There is likely to be enough reserves for 300 years: coal It is easily converted into electricity: coal, oil and gas It is used as a direct source for heating: coal It is efficient to burn: gas and oil It is the cleanest of all fossil fuels: gas It is used as a direct source for cooking: gas
“ SOURCES OF ENERGY” RENEWABLE AND NON RENEWABLE PRESENTED BY: ABHIRAJ CHAKRABARTI MBA- HEALTH AND HOSPITAL ROLL NO. 001
Types of resources. Problems of Non-renewable energy & methods to reduce pollution and conserve resources.
There is likely to be a big increase in the use of energy by the year 2010:
A) Because there will be more people in the world so they will need more energy.
B) There is likely to be a big increase in the use of energy by the year 2010 because the worlds’ population will have increased meaning that there will be higher energy requirements. More people will have things like fridges and have to cook food or keep warm, which means more energy used.
Also, as countries develop they use more energy because they are able to afford labour saving devices, tools and gadgets which we take for granted in the developed world, like TVs, computers, cars etc. Energy is required not only in running these devices but also in their manufacture.
C) There will be a big energy increase by 2010 because statistics show that energy use has always increased over time and because there will be more people, they will use more energy than if there were less people. Also, China and India are using up lots of energy
A) As countries become more developed there is a greater demand for energy because people get more materialistic and buy more products which use energy both in their manufacture as well as in their use. For example, people will buy labour saving devices like cars and dishwashers. These both use up energy when they are made and every time they are used. Also, as countries develop their industries develop and industry is a large consumer of energy.
B) As countries get richer they use more energy because everybody gets cars and electrical goods.
These both use lots of oil and electricity, so this is why energy use will increase.
C) Energy use might increase as a country gets more developed because when a country gets richer its population increases dramatically. This rise in population means that more coal and gas is needed to heat their homes. They will also need lots more petrol and diesel to fuel all the extra cars and lorries that will be on the road.
Natural resource Renewable resource Non-renewable resource Energy Fuel
Non-renewable energy resources Non-renewable types of energy can only be used once. There is a finite amount of these materials on the Earth so they will run out eventually. Non-renewable resources make up approximately 95% of the world’s energy. fossil fuels nuclear coal gas oil fuelwood Non-renewable energy biomass mineral
How can acid rain be managed? gas flue desulfurization (water is sprayed down the chimneys and this turns the gases to sulfuric and nitric acids) construct taller chimneys use less energy more efficiently fluidized bed technology (limestone is burnt with the coal so that the sulfur remains with the limestone) burn coal that contains less sulfur use more nuclear or renewable energy
Environmental Concerns The warming of the Earth’s atmosphere, probably due to increased emissions of carbon dioxide. Global Warming
The Natural Resources Defence Council lists the following 9 consequences of climate change.
More drought and wildfires
More intense rainstorms
More deadly heat waves
Increased spread of disease
More powerful & dangerous hurricanes
Sea level rise
Ecosystem changes and species die-off
The predicted impacts of global warming on the world. Bangladesh is already prone to flooding, so rising water levels could devastate the country. Rising temperatures worldwide would cause ski resorts to be wrecked as heat will melt the snow & ice there. Water shortages in the Middle East would cause the River Nile to dry up due to intense evaporation. Mediterranean beaches will vanish as water levels rise. Sahara desert could move northwards, even as far as Spain. Arctic ice cap melts. Heavy storms not only threaten southern USA, but also the insurance companies in the area face bankruptcy. Forests are damaged by heat and drought Permafrost ground will melt, causing massive landslides. Oil pipelines, houses and road foundations will be disintegrated
Below are a list of things that could be done to try to tackle global warming. Switch off lights & appliances Taxes on high polluting industries Choose energy efficient appliances Sign up to the Kyoto Protocol Recycle Use less fossil fuels and more renewable energy sources Use energy efficient transport Car sharing Improved public transport Higher taxes on polluting cars Grants for businesses that have clean policies Energy efficient light bulbs Offset carbon emissions Local Holidays
A) Global warming is the filling up of the earth’s atmosphere with pollution.
B) Global warming is the increase in the earths overall temperature.
C) Global warming is the hole in the earth’s atmosphere letting more heat in from the sun.
Why it is important to reduce the amount of carbon dioxide being released?
A) It is important to reduce the amount of CO2 because it is one of the greenhouse gases that is responsible for accelerating the natural greenhouse effect which is causing global warming.
B) It is important to reduce the amount of CO2 because it is one of the greenhouse gases that is responsible for causing a hole in the earth’s ozone layer which is causing global warming.
C) It is important to reduce the amount of CO2 because It is responsible for causing acid rain which erodes buildings.
Why the control of pollution needs to be agreed by many countries if it is to be successful
A) Pollution is a worldwide problem and can cross the borders of many countries so all countries need to work together to control pollution. An example of this is acid rain which has been caused by coal fired power stations in the UK but effects Sweden and Germany because of wind blown air pollution.
B) Pollution control needs to be agreed by many countries because the more countries controlling pollution the less pollution there is in the world.
C) If more countries agree to control pollution it means that global warming will stop and the ice caps will not melt. This will be good for us because it means that we will not have another ice age like in the film “The Day After Tomorrow”.
How else can we preserve resources and reduce pollution? Resource Substitution This is where you use one product in place of another one. For example using aluminium instead of tin cans as it is cheaper and easier to recycle. Recycling Recovery of waste products by converting them into materials that can be used again. For example glass bottles, aluminium cans (only uses 5% of energy it takes to make them from scratch) Energy Efficiency Measures to reduce heat and energy loss. Individually this means switching off lights, using low energy light bulbs, insulating our homes. Also government has introduced building regulations and energy efficiency ratings on electrical products, more energy efficient cars – car in Europe is on average 90% cleaner than 10 years ago. Reducing Pollution Measures to stop emission reaching atmosphere or cleaning the emissions before they do. For example. fitting giant scrubbers on coal power stations, trying to switch from coal to gas power stations and fitting catalytic converters to cars. Alternative Energy Sources Energy sources that can be used instead of fossil fuels. These can include nuclear or renewable sources such as wind or solar.
How recycling can help reduce damage to the environment
A) Recycling old or waste products can help reduce damage to the environment by conserving the natural resources that are needed to make these products. Also, energy can be saved in recycling goods rather than make new goods from raw materials. An example of this is the recycling of old aluminium cans which only uses 5% of the energy required to make new cans from bauxite, it’s raw material.
B) Recycling means using alternative materials to make products. This saves both energy and natural resources. An example of this is the use of copper to make pipes for plumbing when lead became scarce. We have preserved our lead supplies and copper is also cheaper.
C) Recycling is good for the environment because it means that we are conserving valuable resources for the future. It also means that if we recycle we will use less energy by driving to take all our old products to the bottle and paper banks, than if we just threw these things in the bin and let the council sort the rubbish out for us.
ENERGY DEMANDS OF VARIOUS COUNTRIES LEADING TO FUEL EXPLORATIONS IN THE ANTARTICA!!!
Why there is an increasing demand for resources such as those found in Antarctica ?
A) Because Antarctica has lots of supplies of oil, coal and gas which other countries need.
B) There is an increased demand for the fossil fuels which Antarctica is believed to be rich in because the world’s known reserves of these resources are finite and will eventually run out. Society has come to be reliant on these resources to help meet their energy needs. Also, there is a huge demand for fish which could help to feed the growing populations of some countries.
C) Countries will eventually run out of some resources which are unsustainable, like fossil fuels. They can get these from Antarctica instead.
Natural conditions of climate and geography produce the winds that blow across the landscape. Historically, windmills were used to supply mechanical energy, for example to pump water or grind grain. Modern day wind turbines produce electricity.
Snowmelt and runoff from precipitation at higher elevations flow toward sea level in streams and rivers. In an earlier era, water wheels used the power of flowing water to turn grinding stones and to run mechanical equipment. Modern hydro-turbines use water power to generate hydroelectricity.
Biomass is a renewable source of energy because the natural process of photosynthesis constantly produces new organic matter in the growth of trees and plants. Photosynthesis stores the sun´s energy in organic matter. Biomass is used to make heat, electricity and liquid fuels.
The Department of Energy estimates that the total energy value of biomass fuel consumed in Oregon was 79 trillion Btu in 2003. This is about 10 percent of the total amount of non-transportation energy consumed in the state. Biomass supplies about 9 percent of all industrial energy consumed in the state
Consumption of Renewable Energy in the India 2002
Biomass Technology chart. Technology Conversion process type Major Biomass Feedstock Energy or fuel produced . Direct Combustion Thermo chemical Wood, agri waste etc. Heat, steam, elec Gasification Thermochemicl Wood, agri waste, solid waste. low or med Btu producer gas. Pyrolysis Thermochemicl Same as above Synthetic fuel oil Anaerobic digestion Biochemical Anaerobic Animal Manure,landfills Medium Btu Gas. Ethanol Production Biochemical Aerobic Sugar, starch,pulp etc. Ethanol Bio diesel Productn Chemical Soy beans,animal fats. Biodiesel Methanol Production Thermochemical Wood, agri waste, solid waste. Methanol
Anaerobic digestion -a biochemical process in which particular kinds of bacteria digest biomass in an oxygen-free environment. Several different types of bacteria work together to break down complex organic wastes in stages, resulting in the production of "biogas.“
Ethanol has a higher octane than gasoline, but its energy content is only about two-thirds the energy content of gasoline.
Most new cars are designed to run on a blend of gasoline and ethanol.
"Gasohol" is a mixture of 90-percent unleaded gasoline and 10-percent denatured ethanol. With modification, spark ignition engines can run on 100-percent ethanol. E-85 fuel consists of 85-percent ethanol and 15-percent gasoline.
The major automobile manufacturers in the United States now produce flexible fuel vehicles that can use either E-85 fuel or gasoline.
Access to water and the use, control and diversion of water flows is subject to federal and state regulation. Other regulations apply to any physical alteration of a stream channel or bank that may effect water quality or wildlife habitat.
The larger the system, the more complicated, drawn out, and expensive the permitting and approval process will be. Penalties for not having the permits or necessary approvals can be severe. Although the legal process may seem burdensome, the intention of the laws is to protect all users of the resource, including the plant, fish, and animal communities that utilize the water.
When planning a hydroelectric system, your first point of contact should be the county engineer. He or she will be the most informed about what restrictions govern the development and/or control of water resources in your area.
The two primary federal agencies that you will need to deal with are the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Try contacting the nearest office to you to see if they will assist you; both may be listed in the U.S. government section of your phone book.
FERC is responsible for licensing all non-federal government hydroelectric projects under its jurisdiction. You will need to consult with FERC in order to determine whether or not your project falls under FERC’s jurisdiction. If it does, then you will need to apply for a license or exemption from FERC. The FERC application process will require contacting and consulting other federal, state and local government agencies, and providing evidence that you have done so.
US Army Corp of Engineers (engineer manuals) You will also need to determine whether, and to what extent, you can divert water from the stream channel, and what restrictions apply to construction and operation of the system
Power production status of non-conventional energy in India Renewable Power Potential Achieved Wind Power 20,000 MW 1,000 MW Small Hydro Power 10,000 MW 172 MW Biomass 20,000 MW 141 MW Solar photo-voltic Power 20 MW/sq.km 810 KW