Valedictory Address at the Bharatiya Vigyan Sammelan 2007, Bhopal Bhopal, Nov 25 2007 Updated on Nov 25 2007 Published bywww.abdulkalam.comSocietal Transformation through Science and Technology "When you wish upon a star, Makes no difference who you are, Anything your heart desires, Will come to you"Dear Friends,I am indeed delighted to participate in the valedictory function of BharatiyaVigyan Sammelan 2007 at Bhopal organized by Ministry of Science andTechnology, Madhya Pradesh in partnership with Vigyan Bharati and RajivGandhi Technology University, Bhopal. My greetings to all the Scientists,Technologists, Educationists, Researchers, Engineers, Artisans, Farmers,Students and distinguished guests participating in this Vigyan Sammelan. Iam particularly happy that thousands of farmers and artisans areparticipating in this sammelan, which brings the user community face to facewith the researchers, so that the real life problems can be projected in theright perspective.What Science can give youI see large number of young scientists and also people who want to becomescientists in the near future. I would like to share with you one question.What is the uniqueness of being a scientist?
Friends, science gives you better eyes because science can remove themental blinkers and it gives your brain a challenge to solve many scientificproblems that are yet to be solved. When people in general talk indimensions, just less than one millimeter or few hundred thousandkilometers requirement in flight, the scientists will easily move from thebehaviour of proton (10-15M) to the size of visible universe approximately1028M 43 orders of magnitude. Most of our friends, who are not in the fieldof science will slice the time perhaps maximum upto one hundredth of asecond. You scientists will slice the time into femtoseconds (10-15 Sec)which may decide a fast photo chemical reaction. When you think way backin time, it will be big bang, some 15,000 million years ago and thebeginning of the life on earth. about 3800 million years ago. Again you willbe ahead of 17 to 18 orders of magnitude. Science indeed will connect youinto the brains of many smart people who were there before you. Hence,science makes you feel good to stand on the shoulders of the giants likeIssac Newton, the discoverer of the Laws of Gravitational force, AlbertEinstein the discoverer of general relativity theory, Stephen Hawkings thestring theory originator, Sir CV Raman the discoverer of Raman effect,Chandrasekhar Subramanyam, discoverer of Chandra limit and blackhole,and Srinivasa Ramanujam the number theory originator.
Science always provides challenging problems. Look at the sky, bright clouds lit by light. That is our galaxy, we belong to the milky way. Millionsand millions of stars are there. We belong to a small star, what is that star. Sun. The Solar system has nine planets. Our planet earth has six billion people, and millions and millions of species. Can you imagine what science has revealed to all of us? Our galaxy and our sun and its characteristics have been identified. Exact location with respect of sun and galaxy has been discovered. Again you ask yourself what science has done. Whatscientific discoveries have led to? We know that earth rotates in its own axis in 24 hours. We get day and night. How do you get the full moon night.Earth has its own satellite, Moon, which orbits around the planet earth in 29 days. And how the moon shines? anytime have you thought, the beautiful light how do we get? How do we get the new moon ? You all know it hasbeen discovered. It is the dynamic movement of earth, sun and the moon in the space, which decides, the moon lit night and the dark night.
Friends the earth system takes 365 days for orbiting around the sun once.The sun itself orbits around our galaxy- the milky way. It is estimated that the sun takes 250 million years to orbit around the galaxy. All the astronomical discoveries have come out of science.You take our human body. What is the human body. Science has revealedthat the human body is made up of millions and millions of atoms. Anaverage adult weighing 70 kilograms would have approximately7*1027atoms, that is, 7 followed by 27 zeros. For example, I am made up of5.8x 1027 atoms. This is divided into 4.7*1027 would be hydrogen atoms,another 1.8*1027 would be oxygen, and there are 7.0*1026 carbon atoms.The difference between one human being and another is determined by thesequencing of the atoms.
The recent human genome programme reveals that human genome contains 23 pairs of chromosomes, which lie in the nucleus of every cell inthe body. Each chromosom consists of a DNA double helix, that is wrapped around spool like proteins called histones. It is estimated that the humanbody has three hundred thousand to 2 million proteins. The characterization of each protein is the most challenging task, which is being carried out by the Proteomics Project. The unraveling of the genomic mystery will ultimately allow the bio-medical community to create a new evolutionary future for the human race.New Paradigm for ScienceFriends you will not only will discover the space, you will have an industrialcomplex on the moon and new material from under sea world. Manychallenges are going to be thrown on the sea, under the sea and above thesea. You will also have challenges in bringing back a clean environment byreplacing fossil fuel based fuels to renewable energy from sun, wind, nuclearsystems. Hence, the scientific community of today has the following greatchallenges:
(a)Evolution of unified field theory which may be the ultimate of physics revealing how the universe is born and how we are born. (b)The scientific community of today and tomorrow has to evolve an alternate habitat for the mankind, (c)Evolution of earth, moon, mars complex to bring back to the earth new material needed and the solar power needed and particularly energy material like helium-3 (d)Evolution of clean atmosphere replacing the fossil fuel by the cost effective renewable energy system.(e)Life science scientists will have great challenge of exploring human body, particularly gene characterization through the proteomics project for developing gene based drugs (f)We are producing nearly 200m tons of foodgrains using 170 million hectars. This will gradually reduce to 100m hectars in few decades. Water availability from the present trend will be reduced. People who are infarming that is 60% of the population that will reduce to less than 30%. Sowe have a situation by 2020, reduced land, reduced water, reduced farming community, but we need double the food production. It is a big challenge for the agricultural scientists to double the production and through science and technological discovery. (g)In the area of communication a big revolution is setting in. High- bandwidth mobile wireless is in the offing. This will result in the mobile phone and handheld devices becoming a convergent system for the multi- media applications for meeting the needs of communication in the office,
home and also in the school, colleges and universities and while on the move. This will demand many technological innovations .for our scientific community. (h)Sustainable Rural Development through PURA (Science and Technology as the Focus).Rural Development a new focusWhen I see the scientists, technologists, political leaders, artisans, and smallscale industrialists and business leaders, I must talk to you about thedynamics of our rural development. In India we have 600,000 thousandvillages where 700 million people live. There is continuous pressure in theurban area for employment, energy, water and education by the migrationof rural population to the cities not only from within the state, but even fromother states. To contain this situation we have developed a programmecalled PURA (Providing Urban Amenities in Rural Areas). Providing Urban Amenities in Rural Areas (PURA): PURA envisages integrated connectivities to bring prosperity to rural India. These are - physical connectivity of the village clusters through quality roads and transport; electronic connectivity through tele-communication with highbandwidth fiber optic cables reaching the rural areas from urban cities and through Internet kiosks; and knowledge connectivity through education, vocational training for farmers, artisans and craftsmen and entrepreneurship programmes. These three connectivities will lead to
economic connectivity through starting of enterprises with the help of banks, micro credits and marketing of the products.The PURA is required to be run by enlightened citizens and people capable ofgiving moral as well as business leadership. There is profit for partners butthere is also a human face. Both are built in the business plan itself. This iswhere the concept of spiritual connectivity is seen as the foundation, whichbonds all the other four connectivities.Each PURA cluster will connect about 20 villages depending upon the regionand population and will cost about Rs.100 crores. After initial short-termemployment during construction etc., we have to plan for initiating actionsfor providing regular employment and self employment opportunities innationally competitive small enterprises in agro processing, manufacturingand services sectors for about 3000 people. If the industrial/business parksare marketed well, they can generate employment opportunities in supportsector for about 10,000 people in that cluster. This will provide sustainableeconomy for the rural sector. In this national mission, bankers can promoteentrepreneurship in the rural areas. This will lead to the removal of urban-rural divide. This experience can become a model for other countries tofollow. I have presented this model in a number of countries during myaddress to their Parliament. There is a tremendous interest building up invarious parts of the world.
PURA as an Enterprise: A large number of banks have entrepreneurial development programmes. Banks have also been funding Small ScaleIndustries of different types in various regions. The small-scale industrialistis a promising candidate for becoming the chief executive for managing thePURA complexes in an integrated way. PURA enterprises can also undertake management of schools, health care units, vocational training centres,chilling plants, silos and building a market, banking system and the regional business or industrial units. A new mission mode management style has to emerge for PURA enterprises. It should not be looking for protective legislations to support them. Rather they should be efficient to compete with others. This new PURA enterprise needs partnership from the bank, from the Government and also from the private entrepreneurs. Banks can train the entrepreneur for managing the PURA in their training centres and also provide them loans for creating and running PURAs as a business proposition. Think of public-private-civil society partnerships in these efforts. The country needs 7000 PURAs of types, Hill PURA, coastal PURA, desert PURA and plain PURA.While I am with you, I would like to share some of the missions that needScience and Technology inputs for the prosperity of Madhya Pradesh, which Ipresented to the Madhya Pradesh Legislative Assembly on 17 July 2006.Development Goals
My presentation was based on the following principles :-(a) Method of increasing the per-capita income of the State to Rs. 50,000from Rs. 14,000 by 2010.(b) Improving the Human Development ranking of Madhya Pradesh from thepresent 12 to less than 5.(c) Realizing the goal of total literacy before 2012 by the giving highestpriority to womens education, particularly the tribal population.(d) Empower all tribal citizens with quality education, healthcare andemployment potential.(e) Progressively reducing the number of people living below the poverty linefrom the existing 40 percent to near zero by 2016. I suggested certain missions for transforming Madhya Pradesh into a developed state before 2015. Combined effect of all the missions put together has the potential of making Madhya Pradesh an economically prosperous state. Scientists, Technologists and Educationists assembled here can make significant contribution in realizing the goals of Madhya Pradesh prosperity.Horticulture MissionAim of this mission is to generate employment for over six million youth andan annual revenue of Rs. 40,000 crore by 2016. I would like to share myexperience of one of the Units of DRDO laboratory with you located in Jhakri,
Puh and Sumdo in Himachal Pradesh. DRDO had taken up a project on thedevelopment of horticulture involving off-season vegetable cultivation, greenhouse vegetable cultivation, establishment of apple and almond orchards.The agricultural scientists of the laboratories imparted training to the localvillagers and army Jawans (for resettlement purposes) on the cultivation ofall these crops. The technological inputs provided to the farmers includedimproved seeds having tolerance to biotic and abiotic stress, true potatoseeds, enriching the soil with organic manure, harvesting, and preservationand processing technologies. Sumdo region (cold desert) has been foundsuitable for cultivation of variety of vegetable crops having high productivityduring off season. With improved hybrid seeds, vegetable yield can beincreased by four times with traditional seeds and conventional technology.Another important wealth generator for Madhya Pradesh is the multiplicationof seeds of temperate vegetables (cabbage, cauliflower, knolkhol, radish,turnip, beetroot, brussel?s sprouts, carrot etc.). Large quantity of theseseeds is being imported in the country. Emphasis is to be given on hybridseed production. Farmers who are producing the seeds are getting veryremunerative prices in the national and international market. Hence, Iconsider that there is substantial scope for production of these seeds bymany more farmers in the state. Hybrid seed production of horticulturalcrops can be taken on mission mode by the Madhya Pradesh farmers.Agricultural MissionObjective of agriculture mission is to increase output of cereals and pulsesfrom 15.5 million tonnes to 25 million tonnes in four years. Increasesoyabean revenue from Rs.4500 crores to Rs.9000 crores resulting indoubling of income for 5 million families. Increase percapita availability ofmilk from 233 grams to 500 grams in five years.Doubling the food production ? an Experience: I would like to narrateanother successful experience which has taken place in Bihar. An experimenthas been carried out by the TIFAC team in Bihar, in the RP Channel 5 andMajholi distributory and later extended to Paliganj and other 5 distributarieson the request of farmers. Today they are working systems. The productivityof paddy has increased in these villages from 2 tons per hectare to 4 ? 5.8tons per hectare and in respect of wheat productivity; it has increased fromaround 2 tonnes per hectare to around 4-5 tonnes per hectare. Presently,paddy and wheat crops are spread in an area greater than 2500 hectaresinvolving 3000 farmers. This project has been carried out by the TIFAC, incollaboration with a farmer?s co-operative society, Indian Agricultural
Research Institute (IARI) and the agricultural university in Pusa, Bihar.Using scientific method of farming involving soil characterization, matchingthe right seed to soil, seeding in time, fertilizer and pesticide selection,water management, pre and post harvesting methodology productivity hasbeen more than doubled. I am explaining this model to bring out thefeasibility of transferring the knowledge from the laboratory to the farmthrough a cooperative venture between a dedicated team of scientists andthe farmers. Moving up the value chain in agriculture through foodprocessing is essential in the country to increase the contribution of theagriculture work force to GDP. I would recommend agricultural scientistsassembled here to work with the farmers of Madhya Pradesh for doublingthe earning capacity of the farm workers in Madhya Pradesh and alsorealizing the goals of increased production in agriculture. What is needed isthe percolation of high technology to the grass-root level. This can beachieve by scientists becoming partners to farmers and ICT is applied forenhancing productivity, value addition and better marketing.Education and EntrepreneurshipEducation and entrepreneurship mission has to realize 100 percent literacyby 2012 and provide full employment to all 1.5 million youth passing outfrom schools and colleges every year. This will need technology assistededucation to reach each one of the villages of Madhya Pradesh. That means,we have to ensure the connectivity particularly with high bandwidth isavailable in every village. This can result in creation of tele-educationsystems in the rural areas and also availability of digital library books. Alsothere is a need to create a movement which will enable provision of eitherquality higher education or world class special skills to the youth of MadhyaPradesh.Healthcare MissionHealth care mission envisages eradication of Malaria, TB and Leprosy in alldistricts by 2012. Also we have to reduce the Infant Mortality Rate to 10 per1000 and the Maternal Mortality Rate to less than 5 per 1000. Reach qualityhealthcare to all citizens including to tribal areas and enhancement of lifeexpectancy. This will need innovative solution by the medical community ofMadhya Pradesh to provide cost effective treatment using the knowledgeavailable in all the systems of medicines such as Allopathy, Homeopathy,Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha. Also there is a need for public-private and civicsociety partnership for activating all the public health centers for ensuringquality medical care to the needy citizens.Water Management
Goal is to Harness additional 50,000 cubic meter of water for irrigation.Create additional storage capacity through water harvesting leading to adrought free Madhya Pradesh by 2012. Scientists and engineers assembledhere should study the excess water going out from Madhya Pradesh riversduring the monsoon and suggest creation of innovative storage systemwhich will enable the state to become a drought free state within the nextfive years.Infrastructure DevelopmentThere is need to increase road density to 30 kms per 100 sq. km. andcreation of 400 plain PURAs. The scientific community in partnership withthe artisans and farmers assembled here, can work on developing low cost,durable and robust technology for creating roads in the rural areas ofMadhya Pradesh, converting municipal waste into electric power and thedevelopment of 400 PURA complexes which I have already described.ConclusionFriends, I am very happy to participate and share certain thoughts, howscience and technology will lead to development of the states and therebythe nation. I have suggested in my talk what science can give you, a newparadigm for science, Rural Development a new focus ? PURA, mypresentation to the Madhya Pradesh legislative Assembly consisting ofeleven missions that need the contribution of scientists and technologistswho have assembled here.When I see the experienced scientists, young scientists and students, Ithought of sharing with you how value of science have to be recognized andput into action. Let me share the experience in the life of Sir CV Raman.Raman was in the first batch of Bharat Ratna Award winners. The awardceremony was to take place in the last week of January, soon after theRepublic Day celebrations of 1954. The then President Dr. Rajendra Prasadwrote to Raman inviting him to be the personal guest in the RashtrapatiBhavan, when Raman came to Delhi for the award ceremony. Sir CV Ramanwrote a polite letter, regretting his inability to go. Raman had a noble reasonfor his inability to attend the investiture ceremony. He explained to thePresident that he was guiding a Ph.D. student and that thesis was positivelydue by the last day of January. The student was valiantly trying to wrap it allup and Raman felt, he had to be by the side of the research student, seethat the thesis was finished, sign the thesis as the guide and then have itsubmitted. Here was a scientist who gave up the pomp of a glittering
ceremony associated with the highest honour, because he felt that his dutyrequired him to be by the side of the student. It is this unique trait of givingvalue to science that builds science.I congratulate Ministry of Science and Technology, Madhya Pradesh fororganizing a comprehensive Vigyan Sammelan which is directly relevant tosocietal transformation. My best wishes to all the participants of theBharatiya Vigyan Sammelan for success in their mission of providing scienceand technology inputs for accelerated transformation of the State into adeveloped State before 2016.May God bless you.Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam25.11.2007 By, Dr. APJ Abdulkalam www.abdulkalam.comwww.onlineTPS.comComponents at your doorstepTotal Project SolutionsE7/83F, Ashoka SocietyArera Colony,Bhopal 462016(M.P.),India+91-9826015410 , +91-9826050109 9826050109+91-755-2420735