RoadMap_Slum-Free-Delhi-03aug2010

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Slum Free Delhi Policies & Principles …

Slum Free Delhi Policies & Principles
Presentation to Chief Secretary of Delhi
by Romi Roy and Rakhi Mehra

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  • 23m*3lacs+21m*1lac+9m*15*365

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  • 1. Major Principles and Policy Changes required… For a Slum Free Delhi 2014 - 2024 Presentation to Chief Secretary of Delhi by Romi Roy & Rakhi Mehra 03 Aug 2010
  • 2. RAJIV AWAS YOJNA: DELHI GOVT. POLICY Positive Policies: ? i. Tenure rights to slum dwellers/urban poor as i. Effectively a “Allocation Guideline”: the first step. ii. “Whole City” Approach - With a whole city approach, ii. Eligibility Criteria leaves large vacant land inventory would be made. A citywide plan segments of low-income groups would be made to shift untenable slums to the nearest unaccounted for: possible available vacant land or notified. 31.12.1998 Cut off date Proof iii. Involvement of private bodies. Below 60 K Household Income iv. Planning ahead and providing new affordable housing stock in advance, to prevent future slums. iii. Highly subsidized standard size v. Reservation of low-income housing as a % of all new ownership home fails to address private developments. ground realities. vi. Amendment to Rent Control Legislation, at least to the extent that will enable New Rental Housing Stock to Implications: be created, and on terms governed by the market. vii. Primacy would be given to the provision of • Free/ Subsidized Homes are quickly sold off infrastructure. & people move back to slums. viii.Transit Oriented Redevelopment. • Only 10-20% of current Slum Population is “ELIGIBLE”. But where will the rest go?? Negative Policies: Selection based on arbitrary Eligibility Criteria and • Not a sustainable or “realistic” model. allotment • No long term vision. Source: Consultant, MCD for PPPDept. 2010 not be site relevant. Formulae Slum & JJ that may
  • 3. Policy changes for a Slum Free Delhi 2014 -2024: 1. Plan long term, not stop-gap – Need proactive & reactive Regional Strategies and Whole City Approach - TOD* 2. Don’t tempt more migration – Provide NO Subsidy for homes. Subsidize Land only, if required. 3. One Size does not Fit All – allow customization of products to socio socio- economic needs – Provide a range of Rental and Ownership options for self-selection. 4. Prevent social stigma and marginalization – Create symbiotic mixed- income mixed-use communities. 5. De-pressurize existing city Infrastructure – Mandate natural/ pressurize decentralized infrastructure on all new projects. 6. Reduce municipal dependency – Empower the Community. *TOD = Transit Oriented Development is the process of integrated Transportation, Infrastructure and Landuse Planning which maximizes public transportation usage and best optimizes population growth with infrastructural and transportation investment investments.
  • 4. TOD Definition: “Transit-Oriented Development (TOD) is compact, high-density, Oriented mixed use development near new or existing public transportation infrastructure that provides housing, employment, entertainment and civic functions within walking distance of transit. Integration of Transportation, Infrastructure and Landuse Planning in TOD - maximizes public transport usage and best optimizes population growth with infrastructural and transportation investments. *TOD at NCT level is already initiated by UTTIPEC. It needs to be initiated at NCR level by NCRPB, urgently.
  • 5. 1. Plan long term, not stop stop-gap – Need Regional and Whole City Approach - TOD Source: Times of India, Nov 2009 RRTS must be built to incentivize growth of sub sub-cities to minimize immigration into Delhi – Employment Centres should be decentralized to decongest Delhi.
  • 6. 1. Plan long term, not stop stop-gap – Need Regional and Whole City Approach - TOD Most of Delhi will be within 5 min walking/cycling/rickshaw distance of proposed MRTS. Housing Stock required as per MPD-2021: 170 K per year 55% of Total = BPL + EWS 95 K per year For every 100 new homes Current Masterplan provided in the city, 55 homes must be for the urban poor! Restructured TOD TOD-based Masterplan
  • 7. TOD Scenario Building: Densification along RRTS & MRTS to accommodate immigrating population has huge Savings… Base Case TOD Vision Sprawl Densify near Stations New Infrastructure Costs Annual Vehicle Hours Traveled Annual Transit Trips Vision Scenario 3.6 Vision Scenario 394 Vision Scenario 132 Base Case 7.1 Base Case 443 Base Case 96 0 2 4 6 8 200 250 300 350 400 450 0 50 100 150 Billions of Dollars Millions of VHT Millions of Trips Romi Roy UTTIPEC
  • 8. • Infill/ New / Redevelopment Potential Analysis: within 500 500-1500 M of MRTS • Potential for accommodating affordable housing stock on Transport lands. • Designing viable financial models for affordable housing provision Source: Graphics Source: Nishant Lall (nishant.lall@gmail.com) Consultant, MCD Slum & JJ Dept. 2010 Credits: LA Now Project, University of California, Los Angeles
  • 9. Whole City Approach: Infill & Densification Potential Study for Inner City : Study 1500 M from MRTS Stations for: Potential for Densification. Potential for Infill on empty/ under-utilized sites. Potential sites for accommodating missing social infrastructure. Source: Graphics Source: Nishant Lall (nishant.lall@gmail.com) Consultant, MCD Slum & JJ Dept. 2010 Credits: LA Now Project, University of California, Los Angeles
  • 10. Whole City Approach: Planning New Mixed : Mixed-income Communities in Outskirts Typical New Community Layout: All new or redeveloped high-density 1500 M walking radius housing must be within 1500-2000 M walk/ cycling distance from an MRTS Station. Housing options must be clustered with local employment opportunities – both formal and informal. This includes proximity to High-income groups to provide informal employment. To avoid the creation of large “planned slums”, New low-income groups must be integrated in small clusters within mixed- income mixed-use neighborhoods. This also allows cross-subsidization of physical and social infrastructure for low- Low income housing income groups. (Size < 500 families) Rapid Transit Station High/ Middle income housing (Metro/ BRT) Commercial Offices/ Light Industrial Schools/ Libraries/ Civic uses Source: Consultant, MCD Slum & JJ Dept. 2010 Public Parks Image Source: Paromita (Romi) Roy
  • 11. 1. Plan long term, not stop stop-gap – Need Regional and Whole City Approach - TOD Steps to Implement for Whole City/ Whole Region Approach: a) Conduct integrated Transport and Population/ Employment Modeling to project how NCR & NCT Population and Employment projections would be accommodated along Transit Corridors – evaluate phased growth and absorption potential along RRTS/ MRTS corridors. b) Commission a City/ Regional level Market Study to understand trends/ demands/ projections of the Market, such that strategies can be made prudent without making loss-making investments. (similar to Mumbai McKinsey Vision making report) c) Develop a matrix of customized Public Sector and Private Sector (PPP) Strategies for provision of low-income housing. income d) Set “real” and stringent Targets for implementation (by various agencies including DUSIB, DSIIDC, DDA, DMRC, Transport Dept, etc.)
  • 12. 2. Don’t tempt more migration – Provide NO Subsidy for homes. Subsidize Land only, if required.
  • 13. • Give Tenure Rights at a cost, OR CROSS SUBSIDIZED: Land • Develop with Remunerative uses to cross cross-subsidize cost of land. • NOT TO BE SUBSIDIZED. • Funded through (Public or Private) Developer investment NOT SUBSIDIZED: Home Cost and personal/ group savings. • People have to pay full cost of home construction, as per their paying capacities. • Government funded and built CROSS SUBSIDIZED: Services • Cross Cross-subsidized through Mixed-use Mixed income neighbourhood developments. Economic • Funded through Group Group-pooling and Micro-finance NOT SUBSIDIZED: schemes, partnering with NGOs+CBOs. prosperity
  • 14. Cross Subsidies can generate “pool funds” for Amenities & Services… Direct subsidies towards housing cost should not be provided as this is not a feasible and sustainable model for the city to finance. Moreover, providing subsidized flats only tempts or induces people to sell or rent them out immediately in order to increase their liquid incomes, and therefore does not actually solve the housing problem. • Cross Subsidization - for Land, infrastructure and common amenities, NOT homes. • Symbiosis through Proximity b/w HIG & EWS. • Common Shared Amenities – Schools, Parks, Markets Low Income Housing Units Secondary Street / Lane Mid-High Income Housing/ Main Street Commercial Uses (High Visibility / Commercial Value)
  • 15. 3. One Size does not Fit All – Allow customization of products to socio socio-economic needs. – Provide a range of Rental and Ownership options for self self-selection. – Enable financing, not provide.
  • 16. – Conduct Socio-Economic Surveys to determine Economic product relationship to income brackets brackets…. Average Monthly Possible Income Target Product EXISTING HOUSING Above Rs. 15,000/ 10 million MARKET Rs. 12,000/ 23 million INTERESTED IN (~1.5 Lakh p.a.) HOME OWNERSHIP Rs. 5,000/ LOOKING FOR (~60,000 p.a.) 21 million RENTAL Rs. 2,500/ 9 million NEED FOR (~30,000 p.a.) SHELTERS Source : All India Survey, Monitor Group 2008 microHomeSolutions  Feb 2010
  • 17. Affordability & Upward Mobility Options are Location & Product Sensitive New low- income immigrants MOST Inner City individual Ownership with smallest allowable unit sizes. EXPENSIVE: NEW MIXED INCOME COMMUNITIES: Outer City individual Ownership near transit, with larger unit sizes. with shared amenities Cooperative / Group Ownership Options near Employment Provide & Transit Centres Upward Mobility Options Outer City Rent to Ownership Options Low-income or ‘slum’ population Inner City Rental (shared or single) - YEARLY Inner City Rental (shared or single) - MONTHLY Inner City (shared (shared or -single) - DAILY Rental Rental or single) MONTHLY LEAST EXPENSIVE Rental (shared or - NIGHT MONTHLY Rental (shared or single) - MONTHLY Inner City Rental single) - SHELTERS
  • 18. Affordability & Upward Mobility Options are Location & Product Sensitive Target Population Apt/ Unit Leasing Housing Demand Supply Price of Loan Savings/ The following types of size Solution Unit Amount Mortgage housing also need to Middle to high income 3 room & Private be included in the ▪ Ownership developer driven families above housing mixed-housing variety Low to medium income required for the city – Private ▪ families with the 2/ 3 room Ownership developer driven Only ~45% to ensure that low- ability obtain a Adequate mortgage housing of total supply rate? income housing is not demand? taken over by other Low to medium income categories of home Private young couples/ ▪ 2/3 room Ownership developer driven seekers, e.g: singles with an ability housing obtain a mortgage 1/2 room Home for the Aged. Low to medium income Private (serviced No formal ▪ Singles with short Rental developer driven ? term housing needs apartments, housing supply Youth Hostels. studios, etc) Service Apartments for Low to medium income Mainly Govt., Inadequate young professionals. ▪ families with small 1/2 room Rental Also privately ? supply Govt. Housing for low- personal savings produced. income employees. Low income families with uncertain income/ Shared Short-term Govt. produced Inadequate Working women’s ▪ ? hostels. contracted or daily room Rental & managed. supply wage workers, etc. Small-unit rental Low income singles/ Shared housing. Daily Govt. produced Inadequate ▪ families with negligible Night ? Rentals & managed. supply income Shelter
  • 19. Modular 25 sq.m. Units can adapt to various cost/ income brackets. . Ownership Units: Typical Size = 25 sqm : Foundation/ DU Total D.U.Size Unit sizes Plinth Brickwork Constructi 10 % profit (Sq.m) (sq.ft.) Earthwork Structure Brickwork for walls etc Finishing Toilet on Cost margin CPWD Rates for slum Development = 600/sft Individual Individual 25 269 5000 269000 301400 25 m2 One bedroom Medium size kitchen Independent Toilet
  • 20. Modular 25 sq.m. Units can adapt to various cost/ income brackets. . Dormitory Units: Typical Size = 25 sqm Shared Toilet between 2 “units” sqm; Shared Toilet/ Bathroom for 10-12 persons Per unit Sale price Number of Const. Cost Rental/Sale per unit Specifications Units (Rs) price /sqm (Rs) Area of Dormitory ( 6 per room) 36.25 362500 Number of Dormitories 50 4500 Rs 25 p/p per day Total Square metre 1812.5
  • 21. Modular 25 sq.m. Units can adapt to various cost/ income brackets. . Rental Units: “Half” Units = 12.5 sqm Shared Toilet between 2-4 families sqm; DU Total 10 % profit D.U.Size Unit sizes Foundation/Pli Brickwork Constructi margin (Sq.m) (sq.ft.) Earthwork Structure nth Brickwork for walls etc Finishing Toilet on Cost CPWD Rates for slum Development = 1000/sft Lumsum (per unit ) 12 129 2500 129000 144650 12.5 m2 Individual Kitchen Shared bathroom Shared Toilet/ Bathroom for 10-12 persons
  • 22. Modular 25 sq.m. Units can adapt to various cost/ income brackets. . MIG Units : “Double” Units = 50 sqm Building Height and inclusion vs. exclusion of Lifts – creates further variations in per-unit costs for MIG. Sale price Number of Per unit Const. Rental/Sale per unit Specifications Units Cost (Rs) price /sqm (Rs) Area of MIG Apartment 72.5 725000 18000per sqm 1305000 Number of MIG apartments 150 Total Square metre 10875
  • 23. Affordability & Upward Mobility Options are Location & Product Sensitive Option 1 Option 2a Option 2b Option 3 “Made for Rent” “Live in Harmony” “Cross and Mix” “Rent today Own tomorrow” Density = 600 du/ha FAR = 4 Model for Cross Subsidy to Encourage Rent-to- (As per MPD) (as per MPD) partly recover opportunity Ownership model cost of Land All G+4; High % of MIG Rentals Encourage micro- Cost Effective Ideal for generating funds for mortgage financing. Highest Density other Site + Services High (50%) of Rental Projects Suitable for most sites. Ideal for sites within Ideal for Inner City sites with Model most suitable for 500m of MRTS high current land value. NEW industrializing areas. catchments. Ideal for sites within 500 M of MRTS catchments, for generating Revenue. *Sample Mix Options developed for Mongolpuri Pilot Site.
  • 24. Various mix of unit types can yield different Cross-Subsidy Scenarios Carpet Option 1 Option 2 Option 3 Portfolio Product Offering area/ unit (units) (units) (units) Mix 1 Rentals- Dormitory 25 sqm 166 130 35 50 2 Ownership- LIG 25 sqm 189 215 402 400 3 Ownership- MIG 50 sqm 103 500 132 150 4 Twin Room Rental 25 sqm 496 312 160 260 5 Micro Enterprises 25 sqm 88 88 13 45 6 Commercial Office 25 sqm 0 0 105 7 Commercial Retail 762 sqm 0 0 3 # FAR 2.3 4.0 2.4 2.4 # Density Achieved 561 1038 540 640 du/ha # Total Units 957 1158 729 905 du Profitability (%) 13.10% 49.67% 122.62% 23% over 10 years *Sample Mix Options developed for Mongolpuri Pilot Site.
  • 25. Socio-Economic Analysis is critical for generating Affordable Mix Scenarios: Environmental Suitability • Existing Capacity (Nallahs, floodplains, etc.) • How much more needed? SOI • Is decentralized Infrastructure Infrastructure Services Physical feasible? Survey Social Amenities • Space requirements for (Schools/ Parks/ Clinics/ etc. as /MPD) additional infrastructure… Proportion of Renters vs. • Renters interested Home Owners • Home Owners Paying Capabilities • Is decentralized Infrastructure Test Socio- feasible? Economic Local Economic Synergies • Unit Design/ Composition: Site • 12 sq m Survey Lifestyle Requirements • 18 sq. m • 25 sq m Social Networks, NGOs/CBOs • Space requirements for social activities Bio-Metric Eligibility Beneficiary Allocation Survey Ineligibility Many Affordable Options – Rental or Ownership Type of In-Situ Strategy Situ Upgradation, Redevelopment, Ward/ Assembly Level or local Relocation
  • 26. 4. Prevent social stigma and marginalization – Create symbiotic mixed-income mixed income mixed-use communities.
  • 27. Large dislocated groups of people become “Planned Slums” Large resettlement colonies – become crime-infested, marginalized “social ghettos” with inadequate infested, infrastructure and negative self-respect; besides being disconnected from informal employment sectors. respect; Dakshinpuri, Delhi Seelampur, Delhi Seemapuri, Delhi
  • 28. Bring in Cross-investment in current marginalized neighbourhoods. investment Instead of sending more people to poorer areas like Bhavana, Savda Ghevra, etc. – we need to attract private investment here and bring in more MIG and HIG groups. Concentrations of very low-income in clusters larger income than 500 families in one location must be avoided. Instead they may be dispersed throughout the Before community in smaller clusters, for better integration into the overall community. Investment and introduction of new community uses, small offices and cultural facilities near Fruitvale Metro Station gradually transformed the area from a ‘highest crime-rate’ area to a City level attraction. rate’ After Images Source: The Unity Council
  • 29. All new developments in Outskirts must be mixed mixed-income mixed-use. Typical New Community Layout: 1500 M walking All new or redeveloped high-density radius housing must be within 1500-2000 M walk/ cycling distance from an MRTS Station. Housing options must be clustered with local employment opportunities – both formal and informal. This includes proximity to High-income groups to provide informal employment. To avoid the creation of large “planned slums”, New low-income groups must be integrated in small clusters within mixed- income mixed-use neighborhoods. This also allows cross-subsidization of Low income housing physical and social infrastructure for low- (Size < 500 families) Rapid Transit Station (Metro/ BRT) income groups. High/ Middle income housing Commercial Offices/ Light Industrial Source: Schools/ Libraries/ Civic uses Consultant, MCD Slum & JJ Dept. 2010 Public Parks Image Source: Paromita (Romi) Roy
  • 30. 5. De-pressurize existing city Infrastructure pressurize – Provide missing social and physical infrastructure. – Mandate natural/ decentralized infrastructure on all new projects.
  • 31. Social & Infrastructure Deficiency Analysis & Infill Potential Analysis: The Analysis to be done on DSSDI’s digital (CAD/ GIS) drawings: a) Current Densities on study site as well as neighboring sites. b) Vacant/ underutilized lands available within the Assembly as well as within 2000 M buffer of MRTS corridors. c) Quality and age of buildings d) Lands within 1500M buffer of MRTS – that are either under-utilized or marked for redensification or redevelopment as per Masterplan or approved Zonal plans. e) Land/ Property ownership. f) Existing infrastructure and utilities (underground/ over ground) and their state. g) Existing environmental constraints and Suitability Analysis of available sites. h) Current access to employment opportunities. i) Current access to education, health care and social infrastructure, and corresponding deficiencies as per MPD-2021 norms. j) Existing environmental constraints and Topography – and corresponding ‘Suitability Analysis’ of available sites.
  • 32. Water Crisis - 90% of Wasted Water in City can be Recycled and Reused. Reduce Water Demand: Use “water efficient” fixtures Reduce Water Loss: Install leakage monitoring devices in the supply system Recycle & Reuse Water: Recycle water through Natural Sewage Treatment According to the MPD 2021, pg. 148: • About 40 percent of the treated water supplied by the DJB daily is never used for drinking. Instead it is used for domestic chores, including flushing of toilets. • The avoidable wastage has continued for years even as the city's demand for drinking water is rising by 20MGD per year. • The level of groundwater is decreasing at a rate of 0.5 m per annum.. Surplus recycled water can be used for Ground Water Recharge. ~210 lpcd of water can be recycled Recycled water can be used for ~90 lpcd of non-potable uses
  • 33. Decentralized Infrastructure should be mandatory for all projects. Since there is limited possibility to lay new Sewers & Potable Water is severely deficient, low low-cost DECENTRALIZED INFRASTRUCTURE methods must be an integral part of all Slum upgradation or new or redevelopment projects. Natural Storm Water Management Street bio-filtration bed 1) Treat at Source: Use street-swales or raingardens to filter and convey water naturally. Small Biogas Plants This also helps save on piping cost, while providing additional greenery. The “floating” type biogas plant at a Working Women's Hostel, Trivandrum Parks/ Detention 2) Capture and Convey Naturally: Parks and Open spaces should be multi-used as detention ponds Sewage Treatment Beds during rainy seasons, while remaining usable green spaces for the rest of the year. to provide 80% recycled water. Wetland Detention Pond A natural sewage treatment facility 3) Final treatment of remaining storm water can take place at a natural implemented in Bombay University treatment wetland or a conventional facility. by NEERI
  • 34. Integrate Infrastructure with Transportation Corridors. Integrate Decentralized Infrastructure Systems into planning of upcoming MRTS corridors. Densification along MRTS corridors will also ensure concentrated demand along MRTS, thus increasing efficiency and optimizing Example: Besides, Japan, New York, etc. many cities in Taiwan investment. have incorporated common utility ducts into their MRTS designs. *Source: Dept. of Rapid Transit Systems, Taipei
  • 35. 6. Reduce municipal dependency – Empower the Community.
  • 36. Role of Community Based Organizations from onset – is critical for success! • In Mumbai, the secret of success lies in the involvement of localized Community Based Organizations (CBOs) at all stages of Slum Rehabilitation: 1) Conducting of Socio-Economic Surveys 2) Mobilizing the entire community’s Women to start small Savings and subsequently lending/ Savings, borrowing small group loans, etc. (Mahila Milan) 3) Making Small loans available for families to make investments in cottage industries, children’s education, home improvements, etc. 4) Selecting Community Representatives to run, maintain and oversee their own Community Toilets. 5) Facilitating the employment of local people in local construction and maintenance activities. 6) Addressing community grievances and self-policing policing.
  • 37. • Develop with Renumerative uses to cross-subsidize housing and services. • Government funded and built • Funded through (Public or Private) Developer investment OR, personal/ group savings. • Funded through Group-pooling and Micro-finance Schemes. • Funded through Group-pooling and Micro-finance schemes, partnering with NGOs+CBOs. Maintenance- Economic Land Services Construction Upgradation prosperity G O V T. R O L E NGOs C. B. O. R O L E
  • 38. Financing Government: Loans Land Cost Basic Infrastructure NGOs Cooperative/ Home Cost Bank or MFI Group Savings Education Cottage industry
  • 39. Micro-Finance Institutions Finance NGOs Building Training/ Healthcare Investment Materials Expertise + Education capital Banks Government Long term Homes Loans prosperity Encourage Labour Time Skill-building Saving NGOs Self-Help Groups/ CBOs Help
  • 40. Policy changes for a Slum Free Delhi 2014 -2024: 1. Plan long term, not stop-gap – Need proactive & reactive Regional Strategies and Whole City Approach - TOD* 2. Don’t tempt more migration – Provide NO Subsidy for homes. Subsidize Land only, if required. 3. One Size does not Fit All – allow customization of products to socio socio- economic needs – Provide a range of Rental and Ownership options for self-selection. 4. Prevent social stigma and marginalization – Create symbiotic mixed- income mixed-use communities. 5. De-pressurize existing city Infrastructure – Mandate natural/ pressurize decentralized infrastructure on all new projects. 6. Reduce municipal dependency – Empower the Community. *TOD = Transit Oriented Development is the process of integrated Transportation, Infrastructure and Landuse Planning which maximizes public transportation usage and best optimizes population growth with infrastructural and transportation investment investments.
  • 41. Shelter Improvement Board Existing Existing Slum New EWS/ LIG New MIG/ HIG/ Resettlement Upgradation/ Redev. Stock Cross-subsidy Uses Colonies Internal Shelter Board Core Team External Consultants required for: (conceptualizing, monitoring, streamlining, overseeing implementation): 1. Topo/ Total Station Survey 2. Socio-Economic Survey Socio 1. Architect, Urban Designer 3. Architect/ Designer (for Working Drawings) 2. Urban Planner 4. Decentralized Infrastructure Design Team 3. Sociologist, Anthropologist (detailed systems design) 4. Community Finance Expert 5. Real Estate Economist (must be sub-consultant 5. Real Estate Specialist with Architect or developer) 6. Decentralized Infrastructure 6. Anthropologist (co-consultant with Architect team) specialist 7. Legal consultant
  • 42. Shelter is a human right, not Apartment Titles