homes. playing, clothes washing and drying, social gatherings, etc. Microclimate of shared courtyards: Grass and trees greatly help reduce heat island effect and create comfort in open spaces. However, internal courtyards should not be fenced off as shown above. Courtyards (with permeable paving, instead of grass) are more usable for children playing , cottage industries, etc. Terraces are also valuable play areas for children. Image Source: Author
  • 22. Community Spaces must be inbuilt into design Schemes need to allow people to CUSTOMIZE their homes and surroundings to their needs… Social and Circulation spaces in Community halls provide living Shared spaces can be used by taller buildings space outside the family’s small women’s cooperatives to apartment. generate home-employment. From here, women can supervise children at play on terraces, courtyards, etc. Charles Correa – Maharashtra Housing, 1999
  • 23. An “Ideal” Community Layout 1500 M walking All new or redeveloped high-density radius housing must be within 1500-2000 M walk/ cycling distance from an MRTS Station. Housing options must be clustered with local employment opportunities – both formal and informal. This includes proximity to High-income groups to provide informal employment. To avoid the creation of large “planned slums”, New low-income groups must be integrated in small clusters within mixed- income mixed-use neighborhoods. This also allows cross-subsidization of physical and social infrastructure for low- income groups. Low income housing (Size < 250 families) Rapid Transit Station High/ Middle income housing (Metro/ BRT) Commercial Offices/ Light Industrial Schools/ Libraries/ Civic uses Public Parks Image Source: Paromita (Romi) Roy
  • 24. CBOs & Enable Design Cooperative Delivery Financing & Micro-finance based Management • Give Tenure Rights at a cost, OR • Develop with Renumerative uses to cross-subsidize housing and • Funded through (Public or Private) services. Developer investment and personal/ group savings. Maintenance- Economic Land Construction Services Upgradation prosperity • Government funded and built • Funded through Group-pooling and Micro-finance schemes. • Funded through Group-pooling and Micro-finance schemes, partnering with NGOs+CBOs.
  • 25. Direct subsidies towards housing cost should not be provided as this is not a feasible and sustainable model for the city to finance. Moreover, providing subsidized flats only tempts or induces people to sell or rent them out immediately in order to increase their liquid incomes, and therefore does not actually solve the housing problem. • Cross Subsidization should only be for infrastructure and amenities. • Symbiosis through Proximity b/w HIG & EWS. • Common Shared Amenities – Schools, Parks, Markets Low Income Housing Units Secondary Street / Lane . St ar y nd co Se e) Mid-High e t alu Income Housing/ tre ial V S c Main Street Commercial Uses ain mer M m (High Visibility / Commercial Value) Co h ig (H
  • 26. Infrastructure must be Decentralized & use Natural Systems: Strategies for Efficient and Natural Storm Water run-off w flo ed Management: rb so ab d a) Storm water management should be separated an d re lte from waste water treatment to reduce pressure on Fi infrastructure costs required for piping, conveyance Street bio-filtration bed 1) Treat at Source: and treatment. Use street-swales or raingardens to filter and convey water naturally. This also helps save on piping cost, while providing additional greenery. b) A 3-tier approach for natural storm water management should be followed…. run- off i. Treat at Source – using bio-swales, filtration beds, raingardens, etc. which can be integrated within the planted edges of streets. This helps save huge piping costs. Parks/ Detention 2) Capture and Convey Naturally: ii. Capture and Convey Naturally – Parks, forests Parks and Open spaces should be multi-used as detention ponds during rainy seasons, while remaining usable green spaces for the rest of the year. and residual open spaces should be used as Detention and Retention ponds during rainy seasons – to purify and absorb water at source. iii. Final Treatment - of remaining storm water can take place at a natural treatment wetland or an constructed facility. Wetland Detention Pond 3) Final treatment of remaining storm water can take place at a natural treatment wetland or a conventional facility.
  • 27. 3.3 Recycle and reuse waste Decentralized & use Natural Systems: Infrastructure must bewater for the larger community, wherever possible. Recycle and reuse waste locally; To provide adequate sanitation and systems to deal with waste and sewage, several strategies can be employed for reducing pressure on the sewage system and improving the environment of the overall community: Separate the sewage + waste water system from the storm water management system; • Employ Decentralized Sewage Treatment Systems to recycle upto 80% of Waste water – and reuse it locally. • Reverse Osmosis can help further treat recycled sewage water to drinkable standards. If low-income groups are located in integrated high-density mixed income communities, common facilities like bio-gas plants and aerobic/ anaerobic digesters can be constructed. Biogas thus generated can be used in community kitchens, restaurants, etc. while energy generated from the waste could benefit the entire community. Resource & Waste Management Organic Waste Treatment Separation Compost Biogas Recyclables Residual Sale for landscaping Energy Generation / On-site Off-Site Disposal Off-Site Sale and/or agriculture vehicle fuel / cooking Gasification (Landfill) Floating Fixed Reuse organic waste to produce biogas: a The “floating” type biogas plant at a A “fixed” type biogas plant A natural sewage treatment facility technology used through history in rural India, Working Women's Hostel, Trivandrum under construction. implemented in Bombay University now should be implemented in cities. by NEERI Image Source: industrialgasplants.com Image Source: dailymail.uk.co
  • 28. ROADMAP - WAY FORWARD:
  • 29. • Existing Capacity Environmental Suitability • How much more needed? (Nallahs, floodplains, etc.) SOI • Is decentralized Infrastructure Infrastructure Services Physical feasible? Survey Social Amenities • Space requirements for (Schools/ Parks/ Clinics/ etc. as /MPD) additional infrastructure… Proportion of Renters vs. • Renters interested Home Owners • Home Owners Paying Capabilities • Is decentralized Infrastructure Test Socio- feasible? Site Economic Local Economic Synergies • Unit Design/ Composition: Survey • 12 sq m • 18 sq. m Lifestyle Requirements • 25 sq m Social Networks, NGOs/CBOs • Space requirements for social activities Eligibility Beneficiary Allocation Bio-Metric Ineligibility Many Affordable Options – Survey Rental or Ownership Type of In-Situ Strategy Upgradation, Redevelopment, Ward/ Assembly Level or local Relocation
  • 30. MCD - CORE TEAM Multi-disciplinary; with MCD Experts + Suitability Analysis External Experts PHYSICAL SURVEY: 1. Architect, Urban • Environmental Suitability • Land availability Designer • Existing Amenities 2. Urban Planner 3. Sociologist, Codal Analysis Anthropologist 4. Community Finance Expert 5. Real Estate Specialist 6. Decentralized Transportation Infrastructure specialist and Amenities SOCIO-ECONOMIC SURVEY: 7. Legal consultant • Economic Synergies. • Paying capacities ROLE: • Cultural mix Brainstorming, Advising, In-situ Strategy Helping prepare EOIs, Scopes & Competition Briefs, Determination: Validating data, Road-mapping, Monitoring Implementation.
  • 31. Internal “RoadMap” – for In-situ Upgradation
  • 32. Internal “RoadMap” – for In-situ Re-development
  • 33. Internal “RoadMap” – for Prevention of New Slums