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Educational Psychology; Theories discussed in Primary Scenario 1.

Educational Psychology; Theories discussed in Primary Scenario 1.

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  • Reference: Textbook (
  • Reference: Understanding Psychology textbook
  • Reference: Understanding Psychology textbook
  • Reference: Understanding Psychology textbook
  • http://www.peterlewis.com/2011/08/18/skinner-box-journalism/
  • Reference: Understanding Psychology textbook
  • By understanding the effects of operant conditioning, teachers can adopt different strategies to modify a student’s behavior.
  • Website: http://www.olemiss.k12.in.us/intervention/behavior/defiant.pdf Fisher, R., Ury, W., & Patton, B. (1991). Getting to yes: Negotiating agreement without giving in (2nd ed.) New York: Penguin.
  • Never underestimate power of operant conditioning, can cause a student to act senselessly. Phua, A. (2011, April 28). Boy punches teacher in class. The New Paper. Retrieved from http://www.tnp.sg/content/boy-punches-teacher-class http://singaporedesigneducator.wordpress.com/2011/05/01/boy-punches-teacher-in-class/
  • Never underestimate power of operant conditioning, can cause a student to act senselessly. Phua, A. (2011, April 28). Boy punches teacher in class. The New Paper. Retrieved from http://www.tnp.sg/content/boy-punches-teacher-class http://singaporedesigneducator.wordpress.com/2011/05/01/boy-punches-teacher-in-class/
  • Reference: Edupsych Textbook
  • Cherry, K. (n.d.). Social Learning Theory. Retrieved from http://psychology.about.com/od/developmentalpsychology/a/sociallearning.htm Ormrod, J.E. (1999). Human learning (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall. http://teachnet.edb.utexas.edu/~Lynda_abbot/Social.html

Edupsych Edupsych Presentation Transcript

  • Educational Psychology PBL Group Assignment Theories used: 1. Skinner’s Operant Conditioning 2. Bandura’s Social Learning Theory Ong Xuan’s part (September 2011)
  • Teacher is biased against Andy and practices favouritism. Teacher has low expectations of Andy; not clarifying the matter and humiliates Andy in class Teacher punishes Andy by threatening him to not go for recess There is an inconsistency in the way the teacher executes her punishment What we know about the TEACHER.
  • We ask ourselves, how would the threat of punishments affect Andy?
  • Analyzing the situation with…
    • Skinner’s Operant Conditioning
  • Skinner’s Operant Conditioning
    • Type of behaviorist learning in which voluntary behaviors
    • are controlled by the
    • manipulation
    • of follow-up stimuli
    • ( Tan, Parsons, Hinson, & Sardo-Brown, 2011)
  • Skinner’s Operant Conditioning
    • Voluntary response is strengthened or weakened,
    • depending on its
    • favorable or unfavorable consequences
    • ( Feldman, 2008)
  • Skinner’s Operant Conditioning
    • Based on the work of Thorndike’s Law of Effect
      • Responses that lead to satisfying consequences are more likely to be repeated
      • Operates as automatically
      • Not necessary for an organism to understand that there was a link between a response and a reward
      • Over time and through experience, the organism would make a direct connection between the stimulus and the response without any awareness that the connection existed
  • Skinner’s Operant Conditioning
    • Based on the work of Thorndike’s Law of Effect
      • For example:
        • If you placed a hungry cat in a cage and then put a small piece of food outside the cage, just beyond the cat’s reach, chances are that the cat would eagerly search for a way out of the cage. The cat might first claw at the sides or push against an opening. (Note: Cat can escape by stepping on a small paddle that released the latch to the door) Eventually, as it moved around the cage, the cat would happen to step on the paddle, the door would open and the cat would eat the food. After a few trials, the cat would deliberately step on paddle as soon as it was placed in the cage.
        • Pressing paddle Desirable consequences of getting food
        • associated with
  • The Skinner Box Skinner used the Skinner Box to study Operant Conditioning. Laboratory rats learn to press the lever in order to obtain food, which is delivered on the tray. http://www.peterlewis.com/2011/08/18/skinner-box-journalism/
  • Concept of Operant Conditioning Reinforcement: The process by which a stimulus increase the probability that a preceding behavior will be repeated Punishment: The process by which a stimulus decrease the probability that a preceding behavior will be repeated Positive Reinforcer: A stimulus added to the environment that brings about an increase in a preceding response Negative Reinforcer: An unpleasant stimulus whose removal leads to an increase in the probability that a preceding response will be repeated in future Positive Punishment: Weakens a response through the application of an unpleasant stimulus Negative Punishment: Consists of the removal of something pleasant
  • How would punishments affect Andy?
    • Negative (-) punishment (Removal of something pleasant)
    • Teacher hopes that by threatening Andy with his recess, Andy will do his corrections.
    • Teacher applies negative punishment inconsistently, resulting in ineffectiveness
    • Teacher humiliates Andy in front of entire class
      • Damage to self-esteem and self-confidence
  • What can Ms Wong do?
    • Deliver reinforcements
      • “ Shaping and Fading” (Reinforcement strategy in which remote approximations of a target behavior are rewarded)
        • Reinforces small approximations of target behavior until progress toward a targeted behavior is established
        • Once Andy responds positively in class, allow reinforcers to fade
      • “ The Premack Principle”
      • (Reinforcement strategy in an if-then contigency is established between a preferred reinforcer and a less-preferred activity)
        • For example: “If you finish your corrections, I will allow you to go for early recess.”
  • What can Ms Wong do?
    • Minimize ‘Presentation Punishment’ (Aversive, follow-up stimuli added to decrease the strength of an unwanted behavior)
      • Potential consequences: Highly undesirable
      • For example: “Shut up!”
      • Can elicit aggression, creates anxiety, leads to escape/avoidance behavior, yields no effects when one become so accustomed to it
  • What can Ms Wong do?
    • Offer Andy face-saving exit strategies
    • (rather than humiliating him in front of the entire class)
      • According to Fisher, et al. (1993), “face-saving reflects a person’s need to reconcile the stand he takes in a negotiation or agreement with his principles and with his past words and deeds” (p. 29).
    • Act in positive ways that are inconsistent with Andy’s expectations
      • Even when Andy failed his test again, Ms Wong should approach Andy and give him support and encouragement
  • “ Boy punches teacher in class”
  • “ Boy punches teacher in class”
    • Conflict between teacher and Roger (Not the real name)
    • Teacher had no trust in Roger (Did not believe that student did attend lessons previously)
    • Roger showed defiance in class ( Walked around during lessons, left to go to the toilet without the teacher’s permission and using his mobile phone)
    • Roger feels that teacher applies positive punishers to him (Feels that he is picked on by the teacher so as to get him to behave)
    • Roger punched the male, mathematics teacher on his back ( Result of low expectations and poor anger management)
    • Situation would have been better if teachers used reinforcers to affirm and encourage him
  •  
  • Classmates tease Andy. Classmates do not give Andy the support he needs. Classmates are a distraction to Andy - Peer pressure. Classmates not passionate about Ms Wong's lessons - greets her in monotonous voice. What we know about the CLASSMATES.
  • We ask ourselves, 1. How to improve the dynamics of the class? 2. How can Andy gain acceptance and support among his friends? 3. How can the students be passionate about learning?
  • Analyzing the situation with…
    • Bandura’s Social Learning Theory
  • Bandura’s Social Learning Theory
    • While the specific behaviors that result from social learning vary from culture to culture, the acquisition of these behaviors appears to be consistently determined by the processes of identification and imitation.
    • (Bandura, 1978; Khan & Cangemi, 1979, as cited in Tan, Parsons, Hinson, & Sardo-Brown, 2011)
  • Bandura’s Social Learning Theory
    • Albert Bandura believed that direct reinforcement could not account for all types of learning.
    • Most famous for his Bobo doll experiment
      • View: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lCETgT_Xfzg
  • Bandura’s Social Learning Theory
    • 3 Core Concepts
    • People can learn through observation.
    • The idea that internal mental states are an essential part of this process.
    • Recognizes that just because something has been learned, it does not mean that it will result in a change in behavior.
  • How would Social Learning Theory affect Andy?
    • Adopt “observational learning” for learning (Live, Verbal and Symbolic model)
    • Mental states are important to learning (Andy needs to recognize that there are extrinsic and intrinsic reinforcement to encourage positive behavior and learning)
    • Increase in self-efficacy (Andy is more likely to engage in certain behavior when he believes he is capable of executing behaviors successfully; increased confidence towards learning)
    • Ability to self-regulate (Andy will reward himself after producing desirable behaviors)
  • What can Ms Wong do?
    • Help Andy to set realistic goals (Help attain self-efficacy when successful in tasks)
    • Expose Andy to different learning techniques to suit him best
    • Provide a good role model for Andy to follow after
  • What can Ms Wong do?
    • Provide a conducive environment for students – safe platform where students can clarify in doubt
      • No humiliation
      • Improve dynamics of class
      • Create interest in learning
    • Affirm Andy of his good behavior so that he will slowly gain acceptance among his friends
  • References
    • Cherry, K. (n.d.). Social Learning Theory. Retrieved from http://psychology.about.com/od/developmentalpsychology/a/sociallearning.htm
    • Feldman, R. S. Understanding Psychology. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    • Fisher, R., Ury, W., & Patton, B. (1991). Getting to yes: Negotiating agreement without giving in (2nd ed.) . New York: Penguin.
    • Phua, A. (2011, April 28). Boy punches teacher in class. The New Paper. Retrieved from http://www.tnp.sg/content/boy-punches-teacher-class
    • Tan, O. S., Parsons, R. D., Hinson, S. L., & Sardo-Brown, D. (2011). Educational Psychology: A Practicioner-Researcher Approach (8 th ed.). Singapore: Cengage Learning Asia Pte Ltd.
    • Ormrod, J.E. (1999). Human learning (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.