Oral communication

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MBA / MMS sem 1 notes

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Oral communication

  1. 1. COMMUNICATION & PRESENTATION SKILLS ORAL SKILLS & SPOKEN ENGLISH
  2. 2. MAIN POINTS TO REMEMBER ABOUT ORAL PRESENTATION <ul><li>(i) effective use of visual aids </li></ul><ul><li>(ii) adequate eye contact : size of the audience </li></ul><ul><li>(iii) clarity in pronunciation and fluency </li></ul><ul><li>(iv) maintaining a proper speed of presentation </li></ul><ul><li>(v) posture and body movements suggesting confidence </li></ul><ul><li>(vi) seeking and making proper use of visual feedback </li></ul><ul><li>(vii) noting down important points arising out of discussion </li></ul>
  3. 3. DEVELOPING ORAL SKILLS <ul><li>1. Speech & Writing/Printing: a comparison </li></ul><ul><li>Speech : pitch, volume, tone, speed, pauses, body movements, facial expressions </li></ul><ul><li>Writing/Printing: punctuation, capitalization, spacing, margins, fonts </li></ul>
  4. 4. DEVELOPING ORAL SKILLS (continued) <ul><li>2. Pronunciation of Words: </li></ul><ul><li>(a) vowel and consonant sounds </li></ul><ul><li>(comparison of sounds with letters a-z); </li></ul><ul><li>The letter “a” in : </li></ul><ul><li>fa t /æ/, f a ther /a:/, </li></ul><ul><li>f a te /eɪ/ , a bout /ə/ </li></ul><ul><li>Or the letters “th” in “th i n” / ɵ / & “th e n” / ð /. </li></ul><ul><li>Also notice </li></ul><ul><li>(b) word-stress: ‘language, communication </li></ul>
  5. 5. DEVELOPING ORAL SKILLS (continued) <ul><li>3. Use of the phonetic script and the (Pronouncing) Dictionary: International Phonetic Alphabet: free downloading is possible </li></ul><ul><li>Dictionaries on CD : listening to the pronunciation and it variety (e.g. British & American) now possible </li></ul>
  6. 6. DEVELOPING ORAL SKILLS (continued) <ul><li>4. Pronunciation of Sentences: </li></ul><ul><li>intonation and rhythm </li></ul><ul><li>INTONATION: rising / (yes /) </li></ul><ul><li>falling (yes ) </li></ul><ul><li>combination / (yes /) </li></ul><ul><li>RHYTHM: de dum de dum </li></ul><ul><li>x ’ x ’ </li></ul>
  7. 7. Word-stress <ul><li>Two-syllable words </li></ul><ul><li>Stress on first syllable </li></ul><ul><li>‘ bargain </li></ul><ul><li>‘ govern </li></ul><ul><li>‘ secret </li></ul><ul><li>‘ mischief </li></ul><ul><li>‘ message </li></ul><ul><li>‘ cabbage </li></ul><ul><li>‘ surface </li></ul><ul><li>‘ furnace </li></ul><ul><li>‘ husband </li></ul><ul><li>‘ butcher </li></ul><ul><li>‘ proverb </li></ul><ul><li>‘ thorough </li></ul><ul><li>‘ oven </li></ul><ul><li>‘ onion </li></ul><ul><li>‘ compass </li></ul>
  8. 8. Word-stress (continued) Two-syllable words <ul><li>Stress on second syllable </li></ul><ul><li>ad’mit </li></ul><ul><li>for’bid </li></ul><ul><li>suc’ced </li></ul><ul><li>sup’press </li></ul><ul><li>po’lice </li></ul><ul><li>pay’ee </li></ul><ul><li>dis’miss </li></ul><ul><li>ag’ree </li></ul><ul><li>se’lect </li></ul><ul><li>re’quest </li></ul><ul><li>pre’fer </li></ul><ul><li>re’fer </li></ul><ul><li>oc’cur </li></ul><ul><li>ar’rest </li></ul><ul><li>com’mence </li></ul><ul><li>per’haps </li></ul>
  9. 9. Word-stress (continued) Three-syllable words <ul><li>Stress on first syllable </li></ul><ul><li>’ advertise </li></ul><ul><li>’ educate </li></ul><ul><li>’ illustrate </li></ul><ul><li>’ furniture </li></ul><ul><li>’ government </li></ul><ul><li>’ literature </li></ul><ul><li>’ recognize </li></ul><ul><li>’ signature </li></ul><ul><li>’ tentative </li></ul><ul><li>Stress on second syllable </li></ul><ul><li>ad’venture </li></ul><ul><li>com’mercial </li></ul><ul><li>de’cision </li></ul><ul><li>ex’ternal </li></ul><ul><li>in’ternal </li></ul><ul><li>per’mission </li></ul><ul><li>re’vision </li></ul><ul><li>spec’tator </li></ul><ul><li>um’brella </li></ul>
  10. 10. Word-stress (continued) Three-syllable words <ul><li>Primary Stress on third syllable </li></ul><ul><li>,addres’see </li></ul><ul><li>,ciga’rette </li></ul><ul><li>,coin’cide </li></ul><ul><li>,devo’tee </li></ul><ul><li>,engi’neer </li></ul><ul><li>,guaran’tee </li></ul><ul><li>,recim’mend </li></ul>
  11. 11. Word-stress (continued) Four-syllable words <ul><li>Primary Stress on first syllable </li></ul><ul><li>’ applicable </li></ul><ul><li>’ accurately </li></ul><ul><li>’ comfortable </li></ul><ul><li>’ honourable </li></ul><ul><li>Primary Stress on second syllable </li></ul><ul><li>ad’vertisement </li></ul><ul><li>ap’preciate </li></ul><ul><li>a’rithmetic </li></ul><ul><li>e’xaggerate </li></ul><ul><li>par’ticipate </li></ul><ul><li>pho’tography </li></ul>
  12. 12. Word-stress (continued) Four-syllable words <ul><li>Primary Stress on third syllable </li></ul><ul><li>acci’dental </li></ul><ul><li>appli’cation </li></ul><ul><li>exhi’bition </li></ul><ul><li>inde’pendent </li></ul><ul><li>indi’vidual </li></ul><ul><li>Primary Stress on fourth syllable </li></ul><ul><li>dedica’tee </li></ul><ul><li>exami’nee </li></ul>
  13. 13. Word-stress (continued) words with more than four syllables <ul><li>Primary Stress on first syllable </li></ul><ul><li>‘ favouritism </li></ul><ul><li>‘ cannibalism </li></ul><ul><li>‘ secularism </li></ul><ul><li>Primary Stress on second syllable </li></ul><ul><li>ad’venturousness </li></ul><ul><li>en’thusiasm </li></ul><ul><li>con’servatism </li></ul><ul><li>Primary Stress on third syllable </li></ul><ul><li>elec’tricity </li></ul><ul><li>irre’sponsible </li></ul><ul><li>popu’larity </li></ul><ul><li>Primary Stress on fourth syllable </li></ul><ul><li>acade’mician </li></ul><ul><li>civili’zation </li></ul><ul><li>pactici’pation </li></ul>
  14. 14. Word-stress (continued): stress change according to part of speech <ul><li>COMPARE: </li></ul><ul><li>Noun/Adjective Verb </li></ul><ul><li>’ absent ab’sent </li></ul><ul><li>’ accent ac’cent </li></ul><ul><li>’ concert con’cert </li></ul><ul><li>’ conflict con’flict </li></ul><ul><li>’ export ex’port </li></ul><ul><li>’ produce pro’duce </li></ul><ul><li>’ subject sub’ject </li></ul>
  15. 15. Attributes of good oral communication <ul><li>1.Sounds and sound combinations </li></ul><ul><li>2. Stress </li></ul><ul><li>3. Rhythm </li></ul><ul><li>4. Intonation </li></ul><ul><li>5. Speed: pausing </li></ul><ul><li>6. Clarity of articulation </li></ul><ul><li>7. Voice modulation: volume & pitch variation (avoiding “monotonous speech) </li></ul>
  16. 16. Vowel sounds of English <ul><li>(Pure Vowels/Monophthongs) initially medially finally </li></ul><ul><li>1. /i:/ ea st sh ee t k e y </li></ul><ul><li>2. /I/ i t h i t dut y </li></ul><ul><li>3. /e / e nd s e nd </li></ul><ul><li>4. /æ/ a nd sa nd </li></ul><ul><li>5. /a:/ a rt he a rt c ar </li></ul><ul><li>6. / ɒ / o x f o x </li></ul>
  17. 17. Vowel sounds of English (continued) <ul><li>initially medially finally </li></ul><ul><li>7. /ɔ:/ a ll b a ll s aw </li></ul><ul><li>8. /U/ p u t </li></ul><ul><li>9. /u:/ oo ze ch oo se ch ew </li></ul><ul><li>10./  / u p c u p </li></ul><ul><li>11./з:/ ea rn learn st ir </li></ul><ul><li>12. /ə/ a go p o lice mak er </li></ul>
  18. 18. Vowel sounds of English (continued) Diphthongs <ul><li>13. / e ɪ/ ei ght str ai ght st ay </li></ul><ul><li>14. /əʊ/ oa k j o ke sl ow </li></ul><ul><li>15. / a ɪ/ i ce m i ce m y </li></ul><ul><li>16./ a ʊ/ ou t sh ou t h ow </li></ul><ul><li>17. /ɔɪ/ oi l b oi l b oy </li></ul><ul><li>18. /ɪə/ ear s b ear d p eer </li></ul><ul><li>19. / e ə/ air s p air ed h ar e </li></ul><ul><li>20. / u ə/ c ur ed t our </li></ul>
  19. 19. Consonant sounds of English <ul><li>initially medially finally </li></ul><ul><li>1. /p/ p in s p in kee p </li></ul><ul><li>2. /b/ b in tu b s clu b </li></ul><ul><li>3. /t/ t ell s t ick ligh t </li></ul><ul><li>4. /d/ d ay hea d s lai d </li></ul><ul><li>5. /k/ k eep s k ill sti ck </li></ul><ul><li>6. /g/ get ju gs ba g </li></ul>
  20. 20. Consonant sounds of English (continued) <ul><li>initially medially finally </li></ul><ul><li>17. /s/ s ip li s t le ss </li></ul><ul><li>18. /z/ z ip lo s er bu zz </li></ul><ul><li>19. /ʃ/ sh ip ru sh ed hu sh </li></ul><ul><li>20. /ʒ/ mea s ure rou g e </li></ul>
  21. 21. Consonant sounds of English (continued) <ul><li>initially medially finally </li></ul><ul><li>21. /h/ h ot be h ave </li></ul><ul><li>22. /r/ r ot t r y </li></ul><ul><li>23. /w/ w att s w eat </li></ul><ul><li>24. /j/ y atch t u ne </li></ul>
  22. 22. Consonant sounds of English (continued) <ul><li>initially medially finally </li></ul><ul><li>13 /f/ f an so f t i f </li></ul><ul><li>14. /v/ v an lea v es thie f </li></ul><ul><li>15. / ɵ / th in mon th s ba th </li></ul><ul><li>16./ ð / th en clo th es ba th e </li></ul>

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