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  • Reference: Textbook
  • Reference: Understanding Psychology textbook
  • Reference: Eggen and Kauchak textbook (4 th edition)
  • Reference: Understanding Psychology textbook
  • Reference: Understanding Psychology textbook
  • http://www.peterlewis.com/2011/08/18/skinner-box-journalism/
  • Need to add the other facts in tb.
  • Reference: Theories of Human Learning – What the old woman said 5e; Lefrancois, G. R. (2006). Theories of Human Learning 5e: What the old woman said (5 th ed.) . USA: Thomson Wadsworth. University of Alberta.
  • Reference: Lefrancois, G. R. (2006). Theories of Human Learning 5e: What the old woman said (5 th ed.) . USA: Thomson Wadsworth.
  • Reference: Lefrancois, G. R. (2006). Theories of Human Learning 5e: What the old woman said (5 th ed.) . USA: Thomson Wadsworth.
  • Reference: Lefrancois, G. R. (2006). Theories of Human Learning 5e: What the old woman said (5 th ed.) . USA: Thomson Wadsworth. (page 97-137) Next page: Need to include fading, generalisation and discrimination? Premack Principle?
  • Never underestimate power of operant conditioning, can cause a student to act senselessly. Phua, A. (2011, April 28). Boy punches teacher in class. The New Paper. Retrieved from http://www.tnp.sg/content/boy-punches-teacher-class http://singaporedesigneducator.wordpress.com/2011/05/01/boy-punches-teacher-in-class/
  • Never underestimate power of operant conditioning, can cause a student to act senselessly. Phua, A. (2011, April 28). Boy punches teacher in class. The New Paper. Retrieved from http://www.tnp.sg/content/boy-punches-teacher-class http://singaporedesigneducator.wordpress.com/2011/05/01/boy-punches-teacher-in-class/
  • Reference: Edupsych Textbook Specific behaviors varies from culture to culture – differs in the way people lead their life The acquisition of these behaviors appears to be consistently determined by the processes of identification & imitation .
  • Reference: Lefrancois, G. R. (2006). Theories of Human Learning 5e: What the old woman said (5 th ed.) . USA: Thomson Wadsworth. (p. 359-379)
  • Cherry, K. (n.d.). Social Learning Theory. Retrieved from http://psychology.about.com/od/developmentalpsychology/a/sociallearning.htm And textbook.
  • Modeling effect: Acquiring a new behavior as a result of observing a model; eg: Watching martial arts and try on sister. Inhibitory-Disinhibitory effect: Stopping or starting some deviant behavior after seeing a model punished or rewarded for similar behavior; eg: Disinhibitory-(staring) havent use an act in a long time, but now starts to. Inhibitory-(stopping) thiefs stop stealing when a lot of friends get caught by police. Eliciting effect: Involves eliciting responses that, instead of matching the model’s behavior precisely, are simply related to it. Mum praise elder bro for doing well in exams, younger bro wants to do well too.

Xuan's Problem Analysis Xuan's Problem Analysis Presentation Transcript

  • Educational Psychology PBL Group Assignment Theories used: 1. Skinner’s Operant Conditioning 2. Bandura’s Social Learning Theory Ong Xuan’s part - Problem Analysis- (September 2011)
  • Skinner’s Operant Conditioning
    • Type of behaviorist learning in which voluntary behaviors
    • are controlled by the
    • manipulation
    • of follow-up stimuli
    • ( Tan, Parsons, Hinson, & Sardo-Brown, 2011)
  • Skinner’s Operant Conditioning
    • Voluntary response is strengthened or weakened,
    • depending on its
    • favorable or unfavorable consequences
    • ( Feldman, 2008)
  • Skinner’s Operant Conditioning
    • Learners’ actions are more controlled by the consequences of the behavior than by events preceding the behavior
    • Consequence: An outcome (stimulus) occurring after the behavior that influences future behaviors.
    • ( Eggen, & Kauchak, 1994, p. 202)
  • Skinner’s Operant Conditioning
    • Based on the work of Thorndike’s Law of Effect
      • Responses that lead to satisfying consequences are more likely to be repeated
      • Operates as automatically
      • Not necessary for an organism to understand that there was a link between a response and a reward
      • Over time and through experience, the organism would make a direct connection between the stimulus and the response without any awareness that the connection existed
  • Skinner’s Operant Conditioning
    • Based on the work of Thorndike’s Law of Effect
      • For example:
        • If you placed a hungry cat in a cage and then put a small piece of food outside the cage, just beyond the cat’s reach, chances are that the cat would eagerly search for a way out of the cage. The cat might first claw at the sides or push against an opening. (Note: Cat can escape by stepping on a small paddle that released the latch to the door) Eventually, as it moved around the cage, the cat would happen to step on the paddle, the door would open and the cat would eat the food. After a few trials, the cat would deliberately step on paddle as soon as it was placed in the cage.
        • Pressing paddle Desirable consequences of getting food
        • associated with
  • The Skinner Box Skinner used the Skinner Box to study Operant Conditioning. Laboratory rats learn to press the lever in order to obtain food, which is delivered on the tray. http://www.peterlewis.com/2011/08/18/skinner-box-journalism/
  • Concept of Operant Conditioning Reinforcement: The process by which a stimulus increase the probability that a preceding behavior will be repeated Punishment: The process by which a stimulus decrease the probability that a preceding behavior will be repeated Positive Reinforcer: A stimulus added to the environment that brings about an increase in a preceding response Negative Reinforcer: An unpleasant stimulus whose removal leads to an increase in the probability that a preceding response will be repeated in future Positive Punishment: Weakens a response through the application of an unpleasant stimulus Negative Punishment: Consists of the removal of something pleasant
  • Skinner’s Operant Conditioning Punishment versus Negative Reinforcement Punishment Negative Reinforcement Both involves aversive consequences Decrease probability of behavior Increase probability of behavior Involves termination of a positive event Involves termination of an event that might be aversive Behavior weakened Behavior strengthened
    • 1. Continuous or Intermittent Reinforcement : 1. Continuous Reinforcement: Every desired response is reinforced 2. Intermittent Reinforcement : Occurs only some of the time
    • 2. Interval or Ratio Schedules : 1. Interval Schedule: Based on the passage of time 2. Ratio Schedule: Based on a proportion of responses
    Skinner’s Operant Conditioning Schedules of Reinforcement
    • 3. Fixed or Random Schedules : 1. Fixed Schedule: The exact time/response that will be followed by a reinforcing event is unchanging. 2. Ratio Schedule: Provides reinforcing events at unpredictable times
    • 4. Superstitious Schedules : 1. Special kind of non-contingent fixed-interval schedule - Reinforcement occurs at fixed time intervals - Without the requirement that there will be a correct response
    Skinner’s Operant Conditioning Schedules of Reinforcement
    • Acquisition: Initial learning is more rapid if every correct response is reinforced
    • Rate of Extinction: The rate of extinction after the withdrawal of reinforcement – amount of time that passes before the organism stops responding
    • Rate of Responding: Dependent variable that is sensitive to schedules of reinforcement (E.g: Fixed-interval schedule – rate of responding drops after reinforcement and often stops)
    • APPLICATION
    • Shaping: Technique used to train animals to perform acts that are not ordinarily in their repertoire
    • Chaining: The linking of sequences of responses
    Skinner’s Operant Conditioning Effects of Different Reinforcement Schedules
  • “ Boy punches teacher in class” http://www.tnp.sg/content/boy-punches-teacher-class
  • “ Boy punches teacher in class”
    • Conflict between teacher and Roger (Not the real name)
    • Teacher had no trust in Roger (Did not believe that student did attend lessons previously)
    • Roger showed defiance in class ( Walked around during lessons, left to go to the toilet without the teacher’s permission and using his mobile phone)
    • Roger feels that teacher looking forward to punish him all the time (Feels that he is picked on by the teacher so as to get him to behave)
    • Roger punched the male, mathematics teacher on his back ( Result of low expectations and poor anger management)
    • Situation would have been better if teachers used reinforcers to affirm and encourage him
  •  
  • Bandura’s Social Learning Theory
    • Specific behaviors varies from culture to culture
    • The acquisition of these behaviors appears to be consistently determined by the processes of identification & imitation
    • (Bandura, 1978; Khan & Cangemi, 1979, as cited in Tan, Parsons, Hinson, & Sardo-Brown, 2011)
  • Bandura’s Social Learning Theory
    • ALL ABOUT MODELING
    • (Observation & Imitation)
    • (Lefrancois, 2006)
  • Bandura’s Social Learning Theory
    • 3 Core Concepts
    • People can learn through observation . 3 Models of Observational Learning:
      • A live model, which involves an actual individual demonstrating or acting out a behavior.
      • A verbal instructional model, which involves descriptions and explanations of a behavior.
      • A symbolic model, which involves real or fictional characters displaying behaviors in books, films, television programs, or online media.
    • The idea that internal mental states are an essential part of this process.
    • Recognizes that just because something has been learned, it does not mean that it will result in a change in behavior.
  • Bandura’s Social Learning Theory Processes of Observational Learning
    • Attention: Pay attention, observe the details
    • Retention: Ability to store information; affected by a number of factors
    • Motor Reproduction: Translate observations into actual behavior
    • Motivation: Motivated to imitate the behavior that has been modeled.
  • Bandura’s Social Learning Theory
    • 3 Effects of Model
    • Modeling Effect: Acquisition of novel responses
    • Inhibitory-Disinhibitory Effect: Stopping or starting some deviant behavior after seeing a model punished or rewarded for similar behavior
    • Eliciting effect: Involves eliciting responses that, instead of matching the model’s behavior precisely, are simply related to it.
  • References
    • Cherry, K. (n.d.). Social Learning Theory. Retrieved from http://psychology.about.com/od/developmentalpsychology/a/sociallearning.htm
    • Feldman, R. S. Understanding Psychology. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    • Fisher, R., Ury, W., & Patton, B. (1991). Getting to yes: Negotiating agreement without giving in (2nd ed.) . New York: Penguin.
    • Lefrancois, G. R. (2006). Theories of Human Learning 5e: What the old woman said (5 th ed.) . USA: Thomson Wadsworth.
    • Phua, A. (2011, April 28). Boy punches teacher in class. The New Paper. Retrieved from http://www.tnp.sg/content/boy-punches-teacher-class
    • Tan, O. S., Parsons, R. D., Hinson, S. L., & Sardo-Brown, D. (2011). Educational Psychology: A Practicioner-Researcher Approach (8 th ed.). Singapore: Cengage Learning Asia Pte Ltd.
    • Ormrod, J.E. (1999). Human learning (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    Skinner’s Operant Conditioning & Bandura’s Social Learning Theory // Ong Xuan