Great Pavements Delhi Romi Roy 040409


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Integration of Mobility, Safety, Comfort and Ecology Goals in the Design of Great Streets for Delhi

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Great Pavements Delhi Romi Roy 040409

  1. 1. Great Pavements for Delhi “D o n ’t d r i v e… W a l k !” ©UTTIPEC, DDA, Delhi Compiled by Romi Roy April 2009
  2. 2. CONTENTS A. City Level Goals and Need for Redesigning Streets of Delhi 1-10 Mobility Safety & Amenity Ecology B. What are the components of Integrated Pavement Design? 11-20 C. Design Standards for Integrated Pavements: 11-20 • Best Practices for Street Pavement Design • Recommendations for Delhi D. Steps for Implementation 41-50
  3. 3. A. Need for Redesigning the Streets of Delhi…
  4. 4. Street Hierarchy and Status of the Pedestrian: 40 M Arterial Road Vehicular > Pedestrian
  5. 5. Unusable & Insufficient Pavement
  6. 6. Unusable & Insufficient Pavement
  7. 7. Unusable & Insufficient Pavement
  8. 8. Unusable & Insufficient Pavement
  9. 9. Unusable & Insufficient Pavement
  10. 10. Unusable & Insufficient Pavement
  11. 11. Unusable & Insufficient Pavement
  12. 12. Unusable & Insufficient Pavement
  13. 13. Facts first…. Delhi Today: Density vs. The roads of Delhi Road Space are choked by cars which drive less than The Population 15% of its people. Density of Delhi is (Source: RITES 2008) much lower than most world class cities, but the road space used is 10% higher in Delhi. Highest Road Space to Occupancy ratio Servicing pedestrians and cyclists on roads can help increase ridership for buses & trains.
  14. 14. GOALS FOR “INTEGRATED” STREETS FOR DELHI: GOAL 1: MOBILITY AND ACCCESSIBILITY – Maximum number of people should be able to move fast, safely and conveniently through the city. Safety GOAL 2: Mobility & Amenity SAFETY AND COMFORT Integrated – Make streets safe clean and walkable, create climate sensitive Ecology design. GOAL 3: ECOLOGY – Reduce impact on the natural environment; and Reduce pressure on built infrastructure. 14
  15. 15. What should we integrate? Pedestrians Bicyclists Transit Safety Cars, Mobility & Amenity Scooters, Autos Integrated Utilities Ecology Trees Storm Water beds GOAL: A public realm that meets multiple objectives. 15
  16. 16. Components of an Integrated Street - Pavement pedestrian cut Mid-block Hawker Zones Public Toilets Bus Disabled Stop Access Signage
  17. 17. C. Design Standards for Integrated Pavements
  18. 18. First: Defining the three Pavement Zones
  19. 19. A pavement needs to be clear, legible and well defined for all its uses. NO clear walkway = Confusion Zone Hawkers Missing or Damaged pavement Utilities on walkway Open toilet! Tree on walkway 19
  20. 20. The Three Pavement Zones 1.8 m ~ 1.2 M min. Frontage
  21. 21. Guidelines for Integrated Pavement Design
  22. 22. Guidelines for “Integrated” Pavements: C. Design Guidelines for different Pavement Components – achieving the goals of (Mobility & accessibility), (Safety & Amenity) & (Ecology) 1. Edge condition: • Fences for safety of pedestrians (depending on traffic speed) • Commercial - built to edge, minimal setback for residential, transparency, shading-overhangs, wider pavement • Residential - minimum setback, transparent fence vs. boundary wall, Pedestrian entry on street not on parking lot. 2. Pavement: • Minimum width (Tree guard change with increasing pedestrian traffic, tree lawn strip deterrent to jaywalking) (Portland, ) • Continuity • Pervious paving • Reflectivity (to reduce HIE) • Handicapped Accessibility ramps (at street corners and pedestrian crossings; curb cuts Mumbai) 3. Tree Planting Zone (& separate Utility Zone) • Bio-filtration beds (show curb cuts, sections, etc) • Deciduous Street Tree Species (Trees of Delhi) 4. Street Lighting • Principles for optimum lighting for pedestrians • Light fixture typologies • Lighting Standards 5. Amenities • Shaded bus stops; shaded area for waiting pedestrians and cyclists at intersections (Hangzhou) • Public Toilets • Source Separated Dustbins (also educative) (Shanghai) • Hawker Zones • Street Furniture 6. Signage (on floor and banners) and Traffic Lights (audible for blind, etc.) • Banner Signage (bikes, pedestrians, carpool lanes, dustbins) • Floor/ Pavement Signage • Audible Traffic Lights for pedestrians, bicyclists and blind/ handicapped. 7. Public Art Concepts/ Ideas • Manhole covers (Seattle, small town China, Chandigarh) • Dustbins (Philadelphia) • Bus stops or empty walls (so people don’t pee) (Portland) • Fences and Handrails • Public Toilets
  23. 23. C01. Edge Conditions. “Edge Conditions” of a pavement play a critical role in defining the walking experience for the pedestrian and making the street active and safe. Safety Mobility & Amenity MAIN PRINCIPLES: Mobility - Provide clear pedestrian walking zone. Integrated - Provide safe crosswalks at regular intervals - Fences and bollards for safety of pedestrians (depending on traffic speed Safety/Comfort - Remove setback and boundary walls of building - Commercial frontages - built to edge, active, accessible, overhangs Ecology for shading, transparent for “eyes on the street”, wider pavement for higher foot traffic. - Residential frontages - minimal setbacks for residential, Stipulate fences (instead of walls) for private residential uses, Pedestrian entry on main pavement (not on parking lot).
  24. 24. C01. Edge Conditions: Fences and bollards and Signage Mobility Issue: Mid-block Potential Solutions: jaywalking on high-traffic Safe Pedestrian Crosswalks must be streets: provided at approximate intervals of 100-150 M (max. 2 minute walk). Crosswalks should be either provided as signalized intersections or overpasses. Hong Kong Issue: Un-signalized mid-block pedestrian crossings are often ignored by vehicles. Pedestrian initiated traffic lights (Pelican Lights) may be installed at mid-block crossings to make Toronto traffic stop. 24
  25. 25. C01. Edge Conditions: Fences and bollards Mobility Issue: Mid-block Fences should be built at the edges of jaywalking on high-traffic pavements (not medians) to prevent streets: further jaywalking – on streets with design speeds greater than 40 km/h (25mph). Fences should be dense and tall enough (min. 800 mm high), such that it is difficult to climb over them. Paris Solution/ Policy: Issue: Encroachments Provision of fences would also help discourage encroachments by hawkers as pedestrians will be force pedestrians on to restricted to stay ‘on the pavement’ and not deviate off it. the roadway FENCES help “contain” pedestrians Hawking pushes out pedestrians on In “official” hawking zones – wider Fences will help “contain” to the street. pavements must be provided. pedestrians within the pavement and force hawkers to push back or relocate themselves. 25
  26. 26. C01. Edge Conditions: Fences and bollards Mobility Solution/ Policy: Issue: Encroachments Provision of fences would also help discourage encroachments by hawkers as pedestrians will be force pedestrians on to restricted to stay ‘on the pavement’ and not deviate off it. the roadway FENCES help “contain” pedestrians Hawking pushes out pedestrians on In “official” hawking zones – wider Fences will help “contain” to the street. pavements must be provided. pedestrians within the pavement and force hawkers to push back or relocate themselves. Issue: High Curbs (to protect against vehicles) make the pavement pedestrian-unfriendly. Woonerf: See C02A. Pavements should be “curbless” on On streets with large and speedy Vehicular neighborhood level streets with bollards traffic – bollards should be made of stone or preventing vehicles from driving over the concrete – such that they cannot be knocked pavement. down by trucks or vandalized in general. On all other streets, maximum curb height Separate cycle and pedestrian lanes of the pavement should NOT exceed 15 should be provided within the enclosed cm from immediate ground level. zone. 26
  27. 27. Safety C01. Edge Conditions: Commercial Areas Comfort Issue: Boundary walls and REMOVE Boundary walls and Setbacks for commercial areas to create “eyes on the street”. Setbacks in commercial Commercial buildings must be built to street edge with a minimum of 50% transparency on the active frontage. areas create unwelcoming and unsafe streets Issue: High plinths cause commercial frontages to be REMOVE boundary walls and buildings setbacks from the street as it creates lonely ‘unwatched’ pavements. Shop entries must be at the same level as the unfriendly adjoining “frontage zone” of the pavement. Eyes on the street Wide pavements with space for pedestrians, streetlights, trees as well as hawkers, with no building setbacks - creates safety through “eyes on the street” 27
  28. 28. Safety C01. Edge Conditions: Residential Areas Comfort Issue: Residential Buildings should ONLY have a MAXIMUM setback of 0-2 M from the pavement to facilitate “eyes on the street” Residential Buildings should ONLY have a MAXIMUM setback of 0-2 M from the pavement to facilitate “eyes on the street” Setbacks and residential boundary walls make the pavements in front - deserted and unsafe. Window cill levels are high to allow privacy and yet provide eyes on the Building entries street. should be from the main street, Fences, not not from the boundary parking lot behind New York New York walls are building. preferable. MIXED USE: Integrating shops on the same block as residential buildings – would create active street frontages while still giving privacy to homes above. Streets of Delhi can NEVER be vibrant and safe – with dead boundary WALLS & SETBACKS all along them. The ZONING CODE of the City must be New York Shanghai changed Shanghai and New York have a 15% commercial requirement as part of all its Residential Zoning Laws. immediately… Shops in close proximity to homes helps cut down car use. 28
  29. 29. D02. Paving Besides aesthetics, paving material plays an important role in protecting water quality and meeting flow control requirements. Hence, it has a significant impact in building the health, safety and welfare of the city Safety Mobility & Amenity MAIN PRINCIPLES: Mobility - Optimum width for traffic flow in different according to the area - Create flexibility in expanding clear zone in busy areas through tree Integrated grates - Provide sufficient space for queuing and other activities at street intersections Ecology Ecology: - Usage of Pervious Paving to build Natural Drainage Systems - Reduce Heat Island Effect by increasing paving reflectivity Safety/Comfort - Provide accessibility ramps and tactile paving for the Handicapped - Continuous and uniform walking area - Designs to enhance site character and create sense of direction
  30. 30. D02. Paving: Optimum Width Mobility Issues/ Problems: Width (m) Capacity in number of persons per hour One direction Two directions 1.50 1200 800 2.00 2400 1600 2.50 3600 2400 1.5 M 1.8 – 2.5 M 3.00 4800 3200 4.00 6000 4000 Not enough Minimum Source: Indian Road Congress, 103 :1988 Pavement not wide enough for 2 people to walk together, forcing one to walk on the vehicular lane Pavements consists of two zones: a street tree/furniture zone located adjacent to the curb, and a frontage zone, which is the clear pedestrian walking zone. This width depends on the needs of the area and most of the times it will depend on the pedestrian traffic flow of the place. To allow a comfortable width will encourage the usage of it and Pavement in Residential Areas the efficiency of the pedestrian systems. Normally, 1.5m is the minimum width required for a pavement, but 1.8 to 2m allows two persons to walk side by side comfortably. Since the pedestrian flow is determined by land use, the following pavement widths can be applied: Residential Areas: 1.80 m Mixed Commercial and Residential Areas: 2.50 m Commercial Nodes and Public Facilities: 4.00 m Street tree / furniture is placed in the walking zone, displacing the Momentary Extra walkway space Effective pedestrians stop area through tree grates walkway 30 Source: WALK Hsinchu Design Manual, Taiwan, 2003
  31. 31. D02. Paving: Paving for Natural Drainage Systems Ecology Issues/ Problems: Impermeable paving blocks water infiltration into the sub-grade, allowing run-off and increases the mobility of pollutants Permeable Paving Systems reduce Stormwater runoff, increase ground water The increase of impermeable paving recharge, reduce costs and pressure on storm water infrastructure and prevent has led to serious flood issues. pollution of streams and rivers (Yamuna). 31 Source: Seattle Right of Way Improvement Manual
  32. 32. D02. Paving: Paving for Natural Drainage Systems Ecology Paving Sub-grade: The sub-grade of porous paving surfaces must be designed and executed porous as well – in order to achieve the desired level of permeability. 5” POROUS PAVEMENT LAYER PERMEABLE PAVEMENT SIDEWALK ADJACENT TO CURB • Depth of aggregate shall be 6” minimum. If used as facility, additional depth shall be designed by engineer. PERMEABLE PAVEMENT SIDEWALK ADJACENT TO SWALE OR DITCH • Where porous pavement is within the critical root zone of trees that are required to be saved, reduce aggregate discharge subbase to 2”. • Permeable pavement facilities are for longitudinal slope of 0 ~ • Permeable pavement driveways are allowed in residential streets 5% only. To maximize the ponding capacity use of check dam only. Depth of porous cement concrete for driveways shall be 8” or other method are recommended. minimum. Integrated Pavement Guidelines 32 Source: US EPA National Pollutant Discharge Elimination Systems
  33. 33. D02. Paving: Paving for Natural Drainage Systems Ecology Types of Paving Materials A B C D E Permeable Asphalt Permeable Cement Interlocking Concrete Open-Celled Paving Grid Open-Celled Paving Concrete Concrete Pavers with Vegetation Grid with Gravel Fundamentally the same as This is a variation of Themselves are not always Open-celled paving grids The same open-celled grid regular asphalt, but it does traditional concrete, but permeable, but they are consist of a rigid grid structure is employed but the not contain the fine particles without the fine particles in typically installed with gaps composed of concrete or a voids in the rings are filled that asphalt does, hence, the mix. between them to allow durable plastic that is filled with a mix of gravel. creating porosity. •Installation is quite different infiltration into the subsurface. with a mix of sand, gravel, •With the gravel in place this •Need to be cleaned 2 to 4 from the traditional method, The gaps, typically 10% of the and topsoil for planting grid system does provide times a year to avoid build- and requires experienced surface area, are filled with a vegetation. additional structural up of debris. But some installers both in the mixing permeable material, usually •The plastic grid pavers are support. And since most research has found that and laying of the product. small clean stone. also flexible, allowing them grid-cell material is plastic, even with 99% clogging the •Proper maintenance includes •They have a long useable to be used on uneven sites. hence flexible, it can adapt infiltration rate can be up to periodic vacuuming of the life, are relatively easy to •They do not require another well to shrink/swell and 10 inches/hr. surface to prevent clogging install and provide good drainage facility and are freeze/thaw conditions. •It does not require special with sediment or organic infiltration. competitively priced to •Most commercially training and can easily be material. With proper •However, they are sensitive asphalt and concrete available geocell material is supplied by conventional maintenance it can last a to deformation in the base paving, when their required made from recycled asphalt batch plants minimum of 20 years. and do require a thick base to drainage costs are factored in. material, an added prevent "heaving." environmental plus. Integrated Pavement Guidelines Source: Seattle Right of Way Improvement Manual and UC Davis Research 33
  34. 34. D02. Paving: Increase Reflectivity - Reduce HIE Ecology Issues/ Problems: Cool pavements are a means of reducing the urban heat island effect. Choose light-colored pavers, aggregates or top coats, preferably with a heat- reflectivity (albedo) of 0.29 or higher. Light gray and tan colors can reduce pavement surface temperatures by11°C- 22°C. Impermeable paving increases heat island effect and make Porous paving or composite pavement walking uncomfortable structures can also minimize heat storage. • Parking lots, pavements, roads, driveways and other surfaces can have coatings or integral colorants added to increase reflectivity. • If paving with asphalt, applying a white aggregate as a chip seal layer, or a light- colored surface coating such as a zinc-oxide slurry mix. Dark colors of some materials such as asphalt, increases • Resin modified emulsion pavement. These tremendously the urban heat. products are an alternative to asphalt. They use clear binders made of tree resins instead of petroleum products. Light-colored aggregates suspended in the resin as coloring will increase reflectivity. 34 Source: Heat Island Reduction Initiative, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
  35. 35. Safety D02. Paving: Continuity Comfort Issues/ Problems: Pavements should be regarded as a transportation system which is connected and continuous. N • Avoid pavement interruptions by minimizing curb cuts. ATIO • Maintain an even surface and elevation of the pavement. ELEV • Remove obstructions and drops. • Provide connections for Missing Links, by installing pavements E OF to connect pedestrian areas to each other. • Consistency of design elements, color and texture, to provide HANG visual continuity. Obstructions that interrupts the TH C walkway SMOO Uneven pavement surface VIS UA L CO NT IN U Dramatic change of elevation that ITY discourages walking Raise driveways to match pavement level 35 Source: Turner Fairbank Highway Research Center
  36. 36. Safety D02. Paving: Handicapped Accessibility Ramp Comfort Issues/ Problems: Road Intersection Ramps Older pedestrians often have difficulty negotiating curbs. • Maximum slope not to exceed 8.33 percent (1:12) is required. • The width must be 0.9 m or greater. • A maximum allowable cross slope is 2 percent (1:50) is required. • Transition areas between a walkway and a ramp should be beveled 10% for 1.2-m ramps and 8.33% for ramps of less than 1.2 m. Sporadic presence of accessibility ramp, and often in poor conditions, • Textured surfaces at curb ramps help identify crosswalk locations for leaving big gaps and lips in curb visually impaired pedestrians cuts • Mid block crosswalks and handicapped access should be provided for blocks longer than 150m. 36 Source: American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials
  37. 37. Safety D02. Paving: Tactile Paving Comfort Different functions of Tactile Signage Tactile paving surfaces can be used to convey important information to visually impaired pedestrians about their environment, for example, hazard warning, directional guidance, or the presence of an amenity. Pedestrian Crossing Sign Blister surface for pedestrian Corduroy hazard warning surface. It Information Surface Paving. Does not crossing. Used adjacent to safe conveys the message "hazard, proceed have raised profile and helps to locate carriageway crossings with caution“ amenities Corduroy Hazard Warning about start of stairway Platform edge warning surface, used Platform edge (on street) warning surface, Guidance path surface. This is used to at stations to warn about the edge of used as warning surfaces at all on-street guide user through a large public open railway platforms. platforms. space such as a town square Street Edge Warning 37 Source: Code of Practice on Access and Mobility
  38. 38. Safety D02. Paving: Site Character and Sense of Direction Comfort Issues/ Problems: Sense of Place With specially carved paving material and creative ways of painting crossings, sense of place is created and site character is built. Anonymous pavements lead to vandalism and discourage pedestrian use Sense of Direction Currency used along the Silk Road, Xi’an Very literal Zebra Crossing, South Africa Many cities use the pavement to indicate the intersection you’re approaching. Others, will show with a compass the Uneven pavement surface direction of the streets to help the pedestrians to find their way. These elements enhance a city’s legibility and the pedestrian experience. Street name, Vancouver Pavement Compass, New York City When there is no feeling of belonging, pavements are not maintained and littering is common 38
  39. 39. D02. Paving: Application and Repair
  40. 40. D02. Paving: Cement Concrete Pavement MCD Pavement Detail: 17 April 2009 Cement Concrete Pavement with Brick Aggregate sub-base Integrated Pavement Guidelines 40
  41. 41. D02. Paving: Interlocking Pavers MCD Pavement Detail: 17 April 2009 Cement Concrete Thick Interlocking Tiles Pavement with Brick Aggregate sub-base Integrated Pavement Guidelines 41
  42. 42. D02. Paving: Roadway Repair (CMA) Cold Mix Asphalt – quick repair, less durable OR, Not a Long Term (HMA) Hot Mix Asphalt – Sustainable Solution Quickest; Least more durable Sustainable Mixing of Industrial Waste in HMA: as coarse aggregate or mineral fillers: Rubber modified asphalt cement tend to have less cracking, Nonferrous Slag Scrap Tyres Coal Ash and wear better than regular pavements; also reduces traffic noise. Coal fly ash and slag used as a mineral filler has been shown to prevent rutting, and their hydrophobic properties prevent http://www.industrialresourc stripping, which occurs when the asphalt cement debonds from the aggregate. otMixAsphaltPavement/tabi Better durability, money saved on repeated repairs and on using asphalt binder or mining of virgin materials. d/378/Default.aspx Permeable Recycled Asphalt: Asphalt Decreases Pavement runoff & storm water infrastructure Most requirements. Sustainable Decreases Heat Island Effect when appropriate coatings/ binders are added. Decreases tyre noise 42
  43. 43. D02. Paving: Pavement Repair Interlocking Paver Cement Concrete Sidewalk Sidewalk Asphalt Fillet grinding Change Sub-base to stabilize and make long lasting durable Sidewalk Concrete fillet grinding Rubber Sidewalk 43
  44. 44. D02. Paving: Woonerfs for Neighborhood Streets Issues/ Problems: Woonerfs are curbless, paved, pedestrian and bike dominated streets, where cars are allowed but have to carefully maneuver their way through, hence reducing their speed. •They are very effective traffic calming tools. •They also provide valuable “public/ community space”(esp. in a sloping site) rather than just routes for vehicular circulation. •In Denmark and UK, they have caused significant drops in accident rates. Signage Speeding vehicles makes pedestrian crossing difficult The “paved” streets of Mumbai are excellent for traffic calming and pedestrian quality. However, the paving used here should have been “permeable” to reduce runoff. Chaotic walking environment, with no comfortable space for pedestrian movement “Shared Street” in Japan 44
  45. 45. D02. Paving: Woonerfs for Neighborhood Streets 45
  46. 46. D02. Paving: Pedestrianization of busy commerical streets Nanjing Lu, Shanghai 46
  47. 47. C03. Tree Planting Zone and Street Furniture Zone Tree planting zones with native street Trees and plantation – are Essential on every Delhi pavement to provide shade and climatic comfort. Safety Mobility & Amenity MAIN PRINCIPLES: Mobility - Tree zone must be CLEAR of walking zone and utility corridor. Integrated - Continuous tree planting zones should provided only in lower foot traffic areas. Ecology: - Integrated Natural Drainage Systems - Native plantation for resistance and water conservation. Ecology Safety/Comfort - Tree planting zones with native street trees and plantation – are essential for shade, lowering HIE and giving comfort to pedestrians. - Tree planting zone should be CLEAR of the pedestrian walking zone
  48. 48. C03. Tree Planting Zone: Clear from walking zone and utility corridors. 1) Pedestrian corridor and Utility Easements must be placed Issues/ Problems: separately from the Tree Planting Zone. Narrow “columnar” trees to be used where pavement space is limited. Use trees that can be “limbed up” to allow vision clearance. 10’ Tree canopy clearance Low growing branches obstruct visibility. Min. 1.8 M wide Clear visibility for pedestrian zone Provide high canopy but broad spread trees for shade in summers. Use deciduous trees on streets where sunlight is critical in winter. 48
  49. 49. C03. Tree Planting Zone: Clearances from utility corridors. Mobility Place Utilities in ducts for easy repair and replacements Provide Standard Clearances from utility lines to street Trees. Street Trees in same line as Utility Zone; Continuous planting zones are suitable for Retail (shopping streets) should have tree in tree- residential or office use streets. guards (and not continuous planting strips) – to allow more flexibility and space for pedestrian movement. 49
  50. 50. C03. Tree Planting Zone: Native Trees, Urban aesthetics & Civic Pride. Ecology Local Trees planted on Avenues of Lutyens Delhi: Streets could be “themed” based on the seasonal colour of foliage, flowers and fruits – in order to give a unique and beautiful urban experience to people of the city. Deciduous trees provide shade in summer, change colour and shed their leaves in autumn and let the sun through in winter. Learning the ‘right’ lessons from Lutyens Delhi…. Shown above: Imli (Tamarind) Trees on Akbar Road in April (left) and February (right) – in autumn Delhi citizens must be given the opportunity to get involved in volunteering for planting and maintaining street trees and gaining a ‘sense of ownership’ towards the public realm of the city. Volunteering is a great way to teach kids about their environment, bond with spouses, get acquainted with neighbors, meet that special someone, get some exercise, reduce stress, forget about work AND help keep Delhi Green. In addition, it is important to plant local species and stay continually involved It is important to also not just plant the tree, but stay involved Only Native trees should be planted on streets in order to in maintaining and watering them regularly. minimize irrigation requirements and prolong tree life. Example: “Seattle reLeaf” – ia a similar volunteering program Trees like Eucalyptus, Australian Acacia, Lantana, Lucena, organized through a collaboration between the government, local Mast tree (False Ashoka) should be avoided. NGOs as well as residents in maintaining the green cover of Seattle. Tree guards should be provided for young trees. 50 Source: Trees of Delhi, by Pradip Krishen Source:
  51. 51. C03. Tree Planting Zone: Integrated Natural Drainage System Ecology Issues/ Problems: Conventional Storm Water Management Practice: Street flooding, clogged gutters, run-off polluting the Yamuna. High volume of Stormwater runoff treated in combined Waste Water Treatment Plant & discharged. OR, Untreated “runoff” discharged, polluting the Yamuna. Stormwater Tree Pedestrian Gutter Planting walking zone Zone Flooding International Best Practice: “Living Streets” with Integrated Tree Zone and Natural Drainage Systems (NDS) Filtered Stormwater treated in bioswales and wetlands, before discharge into Yamuna. Increased ground- water infiltration; Oil/ pollution/ reduced storm water Run-off loads. TREATMENT Integrated tree-zone & bio-filtration zone “Living Streets” integrated storm water treatment within the tree planting zone of the pavement. Street bio-swale Street bio-swale Conventional street drain GROUND WATER INFILTRATION 51
  52. 52. C03. Tree Planting Zone: incorporating “Living Streets” Ecology Design Guidance: How the Science works: It is sometimes challenging to construct surface stormwater elements while meeting the multiple Filtration: other needs within the City’s rights-of-way, including addressing public safety and public Sediments suspended in mobility needs. stormwater runoff settle out While a template for a hierarchy of living streets would have to be developed, individual project and are deposited on planter engineers may need to further modify the details provided to address local conditions. soil. There are a few guiding principles for the site engineer to consider when designing a Natural Adsorption: Drainage System (NDS) or Living Streets in the street ROW: Pollutants in water attach to Minimize impermeable surfaces: Avoid paving or compacting soils where it is not the surface of plants and soil necessary. This could mean a narrower driveway, a smaller parking area, or use of alternative particles where roots and materials which reintroduce water back into the soil. bacteria can use them. Gentle slopes to slow the flow: When stormwater moves slowly through a system more Storage: pollutants are filtered and more water infiltrates or evaporates. A pipe is designed to move Roots, insects, and worms water at top velocities. Re-grading a ditch with gentler side slopes and a moderately sloping, break up soil, making more broad channel allows water to percolate into the soil. Channel bottoms slopes can be made room for stormwater runoff gentler by adding “steps.” Generally sites with longitudinal slopes greater than 8 percent are Plant Uptake: unlikely candidates for bioretention swale elements. Water, nitrogen, phosphorous Stormwater quantity can be reduced by amending soils and adding vegetation: and trace elements are used * Amended soils: Adding organic compost or mulch to soil improves its ability to for plant function support plants and absorb stormwater. Healthy soil is the backbone of natural drainage systems. * Adding vegetation: Trees and vegetation catch rainfall before it reaches the ground reducing the amount of stormwater runoff. Native shrubs, perennials and small trees planted in natural drainage systems slow the movement of stormwater, encourage infiltration and provide bio-remediation of pollutants. A planting palette to be used in bioswales of Delhi would need to be developed. Additional design guidance: * Longitudinal Slope: Grade elevation through the length of the swale should be flat or gradual. * B The soils for use in bioretention systems should be designed for Stormwater Code compliance using the City's Bioretention Soil Specification and must be used upstream. * Culverts/Pipes: Minimum 10-inch diameter culvert should be used with a minimum slope of 1.0%. A trash rack should be placed on upstream end of all culvert inlets receiving flow from 10-acres or greater. Use a minimum opening of 4-inches. 52 Source:
  53. 53. C04. Street Lighting Dublin, Ireland In Delhi – street lighting is generally prioritized for vehicles and designed for them, while lighting for the pedestrian is most often forgotten. Safety Mobility Lighting needs of pedestrians are different from those of vehicular traffic and & Amenity therefore need to be designed and integrated within the overall lighting strategy for the street. This would aid the safety of pedestrians on pavements after dark. Integrated MAIN PRINCIPLES: Mobility - Provide optimal lighting for pedestrians. - Light poles must be CLEAR of the pedestrian walking zone. Ecology Safety/Comfort - Provide optimal lighting for pedestrians. - Pedestrian lights should be placed lower and focusing on the pavement. Ecology - Provide FULL cut-off lighting fixtures to prevent spillage of light and wastage of energy, and also prevent night sky light pollution.
  54. 54. C04. Street Lighting: Provide optimum lighting for pedestrians, not just cars Issues/ Problems: Intent: In Delhi – street lighting is Comfortable and attractive nighttime visual environment. generally prioritized for vehicles Sense of security for pedestrians. and designed for them, while Support Streetscape goals of variability and flexibility. lighting for the pedestrian is most Enhance sense of civic vitality after dark. often forgotten. Good visual acuity to facilitate high level of vehicular/pedestrian interaction. 12 - 15 M 3-4 M Tall Roadway Streetlights on medians provide NO lighting or safety for pedestrians on pavements. Tall Streetlights on pavements 3.5 - 5 M tall pedestrian 3.5 - 5 M tall pedestrian Pedestrian lights on also DO NOT provide optimum lights must be provided to lights must be provided to median are pointless, lighting for pedestrians. illuminate pavements. illuminate pavements. and must be removed. Medians are best suited for Trees to reduce HIE. Recommendations: 1. Pedestrian lighting should illuminate the pedestrian walkway - appropriate lighting fixtures not exceeding a height of 4 M from ground grade level should be provided. 2. Pedestrian lights must be provide adjacent to the pavement pedestrian way, not adjacent to the roadway, and should have 2.0 maintained foot candles. Light poles placed on the walkway so 3. All light poles and fixtures must be placed CLEAR of the stipulated pedestrian walkway on the pavement. pedestrians forced on to the road. 54
  55. 55. C04. Street Lighting: Optimize Energy Consumption; Reduce Light Pollution. Ecology Issues/ Problems: Intent: Street Lights often cause glare Provide Ambient Street lighting for pedestrians – without causing glare, over brightness or light pollution. and night pollution. Street lighting, especially for pedestrians walking on pavements is a must to ensure their safety after dark. Street lamps, depending on intensity of use and width of the street – must be provided every 20 - 30 M, focusing light not on the car lanes, but on the pedestrian and bicycle lanes. Over-lighting an outdoor area at night is also not the best solution for either security or safety. Instead, exterior lighting that provides low contrast on critical areas and surfaces (such as pavements and parking areas) actually provides better visual acuity and improves safety. Therefore full cut off fixtures which focus light downwards and allow no light towards the night sky, and also do not cause glare – are required for all public streets. The light color of lamps also affects safety: illuminating objects with products that have high Color Rendering Indexes (CRI) improves visual recognition of people and objects at night. A variety of light fixtures can meet specified standards: A poor quality light fixture Uniform low ambient levels causing glare and night of lighting provides better pollution. visibility for pedestrians. 3 - 4 M. Max. Solar LED lights 55
  56. 56. C04. Street Lighting: Optimize Energy Consumption; Reduce Light Pollution. Standards: Lighting should be accentuated at all intersections and hazard-prone areas. Lighting shall be directed downward at all times (up-lighting should be prohibited). Recessed lighting on the ground along vehicular access ways and pedestrian walkways in highly encouraged. All exterior lighting fixtures shall conform to the shielding requirements. DO THIS Recommended Shielding Requirements: DON’T DO THIS LEAVE CLEAR Tree planting plan and Lighting plans must be prepared in conjunction Location of Lighting fixtures must consider the location of existing and proposed trees. Spacing of fixtures should be based on the intensity of light, height of the fixture and the clearances from tree canopies such that no light is blocked by the summer foliage. Concentrated lighting is especially required where congregation of pedestrians is expected i.e at bus stops, near crosswalks, near street furniture. Under NO CIRCUMSTANCES should the lighting pole interfere with the clearance of the main pedestrian walkway of the pavement. Light pole may preferably be located within the tree-planting zone. 56
  57. 57. C05. Street Amenities San Francisco Streets must accommodate all amenities and facilities needed day to day by pedestrians, cyclists or transit users on Delhi’s streets; as well as general Delhi Safety Mobility citizens. & Amenity In addition, streets are portals for other city level outreach, advertising and public service initiatives that can be provided for citizens with minimal effort… Integrated MAIN PRINCIPLES: Mobility - Provide optimal lighting for pedestrians. - Light poles must be CLEAR of the pedestrian walking zone. Ecology Safety/Comfort - Provide optimal lighting for pedestrians. - Pedestrian lights should be placed lower and focusing on the pavement. Ecology - Provide FULL cut-off lighting fixtures to prevent spillage of light and wastage of energy, and also prevent night sky light pollution.
  58. 58. Street Amenities: Hawker Zones Public Toilets Bus Stops <
  59. 59. C04. Amenities: Public Toilets/ Sulabh Shauchalayas Issues/ Problems: 1 Below is a very common sight on the pavements of Delhi. Provide frequent Public Toilets: The reasons are two-fold: Provide public toilets at a distance of every 800 – 1000 M (10 minute walk) from each other and from any destination. 1) Lack of adequate number of Toilets should be located near every alternate bus-stop and definitely located at each Rapid Transit Station (Metro/BRT). public toilets in close (According to Chinese Standards) For all pavements and public plazas, one toilet must be provided for every 1000 males and proximity to Transit Stops 700 females, daily. and Destinations. Environmental friendly Sulabh Shauchalayas should be built as public toilets as they have the following advantages: 2) The abundance of shady They do not smell boundary walls and lack of They consume very little water and are easy to clean and maintain (in contrast to conventional toilets that require a minimum of active frontages with no 10 litres.) ‘eyes on the street’ - They have potential to tie up with other community based environmental technologies such as biogas production, etc. for encourages such behaviour. heating, cooking, and generating electricity. They provide new employment opportunities for many. Environmentally balanced wastewater treatment based on a duckweed and fish raising (pisciculture) ecosystem that provides economic opportunities for the urban poor. Delhi 59
  60. 60. C04. Amenities: Shading Devices/ Social causes Free Condom Dispensers: 2 Provide SHADING for Bus stops and Waiting Areas Shanghai leads in use of condoms for pedestrians and cyclists. in China To encourage walking and public transit use amongst Delhi Press Trust of India citizens – appropriate shading must be provided at all areas of the public realm – including pavements, bus stops as well Posted online: Friday, as waiting areas near street intersections and crosswalks. July 15, 2005 at 1512 hours IST Trees are essential components of a pavement as they provide both – shading and cooling during summer. With the availability of free condoms, one-fifth of residents of shanghai, Bus stops must be shaded from the sun. China’s largest city, use condoms Waiting areas near crosswalks and street intersections and lead the country in the use of – where generally trees cannot be planted – could have this form of contraception. Free Condom dispensers on other temporary forms of shading in summer, like the streets of Shanghai. Delhi example in China shown below. The proportion of Shanghai’s population using condoms stood at 18.31 per cent in 2004, twice the figure of 9.11 per cent in 1995, three times the country’s average of just 5.3 per cent, according to official statistics. Shanghai, the Communist giant’s commercial hub, is now home to more than 17,000 locations offering free condoms, of which 1,185 are open round the clock. It also has 571 automatic condom dispensers, China Daily reported. More than 40 million free condoms were handed out last year in the city of more than 17 million people. The Shanghai Municipal Population and Family Planning Commission said that since June it has installed a further 330 free condom dispensers in government and commercial office buildings and communities. The Commission is also geared to promoting publicity and awareness of contraception and HIV/aids. It is hoping to bring such education to 85 per cent of Shanghai’s women of childbearing age (15-49) by 2006. Hangzhou, China Source: A shaded waiting area for cyclists and pedestrians at a street intersection in Hangzhou, China. Average summer temperature of Hangzhou is 35°C with high relative humidity. 60
  61. 61. C04. Amenities: Bus stops 3 Provide local bus stops based on walking distances and convenience of pedestrians, not cars! Bus stops must be provided at a maximum distance of 400 M from homes. No two local bus stops should be at a distance more than 800 M from each other. A criteria checklist and standards should be developed for location, design and convenience of bus stops to aid engineers and designers. Example: Shading of bus stops is a must. Multi-modal public transportation Maps must be posted at each busstop – to help in “way-finding” 61
  62. 62. C04. Amenities: Hawker Zones: integrating them with streets. 1.8 M CLEAR Kolkata Delhi A B Not enough clearance for stopping Hawkers 1.8 M CLEAR Hawker zone and moving pedestrians fronting Shops on pavements Hawkers MUST be accommodated every 800-1000 M, if not more frequently – on a public street. They are needed at all commercial centers and must be at walking distance from offices, homes and retail areas. Benefits: They keep streets clean, busy, vibrant and safe. They provide a variety of cheaper food and retail options. They express our culture. They generate self-employment. C Hawker zones at Street Intersections San Diego 62
  63. 63. C04. Amenities: Other Street Furniture… Functional Public Art: SHADED SEATING…. Functional Public Art: “BOOK BENCHES” along Hudson River Waterfront, New York – chair extensions hold up the From Istanbul, for promoting reading. Benches that look like an open book have been roof over your head, while providing a seating place at the same time. placed around the city and each bench carries poems from 18 famous Turkish poets. 63
  64. 64. C06. Signage Safety Mobility & Amenity Signage is critical for pedestrian way-finding and ensuring safety of all road users. Integrated Ecology
  65. 65. C04. Signage: for “Way-finding” of pedestrians and bikes Issues: Signage should help pedestrians Navigate the City with ease and safety: Street Signage for WHO???? 1 3 How do I get to my destination from the Where do I turn……? Obscure Street Signage….. Train Station? 2 4 Where on the street do I walk? Where is the closest bus-stop? (London bus stops signage is visible from very far…) 65
  66. 66. D07. Public Art Concepts / Ideas “Reserved for Drunk Drivers” Public Art in Delhi must be integrated with regular street furniture or other objects to play a dual rol – that of utility as well as aesthetics. Public Art could be a powerful tool of education and outreach. It not only Safety builds civic pride within the citizens, but also teaches behavioral patterns to Mobility & Amenity them. ELEMENTS OF THE URBAN INFRASTRUCTURE USABLE AS PUBLIC ART: Integrated •Pavements •Manholes •Dustbins •Bus Stops Ecology •Blind Walls •Fences and Handrails •Public Toilets •Pavements
  67. 67. D07. Public Art: Manhole covers Manhole Cover Locks: Public Art on Manhole covers….. can help in: a technology to be explored….. • way-finding • generating a sense of place Mobility • expressing the unique culture of character of the neighborhood Chandigarh – manhole covers designed by Le Corbusier Philadelphia Ecology Water is Precious. Let’s Conserve It – Dublin As part of the water conservation campaign for Dublin City, this vinyl sticker Issues: was placed over an actual Anonymous places lead to manhole. It appeared as if vandalism, and many manholes someone had sealed the drain Dublin covers are stolen to be sold in with a giant sink plug. the market, leaving open manholes that are a threat to Guidance Map - Seattle Safety Comfort pedestrian safety. The motif depicts 13 points of interest around downtown and waterfront Seattle with embedded stainless steel dots representing the location of the manhole cover at that point on the map. In this case, it's Pioneer Square. STABILOC Seattle 67
  68. 68. D07. Public Art: Bus Stops Art for Conveying……. SOCIAL MESSAGES Sense of comfort and relaxation…. Mobility Ecology WAY-FINDING MAPS of Public Transport System New York Safety Data of Delhi shows that most women find buses and bus-stops the MOST UNSAFE places in Delhi. Safety Comfort “The most unsafe time out - 40% felt unsafe between 8 and 10 am and 5 and 7 pm. 31% felt unsafe in mid-afternoon. Most unsafe places - 45% identified buses as the most unsafe; 25% the roadside; 6.7% found bus stops...” – A Delhi Police survey on women’s safety, 05 March 2006. Source: Bus stops can be used as canvases of public art conveying messages about anti-eve teasing, anti-molestation of women, anti sexual abuse etc.... San Francisco 68
  69. 69. D07. Public Art: Ideas to be explored…….. Source Separated Dustbins Many of the people of Delhi are either illiterate or unaware of the importance Mobility of source separation of waste. Can there be an Artistic way (graphics, cartoons, drawings) that can convey what kind of waste should go into which bin, and Why? Delhi’s new source separated dustbins which are incomprehensible to the illiterate and low- Ecology income people of the city. Safety Comfort Street banners give a sense of place and identity to unique neighborhoods and destinations of the city. They are easy to install – banner supports can be clamped on the existing streetlamps or other street poles. 69
  70. 70. D07. Public Art: Empty Walls (of public toilets, etc); Fences… On blank Toilet Walls….. On pavement fences… Mobility Ecology Netherlands Boulder, CO Safety Comfort Philadelphia 70
  71. 71. D. Steps & Ideas for IMPLEMENTATION
  72. 72. • Select complete neighborhoods for Pavement and Connectivity improvement • Prioritize areas with maximum pedestrian causalities. An integrated Commercial Pavement An integrated Residential Pavement 72
  73. 73. "Trying to solve a traffic problem by widening the road – is like trying to solve obesity by loosening the belt.”