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I walden



Published in Technology
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  • EU copyright amendments stir new hornet's nest (Reuters) The European Parliament legal affairs committee has voted to strengthen proposed rules on digital-era copyright protection. The committee adopted amendments requiring governments that allowed individuals to make copies for their personal use to ensure that copyright holders were compensated. They would also have to bar consumers from making copies of digital works that are protected by anti-piracy technologies such as encryption. Another amendment, which especially worries telecoms companies and Internet service providers, would give copyright holders more control over "temporary copies" -- those made automatically when performing transactions such as transmitting material over networks.


  • 1. Building a legal framework for eCommerce
  • 2.
    • Fundamental changes resulting from Internet
      • intangible information assets, questions of identity & location, speed & mobility…..
    • Policy
      • the promise of electronic commerce
      • ‘ digital divide’ issues
    • Law and regulation
      • enabler & facilitator or constraints on behaviour
    Introductory remarks
  • 3.
    • Law
      • public law (e.g. criminal) and private law (contract)
    • Norms
      • e.g. ‘netiquette’, ‘flaming’
    • The market
      • e.g. cost of access
    • Architecture: ‘code as code’
      • infinitely flexible - possibility of design
    Forms of regulation
  • 4.
    • Non-discrimination
      • e.g. US Internet Tax Nondiscrimination Act 2001
    • Emerging custom and practice
      • from Lex Mercatoria to Lex Informatica ?
    • Non-territorial treatment
      • international laws of space & the sea
    • Media censor
      • e.g. Singapore, China
    Regulatory precedents
  • 5. International aspects
    • Questions of applicable law
      • “… .. the principles of the international legal system cannot impose obligations on everyone to comply with all law” (David Post, 2004)
    • As comparative advantage
      • or regulatory arbitrage?
    • ‘ Country of origin’ principle
      • mutual recognition
  • 6. Who regulates?
    • Law-making bodies
      • WTO, EU, WIPO..…
        • formal, e.g. GATT, GATS, Copyright Treaty
        • informal, e.g. Doha WTO Ministerial Declaration (Nov. 2001)
    • Model-making bodies
      • UNCITRAL Model Laws and Convention (2005)
      • Commonwealth Model Law on Electronic Transactions (2003)
    • Standards-making bodies
      • e.g. International Telecommunications Union (ITU), Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)
  • 7.
    • Legal certainty
      • Validity, enforceability & admissibility
    • Legal security
      • Digital signatures & data protection
    • Legal protection
      • IPR Rights-holders & consumer protection
    • Legal deterrents
      • Criminal law
    Regulatory topics
  • 8.
    • Political commitment
      • E.g. ASEAN member states
    • Ownership by government ministry
    • Technical and legal expertise
    • Stakeholder review group
      • Public and private sector
    • Parliamentary process
    The Law Reform Process
  • 9. Concluding Remarks
    • Law as an enabler and facilitator
      • as a tool of comparative advantage
      • at an infrastructure & service/product level
    • Advantages of a regional approach
      • harmonisation
      • multiplier effect
      • sharing resource/experience