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  • 1. Online Assignment – Your Homework Help Partner (We’re faster than your deadlines) www.onlineassignment.net homework@onlineassignment.net Subject: Human Resource ManagementTopic: Organisation , Training & Erg Process
  • 2. 1. Describe how the model of training processesserves as a problem-solving tool. Include a briefexplanation of each phase (e.g., needs analysis,design, development, implementation, andevaluation).Problem solving is a systematic process of reaching asolution or solutions to a concern or difficulty. Thechosen process of problem solving is oftendetermined by the degree of complexity of theconcern presented. When the concern is relativelysimple, an informal process occurs. However, as theconcern grows in complexity, a more formalized,systematic process is followed ( Hagemeyer,Gershenson and Johnson, 2006)The most commonly used model of training processhas following stages:1. Needs analysis: While designing trainingprograms, the process includes identifying anddefining the problem. This is the first step ofproblem-solving. Ensure recognition of real problem
  • 3. and not just symptom. Thus trainer needs to decidethe right content of training.2. Designing training program and developingcontent: included the stage of identifying alternatives,evaluating and choosing the best one of decisionmaking process. The development of content is alsobased on evaluation of various methods of trainingand choosing the right one to match the targetaudiences. The content and method of training helpsindividuals take quick decisions as it exposes them tovarious common phase issues.4. Implementing: the training program that has beendesigned is futile till it is effectively implemented.Training provides a base to individuals to identify thevarious tactics of implementing decisions.5. Evaluation: The training program gives anexposure to individuals to identify the possiblemethods and areas where effective decision makingcan be measured and rectified.Training supports critical thinking. The meticulousthought about the problem’s real constraints can savea lot of time. By identifying a problem’s trueconstraints, one can learn a lot about what thesolution most look like (Nalebuff and Ayres, 2003).
  • 4. 2. Should an organization’s strategies be reactive,proactive, or both? Support your answer.Strategic decision making is heavily emphasized inboth business policy and organizational theory. Thisdelineates the activities by which organizationalleaders establish the social or economic mission ofthe organization, define domains of action anddetermine how it will navigate or compete withinchosen domain (Bourgeois, 1980). Both businesspolicy and organizational theory have focused on thisthrough different perspectives. Business policy’sapproach has been to view management as aproactive or opportunistic agent and has centeredmush of its research on strategy variable (Hatten,Schendel and Cooper, 1978). Organizational theoryon the other hand takes a more reactive stance byviewing the environment as a deterministic force towhich organizations respond (Anderson and Paine,1975).Attempts to synthesize the frameworks developed byMiles and Snow (1978) and Porter (1980) have alsoemerged. Parnell and Carraher (2002) proposed acategorization along two dimensions: consistency andproactive ness. Consistent firms would pursue thedefender (Miles and Snow, 1978) and low cost(Porter, 1980) strategies. Proactive firms wouldchoose a prospector or differentiation strategy.
  • 5. Reactors and firms stuck in the middle both seem tolack clear strategic direction. Thus an integration ofboth proactive and reactive research is required and itneeds to be identified where and in what situationwhich should be applied.3. Explain social learning theory.People learn through observing others’ behavior,attitudes, and outcomes of those behaviors. Mosthuman behavior is learned observationally throughmodeling: from observing others, one forms an ideaof how new behaviors are performed, and on lateroccasions this coded information serves as a guidefor action (Bandura, 1977). Social learning theoryemphasizes the environmental rather than thepersonal determinants of behavior (Chell, 1985; Chellet al., 1991). One way in which learning can occur isvicariously, through the observation of behaviors inothers, referred to as models (Bandura, 1977).Entrepreneurial role models may appear in the guiseof family members, employers, teachers, or anyonewhom the individual has had the opportunity toobserve (Scherer et al., 1989). Chell (1985) arguesthat the entrepreneur develops expectancies andvalues from social experiences. According to social
  • 6. learning theory, risk-- taking behaviors can beviewed as learned behavior often transmitted byparents and other influential individuals, and areshaped by the socio-cultural environment. Traittheorists would also recognize that the environment isa determiner of behavior as well as traits:psychologists are not hard determinists; they aresoft determinists (Low and MacMillan, 1988).Social learning theory explains human behavior interms of continuous reciprocal interaction betweencognitive, behavioral, and environmental influences.Necessary conditions for effective modeling: 1. Attention — various factors increase or decrease the amount of attention paid. Includes distinctiveness, affective valence, prevalence, complexity, functional value. One’s characteristics (e.g. sensory capacities, arousal level, perceptual set, past reinforcement) affect attention. 2. Retention — remembering what you paid attention to. Includes symbolic coding, mental images, cognitive organization, symbolic rehearsal, motor rehearsal 3. Reproduction — reproducing the image. Including physical capabilities, and self- observation of reproduction.
  • 7. 4. Motivation — having a good reason to imitate. Includes motives such as past (i.e. traditional behaviorism), promised (imagined incentives) and vicarious (seeing and recalling the reinforced model)4. Explain ERG theory.The ERG theory, a model of human motivationdeveloped 1969 by Clayton Alderfer, extended andsimplified Maslows Hierarchy using a relativelysmaller set of needs. The ERG theory attempts toanswer the question, "what motivates a person toact?" and assumes that all human activities aremotivated by need. The ERG theory consolidatedMaslows five need categories into three levels ofneed; Existence, Relatedness, and Growth. Eachcategory is described as follows.1. Existence Needs: include all material andphysiological desires (e.g., food, water, air, clothing,safety, physical love and affection).2. Relatedness Needs: encompass relationships withsignificant others (e.g., to be recognized and feelsecure as part of a group or family).
  • 8. 3. Growth Needs: impel a person to make creative orproductive effects on himself and the environment(e.g., to progress toward ones ideal self).The concepts of existence, relatedness, and growthneeds are separate and distinct categories. Theconcept of prioritizing needs is based on a continuumin terms of their concreteness. Existence needs arethe most concrete, and easiest to verify. Relatednessneeds are less concrete than existence needs, whichdepend on a relationship between two or morepeople. Finally, growth needs are the least concrete inthat their specific objectives depend on theuniqueness of each person.Three relationships among different categories,satisfaction-progression, frustration-regression, andsatisfaction-strengthening, are identified in ERGtheory. Satisfaction-progression stands for moving upto higher-level needs based on satisfied needs.Frustration-regression is when a person movesbackward from current unsatisfied needs to lower-level needs. The idea of satisfactions-strengtheningrepresents strengthening a current level of satisfiedneeds iteratively.Satisfaction-progression plays an important part inMaslows original concept of a need hierarchy (butnot in the ERG theory). In ERG theory, the
  • 9. movement upward from relatedness satisfaction togrowth desires does not presume satisfaction ofexistence needs. However, the movement fromexistence satisfaction to relatedness desires isnecessary according to Maslows theory (i.e.,individuals move up the hierarchy as a result ofsatisfying lower order needs.Frustration-regression identifies ones motivation inexplaining fundamental desires. Frustration-regression suggests that an already satisfied need canbecome active when a higher need cannot besatisfied. Thus, if a person is continually frustrated inhis/her attempts to satisfy growth, relatedness needscan resurface as key motivators.Satisfaction-strengthening indicates that an alreadysatisfied need can maintain satisfaction or strengthenlower level needs iteratively when it fails to gratifyhigh-level needs (Chang and Yuan,2008).5. Discuss he proactive approach and the reactiveapproach to TNA (training needs analysis).The focus of training needs analysis is performance.The starting point for the process, as recommendedby numerous textbook models, is the identification oftraining needs as they relate to individual or
  • 10. organizational performance. The focus is very muchon job behavior and task analysis, with the gatheringof quantitative data from field observations,structured questionnaires and formal interviews beingthe major emphasis. Naturally this can be veryexpensive and time-consuming and the original needsmay well have changed by the time the data has beenanalyzed and the subsequent training programsdesigned and delivered. However, such acomprehensive approach is rare: most organizationsfollow their own less systematic procedures based ontradition, office politics and various internal andexternal pressures. A reactive, problem-basedapproach to needs analysis and HRD planning is nolonger sufficient. Adult educationalist StephenBrookfield (1986) warns of a further shortcoming oftraditional training models. Their insistence thattraining must be outcome-oriented and derived frompredetermined behavioral objectives neglects thepossibility of unplanned learning occurring and theimportant roles played by insight, reflection anddiscovery on the part of adult learners. Since theseare the very sorts of learning skills needed for futurework it could be argued that rigid behavioralobjectives are antipathetic to current notions ofcompetence.
  • 11. In the leaner, more results-oriented organizations oftoday, training must be a deliberate organizationalstrategy and not just a reaction to a problem or apolitical decision based on managerial whim. Thismeans the emphasis of needs analysis will haveshifted from looking for the cause of a problem toassisting people in their work and careers and tohelping them achieve greater future proficiency andsatisfaction. This certainly involves problemcorrection and the identification of skills andknowledge currently lacking, but the emphasis is onfuture efficiency, not past deficiencies. It requires anattitudinal shift on the part of trainers and managersto see training as much more than basic skill building(Anderson, 1994).6. Compare reliability and validity.Reliability seeks to produce consistent, predictableoutcomes by utilizing a system that is restricted to theuse of objective data - for instance, predicting acustomer’s future purchase by using data collected inCustomer Information System. To produce highestreliability, a system must stick to quantitative,objective data and use of the data that does notinvolve judgment, because blending subjective andjudgment leads to inconsistency. Validity, on the
  • 12. other hand, seeks to produce outcomes that meet thedesired objective, even if the system employed can’tproduce a consistent, predictable outcome.Validity and reliability anchor down opposite ends ofthe spectrum that defines how systems are conceivedand solutions are framed. A perfectly reliable systemis one that produces an identical output each time ifthe same inputs are introduced to the systemrepeatedly. A perfectly valid system is one thatproduces a result that is shown, through the passageof time, to have been correct. In most situations,validity and reliability are traded off for one another,to achieve high validity, a system must take intoaccount a high degree of complexity featuring manyvariables and judgmental measurement of variables;and to achieve high reliability, the number ofvariables has to be reduced and the measurement ofthe variables standardized. Tests like Stanford –Binetand Wechsler Intelligence Scale, EmotionalIntelligence by Goleman all suggest the samephenomenon (Martin, 2005).
  • 13. Thank YouOnline Assignment – Your Homework Help Partner (We’re faster than your deadlines) www.onlineassignment.net homework@onlineassignment.net Live Chat : Available 24*7