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Affordable Housing MoHUPA & Dept. of Housing, SPA Delhi
 

Affordable Housing MoHUPA & Dept. of Housing, SPA Delhi

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Submitted to Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation through National Resource Centre, SPA, in April 2009.

Submitted to Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation through National Resource Centre, SPA, in April 2009.

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    Affordable Housing MoHUPA & Dept. of Housing, SPA Delhi Affordable Housing MoHUPA & Dept. of Housing, SPA Delhi Presentation Transcript

    • Spatial Inclusion and Sustainable Design of Low-income communities Paromita (Romi) Roy April 2009 For JNNURM Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation, Source: lecercle at flickr.com Govt. of India
    • Contributors: Romi (Paromita) Roy, Architect and Urban Design Consultant, India Dr. Neelima Risbud, Professor of Housing, School of Planning and Architecture Ran Chen, LEED AP, Architect and Urban Planner, China Shivani Langer, AIA, LEED AP, Architectural Consultant, USA. Nishant Lall, Architect and Urban Design Consultant, India Sustainable Low Income Community Standards 2
    • CONTENTS 1. Background 2. Need for Sustainable Affordable Housing 3. Design Principles for Spatial Inclusion and Sustainable Design of low-income communities and International Case Studies: • Economic Sustainability Principles • Social Sustainability Principles • Environmental Sustainability Principles • Appropriate Planning and Sustainability Standards 4. Next steps of Study Sustainable Low Income Community Standards 3
    • Section 1: BACKGROUND :
    • PREMISE Excerpts from U.N. 2007 Conference for Revision of World Urbanization Prospects: “…more than 70 % of the population in Europe, North America, and many other richer developed countries already live in urban areas” “India (currently) has 29% percent of its population living in urban areas, by 2050 it is expected to have 55% percent of its population, in cities.” A city needs cheap labour for menial jobs to keep production costs low and maintain the standard of living of the better off. The poor are the source of that labour. “…increasing urbanization will go hand in hand with economic growth." Are we ready for 25% urbanization increase by 2050? Sustainable Low Income Community Standards 5
    • Background The Need for addressing the issue of Providing “Affordable Housing to All” has been realized and addressed recently in the “National Urban Housing and Habitat Policy 2007” by the Ministry of Housing & Urban Poverty Alleviation, New Delhi. As the Economy of the Country is growing, higher rates of urbanization are unavoidable. India’s urban population in 2001 was 286.1 million, which was 27.8% of the total population. Over the previous five decades, annual rates of growth of urban population ranged between 2.7 to 3.8%. By 2041 it is expected that 50% percent of India’s population will be living in urban areas. “Urban” in India is defined as a human settlement with a minimum population of 5000 persons, with 75% of the male working population engaged in non-agricultural activities and a population density of at least 400 persons per sq. km.” The above paper also highlights the mismatch between demand and supply of housing units. 99% of the housing shortage of 24.7 million at the end of the 10th Plan pertains to the Economically Weaker Sections (EWS) and Low Income Groups (LIG) sectors. Further, the National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO) 61st Round reports that the number of urban poor has risen by 4.4 million persons, between 1993-94 to 2004-05. It is, therefore, of vital importance that a new National Urban Housing and Habitat Policy carefully analyses ways and means of providing the ‘Affordable Housing to All’ with special emphasis on the EWS and LIG sectors. The “National Urban Housing and Habitat Policy 2007” paper identifies clearly the need to provide sustainable affordable housing based on some of the following issues: Lack of Housing Stock. • At the advent of the 21st Century (2001), the housing stock in India stood at 50.95 million for 55.8 million urban households. Significant segments of this housing stock was characterized by congestion and obsolescence. Congestion is particularly acute in inner city slums and peripheral slums. According to the Census 2001, 61.82 million persons or 23.1% of the urban population resides in slums. The quality of housing stock in slums is extremely poor. An important reason for this is insecurity of tenure. Slums are also severely deficient in basic services such as potable water, sanitation, sewerage, storm water drainage and solid waste disposal. • The magnitude of housing shortage was estimated by a Technical Group in the context of formulation of the 11th Five Year Plan. The Technical Group estimated the housing shortage at the end of the 10th Plan to be around 24.7 million for 67.4 million households. The Group further estimated that 99% of this shortage pertains to EWS & LIG sectors. During the 11th Plan, the Group estimated that the total housing requirement (including backlog) will be to the tune of 26.53 million units for 75.01 million households. • Whereas more than 23% of the urban population resides in slum (Census:2001), a much higher proportion of the urban population of metropolitan cities lives in slums; it is estimated that 55% of the population of Mumbai lives in slums. It is of critical importance that the strategy of in-situ slum upgradation is adopted for preponderant proportion of the slum dwellers, since they provide valuable services to residents living close to their own dwelling places. Sustainable Low Income Community Standards 6
    • Lack of Health and Hygiene in low-income communities. • Given the degraded habitat in which slum dwellers live and the frequent episodes of illness characterizing slum families, it is of vital importance that special attention is paid to urban health and hygiene on the one hand and social and preventive medicine on the other hand. In order to improve the quality of life in urban areas, it is of critical significance that the housing stock is improved through urban renewal, in situ slum improvement and development of new housing stock in existing cities as well as new townships. Further, the enhancement of housing stock must be accompanied with high quality provision of basic services. It is a well established fact that safe, hygienic and spacious provisioning of housing duly buttressed with adequate basic services and a congenial habitat promotes significant improvement in productivity of workers. Increase in Urban Poverty. • Non-affordability of housing by economically weaker sections of society and low income families in urban areas is directly linked with the magnitude of urban poverty. The NSSO reports that the number of the urban poor has risen by 4.4 million persons during 2004-05. One fourth of the country’s total urban population, numbering 80.7 million persons is below the poverty line. The urban poor constitute 26.7% of the total poor in the country. The fact that the number of urban poor has risen is in stark contrast with rural poverty, where both the total number of rural poor and its incidence vis-à-vis the rural population has fallen. • The urban poor have limited access to basic services. According to the 2001 census, there is a 9% deficiency in drinking water, 26% in toilets and 23% in drainage. It is quite understandable that most of this shortage pertains to Slums. Need for Sustainable Habitat. • Development of sustainable habitat is closely related to the adoption of ‘the Regional Planning approach’ while preparing Master Plans of towns/ cities, District Plans and Regional/Sub-Regional Plans. It involves maintenance of the ecological balance in terms of a symbiotic perspective on rural and urban development while developing urban extensions of existing towns as well as new integrated townships. • Promotion of sustainable habitat is closely linked with reserving a significant proportion of the total Master Plan area as ‘green lungs of the city’ (e.g. Master Plan for Delhi 2021 provides 20% of green areas), protecting water bodies with special emphasis on the flood plains of our rivers and developing green belts around our cities. Recreational land use refers to parks, playfields and other open space such as specified park, amusement park, maidan, a multipurpose open space, botanical garden, zoological parks, traffic parks, etc. • The new Habitat Policy reaffirms the importance of small and medium urban agglomerates/towns which have potential for future urban growth. The new Policy seeks to accelerate the development of such small and medium towns which can serve as generators of economic momentum while at the same time striving to reduce the rate of migration to existing large cities. The need for “Sustainable Affordable Housing” has been realized above. Efforts have been made to provide low income housign through policy changes and planning regulations applied in cities all over India. However, a clear understanding of sustainability is amiss in all previous and current initiatives. The need for addressing sustainability in the spatial and social integration, economic viability and prosperity, and sensitivity to climatic, social and community comfort – has not yet been recognized. Sustainable Low Income Community Standards 7
    • Section 2: NEED FOR SUSTAINABLE AFFORDABLE HOUSING.
    • Issue 1: Spatial and social integration into the larger urban community. Delhi has a long history of forced eviction of ‘illegal’ squatter or slum communities, and an equally long history of immigration into the city. As the city of Delhi expanded and its land increased in commercial value, the un-propertied/ poor were pushed to the periphery and, thereby, were the first to subsidize the current development process at the cost of their access to regular employment and livelihood opportunities, education, health care and other social necessities. Issues to think about: The low-income population was originally living in “illegal” squatter settlements or slums or JJC – because there was not adequate affordable housing supply for them in the centre city – when they originally arrived in the city to work and aid in its economic growth. Displaced low-income population is most often located at the outskirts of the city. This puts tremendous pressure on the transport infrastructure of the city, as well as the finances of the low income families – as they have to now commute every day to their place of work in the city. Moreover, secondary sources of family income (women working locally, etc.) are often severed, thus making the family poorer. Children are disconnected from schools and new social and physical; infrastructure is not provided. Shared amenities originally available in the city centre are also out of reach after relocation. The above situation often forces the poor to move back into the city and live as squatters or slums in dilapidated conditions again, just to be close to jobs & amenities. Need for Study: It is therefore essential that low income groups are located near their sources of employment and within walking distance of informal sources of employment like higher income households and other amenities within the city. Low income groups need to be “mixed” with other income groups in order to reduce social segregation and stigma and build civic pride. Source: Housing and Land Rights Network, Habitat International Coalition Sustainable Low Income Community Standards 9
    • Issue 2: Current large concentrations of low-income social ‘ghettos’ creating Social Stigma Context and current challenges: In the past, low income communities have generally been located in large concentrations (from 50,000 to 1 lakh population) at a single location, without adequate provision of social amenities and infrastructure services. Such singular concentration of low-income families in one location leads to the creation of social ‘ghettos’ and creates several disadvantages and problems: Due to lack of investment in civic amenities and basic social infrastructure – these areas often perpetuate unemployment, lack of education, crime and very unsanitary living conditions. Mono-cultural concentration leads to perpetration of previous rural lifestyles, delaying the integration of rural immigrants into the urban lifestyle and overall city fabric. Isolation leads to social stigma, and spatial segregation of economic classes. Lack of shared public spaces with higher income groups creates further social Dakshinpuri… segregation and disregard. Very often, low income communities are relocated to new locations with the assurance of basic civic and infrastructure amenities, but many of the requirements are not eventually provided by the authorities due a a variety of reasons. Seelampur, Delhi Seemapuri, Delhi Sultanpuri, Mangolpuri – low income social ghettos of Delhi Image Source: The Tribune, India, 2006 Image Source: Mackenzie Berg, 2008 Sustainable Low Income Community Standards 10
    • Issue 3: Climatic sensitivity and flexibility to socio-economic needs. In Mumbai, slums currently located near transit facilities and employment centres are being relocated away from these basic amenities - to locations in the outskirts of the city. Moreover, the quality of design seems to lack the most basic human right – the right to fresh air and daylight. From a point of advantage, these new slum redevelopment projects have succeeded in providing legitimized and more permanent and stable shelter for the low income people, as well as individualized sanitation and water supply. However, they unfortunately follow the “one type fits all” approach and exhibit no response to the climatic design needs on Mumbai. Spatially, they exhibit no sense of community building, human-scale, social congregation spaces or integrated socio-cultural amenities for the low-income community – and also provide them little flexibility to adapt. Need for Study: It is therefore realized that guidelines are needed to be set for the design of low income housing that respond to local climatic conditions and the socio-economic and cultural needs of the people who will live in these projects. Image Source: Dheeraj Patil, 2008 Image Source: Dheeraj Patil, 2008 Sustainable Low Income Community Standards 11
    • Need. Sustainable affordable housing provision therefore must address all of the above intrinsic issues currently being faced by low income communities in urban areas: - Social integration into the larger urban community. - Social disregard and apathy - Access to inner city employment opportunities; or other local employment opportunities – leading to increased family poverty. - Access to fast and convenient public transit. - Choices and understanding of ‘designers’ in accommodating the flexible needs of the low income populations. - Good and shared public services, resources and amenities. The Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JnNURM) initiative launched in 2005-06 by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation is huge step in the right direction. It aims to encourage cities to bring about improvement in the existing services to make cities more sustainable in social and economic manner. The JnNURM consists of two sub-missions: The urban infrastructure and governance Basic services to urban poor. The main focus areas of JnNURM are as following: Economic Social Integrated development of infrastructure services Securing linkages between asset creation and maintenance for long run project sustainability Accelerating the inflow of investments in urban infrastructure services Planned development of cities including the peri-urban areas, outgrowth and urban Sustainable corridors Development Redevelopment and renewal of inner city areas Universalization of urban services so as to ensure the availability to the urban poor segment of society. Environmental Sustainable Low Income Community Standards 12
    • Section 3: Components of Sustainable Low-income Communities: In-site Upgradation New Sustainable Low-Mixed income Communities Local Local Subsidized Architects, People NGOs Materials. Designers ECONOMIC SOCIAL Urban Infill: Choices, Public Rapid for Existing Mixed income/ Shared public Community Flexibility & Safety Transit Access Employment/ social integration Amenities Involvement Adaptability Amenities ENVIRONMENTAL Energy Water Waste Reduction Local Efficiency Management and reuse Materials APPROPRIATE PLANNING STANDARDS Response to local Climate, Topography & Culture
    • Sustainable New Affordable Housing Sustainable Low Income Community Standards 14
    • Guidelines for Redeveloped or Newly Developed Mixed-use Mixed-income Communities 1. ECONOMIC SUSTAINABILITY: 1.1 Locate low-income groups near existing formal and informal Employment Opportunities. 1.2 Locate near Rapid Public Transit for easy access to employment and civic uses. 2. SOCIO-ECONOMIC SUSTAINABILITY: 2.1 Avoid creating large concentrations of low-income social ‘ghettos’; Integrate low-income groups within larger mixed-income mixed-use communities. Avoid concentrations of a single income group higher than 250 families at one location. - Mixing of income groups helps prevent large concentrations of low income communities in one location, and reduces crime, ensures maintenance of streets and public services. This also provides many informal employment opportunities. - Provide shared public spaces, social amenities and physical infrastructure before habilitation of low-income groups - Incorporate middle to high income groups into existing low-income communities; Facilitate gradual up-gradation of the larger community. 2.2 Provide “Choices” in flexibility of design, use of space, availability of space, tenure, and location of low-income homes. - Provide choice of dwelling unit size based on location and provision of amenities, and upward mobility choices. - Provide flexibility for adaptation of low-income community homes to facilitate home or community based economic activity. 2.4 Involve low-income communities in rehabilitation process, and design and construction of their communities. 2.5 Address Safety: - Street design - that provides adequate street lighting, buildings built up to the street with windows facing the street. - Clear hierarchy of streets with well defined and legible zones for pedestrians, bicycles, buses and cars – would reduce accidents and create safety. - Mixing of income groups as opposed to large concentrations to low income groups in one location - helps reduce crime. - Shared public spaces, social amenities and physical infrastructure allows social interaction of different income groups in common public spaces and helps reduce mutual apathy, generates social ties and reduces crime, thus increasing social security. 3. ENVIRONEMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY: 3.1 Save Energy – Respond to the unique climatic requirements of different cities and climatic zones; for comfort in outdoor and indoor spaces. 3.2 Natural Storm Water Management – Capture and locally treat storm water, Harvest rain water. 3.3 Recycle and reuse waste; Recycle and reuse waste water for the larger community, wherever possible. 3.4 Use local Materials and Construction Techniques. 4. PLANNING FRAMEWORK AND STANDARDS MUST RESULT IN SUSTAINABLE AND AFFORDABLE HOUSING.
    • Sustainability Guidelines for: 1. SITE SELECTION 1.1 Locate low-income groups near existing formal and informal Employment Opportunities. 1.2 Locate near Rapid Public Transit. 16 SITE SELECTION
    • 1 Locate low-income groups near existing Employment Opportunities and near Rapid Public Transit; Low-income groups must be accommodated within 10 minute walking or 10-minute bicycling distance from: Existing formal and informal Employment Opportunities Existing rapid transit stations. This would allow them to reach their employment destinations in the easiest, fasted and cheapest way. Proximity to rapid transit stations would also provide them convenient access to other civic, entertainment and commercial destinations in the city. Existing low-income communities within the city are generally located near current employment centres and other sources of livelihood. Therefore people of these communities should be given the option of upgrading their homes and neighborhoods at the current location itself, and continuing to live near their current places of employment. If the choice of relocation is preferred by some residents, then better quality homes and proximity to transit, adequate employment opportunities and social infrastructure must be provided at the new locations, at various level of affordability and tenure choices. For new immigrants arriving into the city with limited job skills, new homes must be provided within existing or new mixed income communities, so that they can avail of civic and educational benefits of the city and socially integrate into the city faster. They must also be located near public Rapid Transit so that they can travel to potential work centres easily. SITE SELECTION 17
    • 1 Locate low-income groups near existing Employment Opportunities and near Rapid Public Transit; High and middle income groups are important sources of informal employment for low income groups. Many high income families like to have domestic help living close by and are willing to pay for their accommodation. In this scenario, low-income families may either be located within the same compound as the high income groups; or in adjoining pockets or blocks, sharing common public amenities and infrastructure. This helps support the interdependence between different income groups due to close proximity, and yet helps maintain their individual social and cultural identities, without creating social segregation. It also must be noted that low income groups should be located away from high-visibility and high commercial value areas, in order to prevent escalation of unit prices and displacement of the low income population. Low Income Housing Units Secondary Street / Lane . St d ar y c on Se Mid-High Income Housing/ Commercial Uses u e) Main Street et al re al V (High Visibility / Commercial Value) St ci ain mer M m Co i gh (H 18 SITE SELECTION
    • There are several possible options for delivering low- income housing near public rapid transit (i.e. Metro, BRT) and near other middle to high income homes and employment centres: 500 M walking radius Option 1: - Mandatory Reservation for % of low-income housing in private developments near public transit. According to the Delhi Masterplan, all private developments are to provide and maintain 15% of the total FSI for low-income groups. Other states are likely to adopt this mandate under the JNURM guidelines. This would be a mandatory requirement for projects to obtain planning approvals. Option 2: - FSI-density bonuses for market-rate developments to pay for, or construct nearby low-income communities. - Density bonuses for providing and maintaining shared public parks, facilities and social infrastructure. Low income housing Option 3: (Size < 250 families) Rapid Transit Station - Government built low income housing within 800 M High/ Middle income housing (Metro/ BRT) walking distance from a rapid transit stations, limiting the size of each community to a maximum of 250 Commercial families. Offices/ Light Industrial Schools/ Libraries/ Civic uses Public Parks Image Source: Paromita (Romi) Roy SITE SELECTION 19
    • 1 Locate low-income groups near existing Employment Opportunities and near Rapid Public Transit; Challenges: International Case Studies: The Jefferson at Chelsea Station, New York: project includes 455 to 587 residential Case Study in Gurgaon: In Gurgaon, all private developments are units, with structured parking and a mix of rental and home-ownership opportunities required to provide and maintain 20% of the total number of units as low near an existing Subway Station in an existing high-income neighborhood . income housing. 10% of the new units at Jefferson at Chelsea Station will be reserved as Challenges being faced: Due to high quality and very small proportion affordable housing. of low income housing in the private development complexes, these units get illegally sold by the original buyers to rich singles or middle income families, causing the intended low income population to move out to squatter settlements in distant areas. Potential Solution ideas: -The sale and renting of low income homes could be regulated by the housing society. Possibly - only the low income people working within the complex could be allowed to buy/ lease or rent these apartments, for living in along with their families. -Provide shared toilets and other amenities, so that individual units are Jefferson at Chelsea Station, New York City difficult to sell off. -The developer and the high-income home owners could be mandated Wilshire Vermont Station Project, Los Angeles: comprises of a mixed-income, to pay a construction and maintenance fee for low income housing multi-family rental apartment and retail program and a new middle school; all located community at a nearby location (but not within the same complex). near a new Metro Station and Bus Interchange in LA. 20% of the housing units are designated to be “affordable” at 50% of the Area Median Income. Image Source: Urban Partners LLC 20 SITE SELECTION
    • Sustainability Guidelines for: 2. SOCIAL SUSTAINABILITY 2.1 Avoid creating large concentrations of low-income social ‘ghettos’; Integrate low-income groups within larger mixed- income mixed-use communities. -Mixing of income groups helps prevent large concentrations of low income communities in one location, and reduces crime, ensures maintenance of streets and public services. This also provides many informal employment opportunities. -Provide shared public spaces, social amenities and physical infrastructure before habilitation of low-income groups -Incorporate middle to high income groups into existing low-income communities; Facilitate gradual up-gradation of the larger community. 2.2 Provide “Choices” in flexibility of design, use of space, availability of space, tenure, and location of low-income homes. -Provide choice of dwelling unit size based on location and provision of amenities. -Provide flexibility for adaptation of low-income community homes to facilitate home or community based economic activity. 2.4 Involve low-income communities in rehabilitation process, and design and construction of their communities. 2.5 Address Safety: -Street design - that provides adequate street lighting, buildings built up to the street with windows facing the street. -Clear hierarchy of streets with well defined and legible zones for pedestrians, bicycles, buses and cars – would reduce accidents and create safety. -Mixing of income groups as opposed to large concentrations to low income groups in one location - helps reduce crime. -Shared public spaces, social amenities and physical infrastructure allows social interaction of different income groups in common public spaces and helps reduce mutual apathy, generates social ties and reduces crime, thus increasing social security. SOCIAL SUSTAINABILITY 21
    • Principles: The above critical issues can be addressed through two main strategies: a) All new housing for low-income housing must be incorporated in groups not larger than 250 families - as part of larger mixed-income communities which include middle to higher income groups, and existing shared amenities like public parks, schools, healthcare facilities and public transit access. b) Incorporate middle to high income groups into existing low-income Image Source: Mybranda.com communities; to facilitate gradual up-gradation of the larger community. Case Study: Carter Road Promenade: developed by the Bandra West Residents c) Shared public spaces, social amenities and physical infrastructure must Association (BWRA) is used by people of all age groups and income levels…. be provided before habilitation of low-income groups. Parks, plazas, community centres, libraries and health care centres, along with adequate number of police stations should be located such that all income groups can use and interact in the same space. Such social interaction reduces mutual apathy, helps generate social ties and reduces crime, thus increasing social security in the long run. Locating smaller groups of low income families within a higher or mixed income community also helps cross subsidize their homes, as well as shared public amenities and civic infrastructure. Investments in civic amenities like parks, community centres, health centres, and water and sanitation service provision and maintenance can be shared by the overall community. This also facilitates future possibilities of joint investments in alternative sources of energy, water and waste treatment technologies. Note: Individual toilets (as opposed to shared ones) should be provided wherever possible – to ensure safety and privacy for women. Image Source: Mybranda.com 22 SOCIAL SUSTAINABILITY
    • 2.1 a) Avoid creating large concentrations of low-income social ‘ghettos’; Integrate low-income groups within larger mixed income mixed use communities. International Case Study: Redeveloping low-income social ghettos as The Hope VI Community Development Projects, United States, since 1993. Since the mid-nineteenth century, the US, much like India, continued to provide low cost public housing for low income populations in its larger cities, concentrating them in large single income neighborhoods. By the late 1980s, these large concentrations of low income communities had deteriorated into physically and socially distressed neighborhoods, marked by significantly high crime rates and years of disinvestment in civic infrastructure. To amend this situation, the Hope VI Community Redevelopment Law was passed in 1993 aiming at a full transformation of the nation’s most distressed public housing neighborhoods. After several years now, the Hope VI Community Development Projects have led to redevelopment and transformation of numerous blighted, high-crime, public housing “ghettos” all of the country into thriving mixed income, multi-use communities. Below are significant excerpts from the HUD USER Publication “Hope VI: Community Building Makes a Difference” dated 13 March 2005: Key findings of the report: HOPE VI is helping residents move into the economic mainstream by stressing improved education, job training, and computer literacy. In virtually every HOPE VI site, a range of new educational programs and partnerships has been established. In some cases, new schools have been built. In others, several colleges and universities have become community partners with HOPE VI communities. They offer computer training, job-readiness skills, entrepreneurial business skills, and preparation for the GED and College Board tests. Project examples: in Atlanta, Seattle, Oakland, San Francisco, El Paso Hope VI projects.. HOPE VI is dramatically reducing crime and violence in public housing. Overall crime rates in the communities studied have been reduced by up to 72%. Many of the original HOPE VI developments were places where one could not safely walk the street in the day, much less at night. The drop in violent crime at HOPE VI sites has been dramatic, as high as 72 percent. Project examples: in Oakland, Baltimore and Atlanta. HOPE VI is reducing the isolation of public housing residents. HOPE VI residents, once physically and socially isolated, are now forging ties with mainstream society. In addition to the new education and employment services to help residents find their place in the world of work-new community centers, social service facilities, and recreation centers, and build larger community level ties. Project examples: in Baltimore, Milwaukee, El Paso and Seattle. HOPE VI is leveraging significant investments in community-wide improvements. Before their revitalization, HOPE VI sites were neighborhood eyesores that contained concentrations of extreme poverty, and functioned as havens for drugs and crime. HOPE VI revitalization often became a catalyst for change in the whole area, through community level investments in retail, transit, parks and other civic services. Project examples: in Baltimore, Milwaukee, El Paso and Seattle. Source::“Hope VI: Community Building Makes a Difference”, 2000, US Department of Housing and Urban Development < http://www.huduser.org/publications/pubasst/hope2.html> SOCIAL SUSTAINABILITY 23
    • Inferences from the HUD USER Publication report: Lessons learned in studying these HOPE VI sites include: • Mixed use and mixed income communities integrating low-income housing projects – can become a catalyst for revitalization of the larger neighborhood. • Success is dependent on active community involvement from the start, in order to identify the needs and priorities of the overall community, as well as to shape and implement the strategies needed to address them. • Transformation efforts must be focused on an area of manageable size -- a community whose residents and other stakeholders can get to know each other, feel some measure of control over their environment, and have input into the decisions that affect their lives. • It is essential to have a strategy or master plan in order to coordinate all potential partners. • Housing authorities must build partnerships with experienced nonprofit and for-profit institutions in the larger community (such as police, social service agencies, civic groups, area businesses or business associations, local school systems, and community colleges) in order for residents to move towards self-sufficiency. • Housing authorities must be prepared to adapt to new social needs and protocols, and adhere to a set of short-term, more easily achievable goals, as well as long- term goals. • The case management approach can help pull together a variety of needed services at the local level in the service of a larger vision. But larger, systemic changes that are supportive of this service approach are needed as well. Mandela Gateway: After Redevelopment: a vibrant mixed use Before Redevelopment was a high crime community near West Oakland Station dilapidated neighborhood. © Calthorpe Associates 24 SOCIAL SUSTAINABILITY
    • 2.1 b) Incorporate middle to high income groups into existing low-income communities; to facilitate gradual up-gradation of the larger community. International Case Studies: Curran House, Tenderloin, San Valencia Gardens, Mission District, Francisco: San Francisco: Non-profit developer: Tenderloin Federally funded Hope VI project. Neighborhood Development Corporation + This mixed use project replaced 246 dilapidated SF Mayor’s office. and blighted public housing units with 260 affordable homes for extremely-low and low A high quality affordable housing project built in income families and seniors. a neighborhood rampant with crime, drug abuse The high-quality and mixed use nature of the and homeless people living on the street. The project is intended to make it a signature project project hope to bring in middle to low income in this originally crime ridden neighborhood, families to live in these communities and help making the project the new “Gateway to the transform their character… Mission”. Image Source: Van Meter Williams Pollack, LLP Image Source: David Parker + Partners Architects/ Curran House, Tenderloin (a high crime low-income neighborhood in Downtown San Francisco) Valencia Gardens, Mission District, San Francisco SOCIAL SUSTAINABILITY 25
    • Fruitvale Village, Oakland MVE Architects; Public Private Partnership. Fruitvale BART Station area originally comprised of large surface parking lots and was abutted by a neighborhood with low maintenance, high concentration of low income groups and the highest crime rates in the region. The Fruitvale Village project introduced to the area a mix of mid and low income rental apartments, offices, shops and utility stores, a public library and a large well designed civic plaza which has now transformed the place into a congregation point for the entire community. The plaza now acts as a meeting place for office goers, for shoppers as well as a venue for community festivals and events. Fruitvale Village has transformed the area from a blighted low- income neighborhood to a vibrant destination for the Before community and the entire city. After Images Source: The Unity Council 26 SOCIAL SUSTAINABILITY
    • 2.2 Provide “Choices” and flexibility of design, use of space, availability of space, tenure, and location of low-income homes. a) Existing Low Income Communities should be given a range of choices for new homes – the cheapest option being that families upgrade their homes with the help of local groups and subsidized material provided. In case they prefer to live in larger formalized homes – they would have the choice to relocate to a location distant from their current location but close to MRTS and other employment centres. New low-income immigrants to the city could be given a similar choices – smaller homes near the more expensive city centres, while larger homes would be available in locations away from the city centres. All new low-income housing must have a mix of rental and for-sale housing choices, subject to local trends. This would also provide “upward mobility options” to all economic strata. New low-income immigrants 5) Relocated to new Pre- Most spacious; Largest unit size constructed location: Far from city distant from current centre location but close to transit. NEW MIXED INCOME 4) Relocated New COMMUNITIES: Development: within 2 near transit, km of current location with shared amenities Smaller Unit Size 3) Phased redevelopment: at current location in city 2) In-situ up-gradation Existing Smallest Unit Size (not discussed in this paper) Low-income or ‘slum’ population 1) Daily/ Monthly/ Yearly Rental Options Least spacious; for Safe Shelter Within city centre SOCIAL SUSTAINABILITY 27
    • b) A variety of affordable unit-size choices can be provided based on family size; income level and provision of shared or individualized amenities. 12 m2 Kitchen counter Shared bathroom 35 m2 15 m2 One big bedroom Small kitchen Big kitchen Woonerf Independent bathroom Shared bathroom Small living room 18 m2 Small kitchen Independent bathroom MAIN STREET 45 m2 25 m2 Two bedrooms Big kitchen Shared Toilet/ Bathroom for 20-25 persons One bedroom Medium size kitchen Independent bathroom Independent bathroom Living room 28 SOCIAL SUSTAINABILITY
    • 2.2 Provide “Choices” and flexibility of design, use of space, availability of space, tenure, and location of low-income homes. c) Provide flexibility for adaptation of public spaces in low-income communities to serve their unique cultural and socio-economic needs: Informal and flexible courtyards and public spaces must be incorporated into the design of low-income communities to allow for informal economy to flourish. Mixed uses and adaptability must also facilitated in the design and use of homes, community centres, courtyards and other public spaces. Mumbai – Inferences from the multicultural and multiuse nature of Dharavi The Holi Maidan is Koliwada’s main open public Fish Market: Mapping of Socio-Economic Activities of the The Tool-House: Live-Work Typology of a Kumbarwada space. At the time of the annual Holi Festival, more Market in Relationship to the Morphology of Space: The Potter Family . Many of Dharavi’s residents live and work than 10,000 people gather in and around the Fish Market is the witness of Koliwada’s roots as a at the same site. One must understand that shelter issues central space, including Dharavi Main Road. The traditional fishing village. The fish market has existed at are inextricably tied to residents’ means of livelihood. drawing records the movement of crowds and ritual its current location for the last 70 to 100 years. processions around the central fire. Source: Srivastava, Rahul et al, “Taking the Slum Out of Dharavi”, Feb. 2009, Airoots, <http://www.airoots.org/?s=sra> SOCIAL SUSTAINABILITY 29
    • d) Provide flexibility for adaptation of low-income housing for “home-based” economic and community activities: Social and Circulation spaces in taller buildings Community halls provide living space outside the family’s small apartment. Shared spaces can be used by women’s cooperatives to generate home-employment. From here, women can supervise children at play on terraces, courtyards, etc. Charles Correa – Maharashtra Housing, 1999 Some of the cottage industries of Dharavi…. Image Source: Charles Correa Images Source: Abu Kasinath 30 SOCIAL SUSTAINABILITY
    • 2.2 Provide “Choices” and flexibility of design, use of space, availability of space, tenure, and location of low-income homes. e) Incremental, Expandable and Adaptable low income housing: In cities with lesser growth pressure and lower real estate values, homes could be provided with the possibility of future incremental expansion and adaptability – which would allow families to adapt and prosper as the move higher in the income bracket. Bigger cities do not allow this concept to succeed as land values are too high to leave flexibility and under-utilized land and built space. International Case Study: Elemental Housing Scheme, Chile Alejandro Aravena Architects; Multiple Locations; 1999- Onwards Incremental… Expandable…. Adaptable…. Images Source: Elemental Chile SOCIAL SUSTAINABILITY 31
    • 2.3 Involve low-income communities in rehabilitation process, including the design, construction and maintenance of their communities. 1) Involvement of Community Based Organizations (CBO) facilitated by NGOs is critical to the long term success and integration of low income groups into the larger urban community. 2) The intended population of the new projects should be involved at the design and planning stages of the project itself – for discussion and feedback. This would give them a sense of ownership and understanding of the project and help in the future maintenance and strengthening of the overall community. At least two community meetings should be held (at concept and post-design stages) with the target user population of the development, to solicit ideas, input and feedback on the proposal. Designs should be presented in a way comprehensible to the proposed users. 3) Formalize the role of the Community Based Organization as a representatives for a democratic ongoing means for communication with the community - for continual updates and feedback on construction, maintenance and usability of the built and occupied project. Representatives should have the role of conveying feedback from the community as well as making sure urban protocols are followed by the community itself. Women representatives must be involved in the CBOs to take care of their interests as well as those of the children. International Case Studies: Via Verde, Bronx, New York: Mixed rental and for sale housing (139 rental low income families - 63 Co-Ops designated as affordable housing). Based on community workshops – Health and safety of residents were highlighted as the biggest issues to be addressed. Therefore mixed use with retail on the ground floor and ‘eyes on the street’ through built to edge buildings were major design concepts. A community Health Centre and an Organic food co-op was also included. To reduce asthma - air quality was addressed through good building design and natural ventilation. David and Joyce Dinkins Gardens, Harlem, NY A joint effort of Jonathan Rose Companies and the nonprofit Harlem Congregations for Community Improvement (HCCI) – the latter owns and maintains it and was actively involved in the programming and construction of the project. Includes 1/3 youngsters coming out of foster care while 2/3 is low income housing for rent. Source: e2 Series; PBS Documentaries, “Affordable Green Housing” Season II - Episode 4; David and Joyce Dinkins Gardens, Harlem, NY Via Verde mixed-income housing, Bronx, New York Developer: Jonathan Rose Companies 32 SOCIAL SUSTAINABILITY
    • 2.4 Facilitate Safety and Accessibility Principles to Facilitate Safety and Accessibility: A) “Eyes on the street” – Mixed uses for round the clock B) “Legible Streets” – Different streets have different functions and therefore activity, built-to-edge buildings with no setbacks and no different levels of vehicular and pedestrian traffic. A legibly designed street opaque boundary walls ensure that streets remain active with well defined sidewalks, bicycle lanes and appropriate signage would and watched, and therefore safe throughout the day. ensure greater safety for all. Avoid boundary walls and setbacks of buildings from the street Primary Commercial “Main” Street Primary Residential Street: as it creates lonely ‘unwatched’ sidewalks. Vehicular, Pedestrian and Bike zones clearly defined. Pedestrians and bicycles have priority, cars go slow. Wide sidewalks allowing space for pedestrians, streetlights, trees as well as Secondary Commercial Street: Secondary Residential Street: hawkers, with built-to-edge buildings creates safety through “eyes on the street” Pedestrians and bicycles ONLY. Pedestrians and bicycles ONLY Image Source: Author (Shanghai, 2008) SOCIAL SUSTAINABILITY 33
    • Principles to Facilitate Safety and Accessibility: C) Provide Ambient Street lighting for pedestrians – without causing glare or light pollution. Street lighting, especially for pedestrians walking on sidewalks is a must to ensure their safety after dark. Street lamps, depending on intensity of use and width of the street – must be provided every 20 - 30 M, focusing light not on the car lanes, but on the pedestrian and bicycle lanes. At the same time, over-lighting an outdoor area at night is also not the best solution for either security or safety. Instead, exterior lighting that provides low contrast on critical areas and surfaces (such as sidewalks and parking areas) actually provides better visual acuity and improves safety. Therefore full cut off fixtures which focus light downwards and allow no light towards the night sky, and also do not cause glare – are required for all public streets. The light color of lamps also affects safety: illuminating objects with products that have high Color Rendering Street lamps should be for Avoid light fixtures with glare, Down-lighters focus light on the pavement and not Indexes (CRI) improves visual recognition of people and pedestrians, not cars. use ambient down-lighters. upwards; providing better visibility for pedestrians. objects at night. Standards: Lighting shall occur at all intersections and hazard-prone areas. Lighting shall be directed downward at all times (up-lighting is prohibited). Prohibited lighting includes the following: • Metal halide • Mercury vapor • Quartz • Laser light or similar high-intensity for advertisement or entertainment • Searchlights • Glass tubing filled with neon (neon back-lighting is allowed for signage). 34 SOCIAL SUSTAINABILITY
    • 2.4 Facilitate Safety and Accessibility Principles to Facilitate Safety and Accessibility: D) Handicapped Accessibility: Handicapped access (wheelchairs, blind) should be provided to all public parks and community facilities. (See left) A proportion of homes must also be wheelchair accessible. In low rise walkup buildings, the group floor should be accessible through a ramp. In high-rise buildings, elevator access should be provided to as many floors as possible. (See below) Accessible Sidewalks Accessible Sidewalks Accessible Parks Accessible Parks Image Source: Charles Correa, Maharashtra Housing, 2009 In a highrise building, elevators could stop at every second or third floor (to reduce costs) – but it must be ensured that the floors of exit are fully accessible by wheelchair, without any stairs or other obstacles. Accessible Civic buildings Accessible Civic buildings SOCIAL SUSTAINABILITY 35
    • Sustainability Guidelines for: 3. RESOURCE EFFICIENCY 3.1 Increase Energy Efficiency – Respond to the unique climatic requirements of different cities and climatic zones; for comfort in outdoor and indoor spaces. 3.2 Capture and locally treat storm water, Harvest rain water. 3.3 Recycle and reuse waste locally; Recycle and reuse waste water for the larger community, wherever possible. 3.4 Use local Materials and Construction Techniques. 36 RESOURCE EFFICIENCY
    • 3.1 Increase Energy and Resource Efficiency: Respond to the unique climatic requirements of different cities and climatic zones. MUMBAI: (Hot Humid Climate Zone) Primary strategies for Energy Conservation and Comfort of residents in hot-humid climate of Mumbai: 4.1 Shading: to reduce solar gains and mitigate Heat Island Effect 4.2 Increased Air Movement in Summer: to remove heat and provide comfort in public spaces and homes through evaporative cooling. Building height 1.8 x Distance between buildings RECOMMENDED ORIENTATION OF STREETS: x W-E Optimum distance between buildings Summer winds from the West are extremely for adequate daylight access and air desirable. So streets and open spaces should be movement. oriented to catch these winds. Southwest monsoon winds are very strong and should be protected against. Winter winds should be restricted with tree plantation and narrower North-South Streets. RESOURCE EFFICIENCY 37
    • Images Source: Author Net block level FSI = 6.5 Net block level FSI = 4.4 Net block level FSI = 6.0 Density = 2600 units/Ha @ 25sq.m. each Density = 1750 units/Ha Density = 2400 units/Ha Image Source: Kate Dunham Image Source: Google Earth Image Source: Kate Dunham UNDESIRABLE OPTION DESIRABLE OPTION UNDESIRABLE OPTION Current low-income housing complexes being Midrise housing with optimal spacing between buildings Taller buildings, when designed in rows, require larger constructed all over Mumbai Region. allowing daylight and airflow through public spaces spacing in between for adequate daylight access – and homes. creating an undesirable urban experience. 38 RESOURCE EFFICIENCY
    • 3.1 Increase Energy and Resource Efficiency: Respond to the unique climatic requirements of different cities and climatic zones. DELHI: (Composite Climate Zone) Primary strategies for Energy Conservation and Comfort of residents in hot-dry/ composite climate of Delhi and Jaipur: • Shading: to reduce solar gains and mitigate Heat Island Effect • Optimal Solar access is required for daylighting and internal ventilation. Microclimate of public streets: Narrow streets provide shading and air movement – and therefore greater comfort Building height for pedestrians. Spacing between buildings should be enough to allow daylight access 1.2 x to all homes. Distance between buildings RECOMMENDED ORIENTATION OF STREETS: x 20° to W-E axis Hot-dry Summer winds (loo) from the North-West Optimum distance between buildings are extremely undesirable. So streets, homes and for adequate daylight access and air open spaces should be protected and oriented away movement. from these winds.. Deciduous trees provide shade in summer Southwest monsoon winds are very strong and and let the sun through in winter. should be protected against. Sidewalks should be at least 3 m wide, Winter winds should be restricted with tree plantation clear of obstacles, and well maintained, so and narrower North-South Streets. people can walk on them. RESOURCE EFFICIENCY 39
    • Double loaded corridor buildings are NOT recommended. Single loaded (double aspect) buildings are recommended – as this allows adequate natural ventilation and daylighting of homes. Block FSI = 4.0 Block FSI = 1.5 Block FSI = 1.8 Density = 1600 units/Ha Density = 600 units/Ha Density = 750 units/Ha UNDESIRABLE OPTION DESIRABLE OPTION FOR VENTILATION RECOMMENDED OPTION Double loaded corridor buildings with homes on both Low-rise housing with double aspect homes without Design details can allow the internal courtyards to be used by sides – do not allow adequate ventilation. corridors – is preferable as it allows adequate residents for a variety of uses (cottage industry, kids ventilation of homes. playing, clothes washing and drying, social gatherings, etc. Microclimate of shared courtyards: Grass and trees greatly help reduce heat island effect and create comfort in open spaces. However, internal courtyards should not be fenced off as shown above. Courtyards (with permeable paving, instead of grass) are more usable for children playing , cottage industries, etc. Terraces are also valuable play areas for children. Image Source: Author 40 RESOURCE EFFICIENCY
    • 3.1 Increase Energy and Resource Efficiency: Respond to the unique climatic requirements of different cities and climatic zones. Gangtok: (Cold, hilly) Primary strategies for Energy Conservation and Comfort of residents in cold and hilly areas of Gangtok: Construct housing on slopes with South or South-west exposure. Construct buildings by adapting to slopes; judicious site planning and grading to minimize cut and fill. Maximize use of flat surfaces (streets, alleys, plateaus) – for commercial and open public spaces; Use terraces and balconies of buildings to supplement usable open spaces for children and community activities. Identify and build only on stable slopes; preserve steep slopes Preserve trees and vegetation to prevent erosion; use new innovative materials to for erosion control, preserving top soil as well as ensuring safety and stability of homes. Capture and retain storm water on site, prevent runoff and harvest rainwater. Construct buildings with local materials and with high thermal mass; Wood used for construction must be sourced from certified sources and not from cutting down forests. So Ex uth po Su su n re Terraces as additional Street/ Alley Internal Courtyards for Community Open Space, play areas/ community activities, Parks and Commercial community spaces artisan workspaces, etc Centres on flat land RESOURCE EFFICIENCY 41
    • Shared community facilities like dispensaries, libraries, small-scale retail uses can be located along pedestrian pathways along the slopes. Community Open space and commercial centre on flatter land Potential location of low income housing Higher income residential and Commercial uses requiring Potential location of visibility are located on the main low income housing streets. Shown here:: “Tokyo EcoRenewal Prototype”; Japan Images Source: Miguel Ruano, Eco-Urbanism, Sustainable Human Settlements 42 RESOURCE EFFICIENCY
    • 3.1 Increase Energy and Resource Efficiency: Respond to the unique climatic requirements of different cities and climatic zones. International Case Studies: Learning from Typologies in China Lane Houses in Shanghai: • A group of 6-12 families share a lane house. Each lane terminates at a main commercial street on one end, giving people walking access to their daily needs and services. • Toilets and wash areas are shared between the families living around the shared ‘lane’. • The distance between homes is dictated my compulsory daylight access (minimum 2 hours on December 21) and natural ventilation to every home. Main Commercial Street (multimodal) Entry into “lane” or courtyard from the main street. Shared wash-areas in the common ‘lane’ Images Source: MenKShanghai RESOURCE EFFICIENCY 43
    • Relocation low-income housing in Huzhou, China: • Real estate development pressures often necessitate the relocation of villages in the outskirts of growing cities (like Huzhou), but adequate reimbursement and a much better ‘quality of life’ is provided as compensation to relocated residents. Storm water management is dealt with creatively All residential rows are double aspect – to allow natural with landscaping, natural treatment and pedestrian ventilation. All homes look on to share green spaces. walkways. Main Commercial Street (multimodal) Shops are rented out to raise revenue for Homes are arranged in rows and spaced in order to Balconies and ‘sun spaces’ are provided on the maintenance of the low income housing development. ensure direct sunlight access to all homes. South side of the residential row. Images Source: Kate Dunham 44 RESOURCE EFFICIENCY
    • 3.2 Natural Storm Water Management – Capture and locally treat storm water, Harvest rain water. KEY PRINCIPLE: GOAL: A) Reduce runoff, treat runoff before discharge into natural water bodies. Mimic pre-development storm water drainage system in maintaining the Quality and Volume of water discharged into the adjoining natural water body The Issue of “Runoff”: (river, lake or sea). • Post development of any site, there will be more impervious surfaces – like sidewalks, paved streets, parking lots, buildings etc. - then there is increased storm water “runoff”. Less water evaporates into the air and seeps into the ground. HOW do we reduce “runoff”? • Runoff water will pick up residues, chemicals, oils, PRIVATE Areas: pesticides, debris and pollutants : Before Development • Rainwater Harvesting and Reuse to supplement and from the surfaces it travels over., reduce potable water demands; and prevent water from causing pollution downstream. flowing off private property into municipality drains. • Uncontrolled runoff will cause a PUBLIC Areas: large amount of to enter a stream at once, causing flooding and • A 3-tier Storm Water Management Strategy utilizing stream bank erosion. the parks and open spaces within the development area must be employed to temporarily hold site-runoff, treat the water and slowly release it back to the natural waterway. Mimicking the natural discharge rate and water quality before development had occurred, is essential. • Natural Storm Water Management Systems would help reduce pressures on municipal infrastructure and reduce the sizing for pipes and treatment plants for storm water. Increased • Natural Systems would prevent runoff from polluting : After Development natural water bodies of the area. RESOURCE EFFICIENCY 45
    • Strategies for Efficient and Natural Storm Water Management: w run- flo a) Storm water management should be separated from waste water treatment to off ed reduce pressure on infrastructure costs required for piping, conveyance and rb so treatment. ab d b) A 3-tier approach for natural storm water management should be followed…. an d re lte Fi Street bio-filtration bed 1) Treat at Source: Use street-swales or raingardens to filter and convey water naturally. This also helps save on piping cost, while providing additional greenery. run- off In hilly regions, detention ponds at regular intervals along slopes are critical in order to capture, infiltrate and treat storm water before it drains out of the site. Parks/ Detention 2) Capture and Convey Naturally: Parks and Open spaces should be multi-used as detention ponds during rainy seasons, while remaining usable green spaces for the rest of the year. In hilly regions, Natural Storm Water Management Wetland Detention Pond is extremely important in order to prevent erosion, pollution and flooding of water bodies downstream. 3) Final treatment of remaining storm water can take place at a natural treatment Image Source: Author wetland or a conventional facility. 46 RESOURCE EFFICIENCY
    • 3.3 Recycle and reuse waste locally; Recycle and reuse waste water for the larger community, wherever possible. A critical issue affecting the health of low income communities is adequate sanitation and systems to deal with waste and sewage. Several strategies can be employed for reducing pressure on the sewage system and improving the environment of the overall community: Separate the sewage + waste water system from the storm water management system; - This will have a twofold benefit – the sizing of pipes and sewage treatment plants will be reduced substantially. Also the captured storm water can be harvested for reuse, or infiltrated to recharge the local ground water. If low-income groups are located in integrated mixed income communities, common facilities like bio-gas plants and aerobic/ anaerobic digesters can be constructed. These will have a two-fold benefit • reuse and recycling will reduce the volume waste that would need to be disposed. • Local economies for recycling and sorting of waste can get a boost. • Biogas thus generated can be used in community kitchens, restaurants, etc. while energy generated from the waste could benefit the entire community. Resource & Waste Management Organic Waste Treatment Separation Compost Biogas Recyclables Residual Sale for landscaping Energy Generation / On-site Off-Site Disposal Off-Site Sale and/or agriculture vehicle fuel / cooking Gasification (Landfill) Floating Fixed Reuse organic waste to produce biogas: a The “floating” type biogas plant at a A “fixed” type biogas plant A natural sewage treatment facility technology used through history in rural India, Working Women's Hostel, Trivandrum under construction. implemented in Bombay University now should be implemented in cities. by NEERI Image Source: industrialgasplants.com Image Source: dailymail.uk.co RESOURCE EFFICIENCY 47
    • 3.4 Use Local Materials or Recycled Materials Use Local and Recycled Materials and Develop construction waste management plan to divert waste from landfills. For all redevelopment projects: 1. Reuse salvaged materials from demolition of existing structures on site. For all new construction and redevelopment projects, the following guidelines should be followed: 1. Construction materials should be selected such that majority of the materials are available within 250 km of site. 2. Reuse previously used construction materials and building elements. 3. Use materials which have some recycled content or that can be recycled after use. 4. Reduce the use and depletion of finite raw materials by replacing them with rapidly renewable materials (rapidly renewable materials are ones that are typically harvested within a 10 year cycle, eg, bamboo products, corn products, wheat based products, strawboards etc.). 5. Construction and demolition debris/mulba should be diverted from landfills and incinerators. Recyclable construction waste materials should be sent back to the manufacturing process and reusable materials should be taken to appropriate sites. 6. A mobile crèche should be provided for form workers during construction. 7. The project should collaborate with local building centers (BMPTC) which can help source materials as well as provide training and expertise for cheap yet innovative construction. 48 RESOURCE EFFICIENCY
    • Sustainability Guidelines for: 4. PLANNING ISSUES 4.1 Implications of % EWS requirements in private housing 4.2 Summary of Sustainability Criteria to be met for Low-income housing PLANNING GUIDELINES 49
    • 4.1 Implications of % EWS requirements in private housing: 15% of FSI vs. 15% of units Site Area 10,000 Sq.m. FSI 1.0 EWS 25 Sq.m. BuA 10,000 Standard Private Home 100 Sq.m. Household 4 MIG 70 15% of FSI When planning norms require private developers to FSI BuA No of Units % Population provide 15% of the FSI of their development to be allocated EWS 0.15 1,500 60 41% 240 to low-income (EWS) – due to the smaller dwelling units Standard Private Home 0.85 8,500 85 59% 340 size of EWS homes – this requirement translates into 40% 10,000 145 580 of the population of the project being low-income group. This often becomes unrealistic for the developer from the 15% of Number of Units sale-ability and feasibility aspects of their project. FSI BuA No of Units % Population EWS 4% 425 17 15% 68 When the requirement is 15% of the total number of units, Standard Private Home 96% 9,575 96 85% 383 the proportion of low income population allows for a more Total 10,000 113 451 feasible ratio for sale-ability of the project. Inference: The above study reveals that in market rate developer driven projects, % of EWS requirements should be stipulated as a % of the total number of dwelling units, not as a percentage of FSI. Source: Dr. Neelima Risbud, unpublished study calculations 50 PLANNING GUIDELINES
    • 4.1 Implications of low-density stipulations with high FSI provisions Site Area 10,000 Sq.m. This study reveals that it is important stipulate optimal density EWS 25 Sq.m. requirement along with increased FSI for low-income housing – in order to achieve optimal utilization of land and provide housing to PPH du/ha GC BuA Stories FAR adequate number of low-income people. 450 100 40% 2,500 1 0.25 900 200 40% 5,000 1 0.5 In Delhi and Mumbai, current requirements are 500 du/ha 1350 300 40% 7,500 2 0.75 In all other cities – densities prescribed by masterplans is FSI 2250 500 40% 12,500 3 1.25 below this. 3150 700 40% 17,500 4 1.75 4500 1000 40% 25,000 6 2.5 Ideal Density for Optimal Land utilization is 500 du/ha at an FSI of 1.25, considering 3-4 story buildings. Below this, land remains underutilized; as FSI capacity not achieved. Following current Masterplan densities: the FSI allocated is Site Area 10,000 Sq.m. generally high, but prescribed density is less. FAR 1.0 PPH du/ha GC BuA Stories Unit size (sq.m.) This leads developers to provide larger dwelling unit sizes, which in 112.5 25 50% 10,000 2 400 turn makes them unaffordable, so the low-income group either gets excluded or sells out and moves to cheaper locations. Thus the 225 50 50% 10,000 2 200 purpose of integration of income groups is defeated. 337.5 75 50% 10,000 2 133 450 100 50% 10,000 2 100 900 200 50% 10,000 2 50 2250 500 50% 10,000 2 20 Inference: An optimal density of 500 du/ha or 2000 PPH (people per hectare) should be a minimum planning requirement in order to facilitate optimum utilization of land and compact, dense urban developments. Source: Dr. Neelima Risbud, unpublished study calculations PLANNING GUIDELINES 51
    • 4.1 Implications of Increasing Density on % of EWS as part of market rate dwellings Site Area 10,000 Sq.m. EWS 25 Sq.m. Standard 70 Sq.m. Assumption: 15% of Dwelling Units = EWS Density du/ha GC Footprint Unit-Size Nos BuA Stories FAR 450 100 50% 25 15 375 0 70 85 5,950 5,000 6,325 1 0.6 675 150 50% 25 22.5 563 0 70 127.5 8,925 5,000 9,488 2 0.9 900 200 50% 25 30 750 0 70 170 11,900 5,000 12,650 3 1.3 1125 250 50% 25 37.5 938 0 70 212.5 14,875 5,000 15,813 3 1.6 1350 300 50% 25 45 1,125 0 70 255 17,850 5,000 18,975 4 1.9 1575 350 50% 25 52.5 1,313 0 70 297.5 20,825 5,000 22,138 4 2.2 1800 400 50% 25 60 1,500 0 70 340 23,800 5,000 25,300 5 2.5 2025 450 50% 25 67.5 1,688 0 70 382.5 26,775 5,000 28,463 6 2.8 2250 500 50% 25 75 1,875 0 70 425 29,750 5,000 31,625 6 3.2 2475 550 50% 25 82.5 2,063 0 70 467.5 32,725 5,000 34,788 7 3.5 2700 600 50% 25 90 2,250 0 70 510 35,700 5,000 37,950 8 3.8 2925 650 50% 25 97.5 2,438 0 70 552.5 38,675 5,000 41,113 8 4.1 3150 700 50% 25 105 2,625 0 70 595 41,650 Source: Dr. Neelima Risbud, unpublished study calculations 5,000 44,275 9 4.4 52 PLANNING GUIDELINES
    • 4.2 Sustainability Criteria to be met for all new or relocated low-income communities PLANNING GUIDELINES 53
    • Site Selection Criteria Minimum Criteria Objective Indicator Target 1. LOCATION Transit Encourage development within % of homes within 400 M actual walking distance from a bus stop. 50% existing mixed-or high income % of homes within 800 M actual walking distance from a Rapid Bus or Rapid Transit Stop. 100% communities, with good transit Existing infrastructure service – to facilitate economic % of homes served by existing water supply and waste water infrastructure. symbiosis, allow walkability and to Bicycle Network reduce multiple environmental % of homes within 5 km of a major employment centre. 100% harms associated with sprawl. % of homes with at least one space of bicycle parking. 100% Housing - Jobs Proximity Reduce development pressure % of homes located within 800 M walking distance of an existing employment sub-centre providing pre-project 50% beyond the limits of existing jobs ≥ than 50% of the number of dwelling units in the project; development. Conserve natural Infill; Proximity to existing Residential and financial resources required for The site is on or adjacent to a previously developed MIG or HIG residential development. developments construction and maintenance of infrastructure. Proximity to Amenities* (to be defined) % of homes within 400 m walking distance from an existing or planned school, community facilities and retail. 100% 2. SITE ECOLOGY Existing ecology Protect and enhance water quality, % of existing ecologically sensitive land preserved, with prescribed buffers (50 M) and mitigation measures. 100% natural hydrology and habitat, and preserve biodiversity through - If site is located on sensitive land, 1.5 time ecological land compensation to be provided elsewhere; with best conservation of water bodies, management practices implemented on site. riparian areas and wetlands % of Site located on a 100-year floodplain 0% % of site located on a Brownfield/ contaminated site. 0% % of existing trees preserved (define age or size) 100% Steep Slope Protection Minimize erosion to protect habitat On portions of project sites with pre-project slopes greater than 15% that are not previously developed sites: and reduce stress on natural water • do not disturb slopes greater than 40%; systems by preserving steep slopes • do not disturb portions of the project site within 50 feet of the top of the slope, and 75 feet from the toe of the in a natural, vegetated state. slope; • limit development to no more than 40% of slopes between 25%-40%, and to no more than 60% of slopes between 15%-25%. • locate development such that the percentage of the development footprint that is on pre-project slopes less than 15% is greater than the percentage of buildable land that has pre-project slopes more than 15%. 54 PLANNING GUIDELINES
    • Neighborhood Design Criteria 3. NEIGHBORHOOD DESIGN Criteria Objective Indicator Minimum Target Compact Development Conserve land, provide more Minimum Density 500 du/ha usable green space. Promote livability, transportation efficiency, and walkability. Cluster Layout Optimum use of land and reduction Prohibition of single housing units and setting a baseline of a minimum amount of units per building 4 units per of construction costs with common building infrastructure., leading also to common open space for social interaction and restriction of vehicular movement Diversity of Uses Promote community livability, Develop Ratios of retail and amenities to be provided for cut-off population. transportation efficiency, and walkability Mix of Income groups/ Diversity of To enable citizens from a wide Provide region based percentages of low income housing to be provided as part of large middle or high income Housing Types. range of economic levels and age communities. groups to live near each other Rental Ratio of rental to for-sale housing Include a proportion of rental units priced for households earning below area median income such that: • At least 15% of total rental units are priced for households up to 50% of area median income; OR • At least 30% of total rental units are priced for households up to 80% of area median income; OR • At least 15% of total rental units are priced for households up to 50% of area median income and an additional 15% of total rental units are priced for households at up to 80% of area median income. AND Maintain these units at affordable levels for a minimum of fifteen years For-sale Include a proportion of for-sale housing affordable to households at or slightly above the area median income such that • At least 10% of for-sale housing is priced for households up to 80% of the area median income; OR • At least 20% of for-sale housing is priced for households up to 120% of the area median income; OR • At least 10% of for-sale housing is priced for households up to 80% of the area median income and an additional 10% of for-sale housing is priced for households at up to 120% of the area median income. Parking Only bicycle parking should be provided. Street Network Provide direct and safe - Pedestrian pathway cum bikeway grid every 200 m. connections, for pedestrians and - Motorable street grid of minimum 9 m width every 800 M bicyclists, to local destinations and Street Design Standards Width to height ratios, Sidewalks, Design speeds, Sections need to be specified based on area level street neighborhood centers. Promote hierarchy. public health & reduce vehicle use by facilitating walking and bicycling PLANNING GUIDELINES 55
    • Neighborhood Design Criteria Minimum Criteria Objective Indicator Target Transit Facilities Make transit use safe and Shaded bus stops. comfortable. Access to Usable Open Space To provide a variety of usable open % of dwelling units within 250 M of a park, green plaza or public square or courtyard. 100% spaces near work and home – for Access to Active Open Space children, young and old people to % of homes and non-residential building entrances within 400 m walking distance of a Park with active 90% play, interact and spend time recreational facilities (e.g., general playfields, soccer, baseball, basketball and other sports fields of at least 1 together outdoors. acre in size) Physical Health Infrastructure To promote healthy lifestyle - Minimum percentage of common green space. through design patterns such as - Fully connected and sufficiently wide sidewalks that can serve as jogging tracks for the community. play space and functional sidewalks. Universal Accessibility Enable the widest spectrum of Minimum % of residential units with handicapped accessibility 10% people, regardless of age or % of recreational & community facilities and public parks and open spaces accessible by ramps for slopes not 100% ability, to more easily participate in greater than 5% their community life by increasing the proportion of areas that are usable by people of diverse abilities. Community involvement and To encourage community - Hold at least two community meetings (at concept and post-design stages) with the target user population Representation participation in the project design of the development, to solicit ideas, input and feedback on the proposal. Designs should be presented in a and planning and involve the way comprehensible to the proposed users. people who live in a community in - Formalize a community representative position as well as a democratic ongoing means for communication deciding how it should be with the community - for continual updates and feedback on construction, maintenance and usability of the improved or how it should change built and occupied project. Community representatives should have the role of conveying feedback from over time. the community as well as making sure urban protocols are followed by the community itself. Cohesive Social Infrastructure To encourage social interaction - Incorporation of a Informal Sector Market that will activate the micro economy within the community and At least one and entrepreneurship within the serve as a public space for other uses at night, (e.g. rickshaw parking) Community community; and provide spatial - OR Design of a multipurpose Community Centre, that can accommodate public amenities such as retail, Centre opportunities for social activities library, senior school, health centres, neighborhood meeting rooms, etc. with outsiders. Local Food Production NEIGHBORHOOD FARMS AND GARDENS Dedicate permanent and viable growing space and/or related facilities (such as greenhouses) within the project at the square footage areas specified below. Provide fencing, watering systems, soil and/or garden bed enhancements (such as raised beds), secure storage space for garden tools, solar access, and pedestrian access for these spaces. Ensure that the spaces are owned and managed by an entity that can include occupants of the project in its decision-making, such as a community group, a homeowners association, or a public body. Project density (dwelling unit/acre) TO Required growing space (sq ft per dwelling unit) 7 to 14: 200 > 14 and ≤ 22: 100 > 22 and ≤ 28: 80 > 28 and ≤ 35: 70 > 35: 60 56 PLANNING GUIDELINES
    • Resource Efficiency Criteria Minimum Criteria Objective Suggested Strategies Target 3. RESOURCE EFFICIENCY & MANAGEMENT Energy Efficiency in Buildings Achieve increasing levels of Provide Natural Ventilation and Daylighting to all homes so that dependence on mechanical means of cooling energy performance to reduce and artificial lighting is reduced to a minimum. environmental and economic Homes must be designed with a minimum of 2 hour sunlight access on the longest winter day (December 21). impacts associated with excessive energy use Reduced Water Use Cut down demand on municipal Used recycled water for irrigation and for flushing in toilet etc. Community taps may be provided for activities like water supply dishwashing, laundry, etc. as well as shared toilets wherever necessary, in order to cut down water usage. Dry toilets or Sulabh Shauchalayas could be provided at prominent locations, and also in homes, as suitable. Reduced Waste; Community waste Facilitate the reduction of waste Provide an easily accessible area that serves the entire community for collection and storage of recyclable reuse and recycling generated by building occupants materials. At a minimum include paper, glass, plastic and metal recycling containers. Incentives should be given that is hauled to and disposed of for less waste generated (as an example a community could be asked to pay more for larger waste bins sent to in landfills landfills by the municipality). Organic waste generated can also be used for on-site biogas fuel or electricity generation. Recycle waste water for community level irrigation. Storm Water Management Limit disruption of natural Design project site to maintain natural stormwater flows by promoting infiltration. Specify pervious paving, and hydrology by reducing impervious other measures to minimize impervious surfaces. Reuse stormwater volumes for non-potable uses such as cover, increasing onsite landscape irrigation and toilet flushing. Smaller bldg. footprint and clustering development to reduce paved infiltration and managing surfaces (roads, sidewalks, etc) can also limit disruption of natural hydrology. stormwater runoff Heat Island Reduction Reduce heat islands (thermal Reduce hard paved surfaces, by reducing building footprint and clustering development. Use high reflectance gradient differences between materials for all hard surface areas such as pavings and roofs. Shade maximum of hard surfaces with trees and developed and undeveloped landscape features. areas) to minimize impact on microclimate On-site Energy Generation Encourage and recognize Assess the project site for non-polluting and renewable energy potential including cogeneration, biomass and increasing levels of on-site bio-gas strategies. Biogas fuel can be used for cooking directly while any of these sources can generate energy renewable energy self-supply in that can be used for any application within the community. These can be feasible more at community level than order to reduce environmental at individual household levels. Incentives can be given to communities by providing free or subsidized and economic impacts associated renewable energy systems. with fossil fuel energy use Construction Materials and Techniques Use Local and Recycled Reuse material from demolition sites. Materials and Develop Recycle construction formwork. construction waste management Source construction material within 250 km of site. Prioritize use of recycled material. Work with innovative NGOs, architects and BMPTC to find creative solutions to cheap, local and recycled materials and modes of construction. PLANNING GUIDELINES 60
    • BSUP Project at Hyderabad: • Cluster orientation allows an active street frontage in internal roads. • Community Centre and other public amenities accessible to the residents within 200m of walking distance • Convenient parking for alternative modes of transportation such as rickshaw and bikes. Source: Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation: “Habitat for the Urban Poor: the Design Perspective 57 PLANNING GUIDELINES
    • BSUP Project at Kamarhati, West Bengal: • Common public space including Community Centre and a Common Park in a very centric area, surrounded by the residents • Restricted vehicular access within the neighborhood allows more social interaction and healthy lifestyle • Lack of active street frontage in buildings might create desolated streets and hence, safety problems Source: Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation: “Habitat for the Urban Poor: the Design Perspective 58 PLANNING GUIDELINES
    • Typical Cluster Layout in a Large JnNURM Project: • Cluster layouts create internal coutyards and open space for a more intimate social interaction • Informal Market Space and other public amenities accessible to the residents within 400m of walking distance • Group Green and Common Green are separated to allow different scale of recreational/social activities Source: Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation: “Habitat for the Urban Poor: the Design Perspective 59 PLANNING GUIDELINES
    • Section 4: Next Steps: Develop detailed performance based sustainability standards to be met by housing in the 3 climatic zones. Develop construction techniques and local material checklists in conjunction with BMPTC – recommend materials after testing for stability, earthquake resistance, thermal qualities, etc. Provide Methodology for implementation of in-situ up-gradation; Work with NGOs/ training groups/ local housing organizations to aid implementation of the following: Establish needs and concerns of the larger community, implement and monitor them. Provide subsidized & safe construction material, and training for renovating the community. Provide cheap strategies for infrastructure improvement & maintenance. Identify Test Sites for implementation.
    • "Sustainable Urban Design can be the foundation for Social Justice" - Enrique Peñalosa